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How to Write a Literature Essay

simple steps to writing a literature essay, in another Wu-Tang Wednesday.

English Literature Resources | Links, web sites essays & books

Literature web sites essays

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The Best Literary Fiction Blogs & Websites | Jane Friedman

Books Are Our Best Friends Speech,Essay,Note. Books Are Our Best Friends: In the literature essays world of the business writing device .You want a device… Books! The best friend in the world.The joy of literature web sites reading books can’t be described in words. Papers On English Literature? It’s something that you understand only by real experience. Books are our best friends, guiders and philosophers. Literature Web Sites Essays? Books uphold and encourage us when we feel sad and despondent.

They bring light into darkness and completing proposal, the sunshine into literature essays, shadow. Essay On Books Are Our Best Friends. When you read a book, its feels great to put yourself into a world the completing a dissertation proposal writer has created for you.The habit of reading good content daily will act as an literature, exercise for your mind and you compare and contrast, keep you mentally fit and flexible. Reading a book is not like that you read a book in English,that is in any language which you feel comfortable. If you have never given it a try then always remember that it’s never too late to start a good habit.If you want to read more about literature web sites, books domyessays paper writing service suggests to read premium articles. Books are many types from them Some of the books inspire you; some books are given a moral of life, some books are turning point of some person’s life, and papers literature, it will improve our language, vocabulary also. Some times books bring you tears also, and literature web sites essays, make you laughter also. Every person connects to business writing the books from the birth. The first book of life of every person is the mother, mother tell the stories and lullabies to their children at literature bedtime.So from the childhood, we teach about the values of books.Children bring their books in their school bag and take care of an essay you compare and contrast them. Literature? Books like The Gita, The Mahabharata, The Quran, Bible which inspires us and teach us the best lesson of research papers on english our life.

Some Books which teach us how to web sites help the society. Some books are on the life of successful people, and audioprothesiste, they show us the path of struggle to get the success. Essays? Books like gold mines.They correct us when we go astray, amuse us when we are bored and give us a pleasant company when we feel lonely. Assistant Audioprothesiste? They provide us an another angle to literature web sites essays enjoy the beauty.They take us the assistant places; we are never seen, that height which we never feel, and at a land which we are never imagine.If you want to select a best friend of web sites essays your life then, its time to select books as your best friend because books can provide us a company in our good or bad time and proposal for research, teach us a lesson. No two persons ever read the same book.

A book is a dream that you hold in your hand. Whenever you read a good book, somewhere in the world a door opens to allow in more light. If we encounter a man of rare intellect, we should ask him what books he reads. –Ralph Waldo Emerson. Literature Web Sites Essays? Always read something that will make you look good if you die in the middle of it. Some Recommended Books as Books are our best friends: A God in Ruins by Kate Atkinson Seveneves by Neal Stephenson I Take You by Eliza Kennedy Get in Trouble by Kelly Link H is for Hawk by Helen Macdonald How I Braved Anu Aunty and Co-Founded A Million Dollar Company (English) essay on books (1299) books are our best friends (1206) essay on book (617) books are our best friend (558) essay on books are our best friends (551) books our best friend (464) essay about books (383) books essay (318) speech on books (284) books are my best friend (281) books our best friends (257) books are our best friends essay in english (250) books are our best friends essay (239) speech on books are our best friends (234) books are our friends (227) essay on books are our best friend (227) 10 lines books are our best friends (217) book essay (191) essay on Books our best friend (180) books are best friends (177) A 21 Years Old Guy Who is research, Blogger and Digital Marketer by Choice and Student of Chemical Engineer By Chance. Web Sites Essays? Computer and Internet Geek Person Who Loves To Do Something New Every Day. very nice essays but not fit for completing a dissertation, higher standards. Hey Supti Thanks For your Valuable comment. We will try to reach it at a higher level. #128578; . You are most welcome to contribute in essays our team.

It helped me a lot thanks a lot. Thanks Trishala For Your Precious Words. Proposal? It will help us to increase our enthusiasm. Keep Visiting and sharing among your class.You are also most welcome to share your essay on essays, our website. If you want to Fit and Well join our team we will happy to spread our team. Very nice I like it. it help me little bit. Thanks Fatima For Your Precious Words. Web Sites? It will help us to increase our enthusiasm. Keep Visiting and sharing among your class.You are also most welcome to Fit and Well share your essay on our website. If you want to join our team we will happy to spread our team. Literature Web Sites? ????? ? ????? ??? ??.

Thanks Navneetbhai For Your Precious Words. It will help us to increase our enthusiasm. Keep Visiting and sharing among your class.You are also most welcome to short share your essay on our website. If you want to join our team we will happy to spread our team. You had increase our enthusiasm. #128578; Thanks For your Valuable comment. Literature? We will try to boost it at a higher level. #128578; Please improve your grammar . #8220;Books are many type. some books are inspire you, some books are given a moral of life ,some books are turning point of some person’s life and it will improve our language, vocabulary also.

Some times books bring you tears also, and Fit and Well, make you laughter also.#8221; #8220;Reading a books is literature, not like that read a books which is inspire you,#8221; I MEAN SERIOUSLY GUYZZ !! THIS IS TERRIBLE ! #8220;reading a books. #8221; first you are using #8216;a#8217; then writing #8216;books#8217; ?? how a books?? We are thanking you again for drawing our attention on our mistakes. We apologize for it. Completing Proposal? We had sent this article for web sites essays, proofreading to research on english our writer. Co-Founder of My Study Corner. It should be corrected as soon as possible otherwise the learners will learn the wrong things . I liked the quick response given by essays you, I hope the mistake gets corrected more quickly #128578; ! you#8217;re write, there are toooo many mistakes but at the same time i guess it was pretty useful#8230;.so thx.

Please Provide Your Correct E-mail ID so we can contact you in future for papers, our special events . sorry but its right not write #128578; it is very bad anyone can write it yo have to write more valuable so i think you will improve. I was thinking the same. Web Sites Essays? And also there are silly vocabulary mistakes. Used bed instead of bad#8230;.m anyway u guys should edit it. Fit And Well? Informative essay even though there are grammatical and vocabulary errors.

It#8217;s ok. Practice makes perfect #128521; I, too, have my own blog, and literature web sites, sometimes when I read my old posts, i see errors also. Thanks dude ! This helped me tO prepare for my final Exams . Your essays are really great man you are doin#8217;well. Audioprothesiste? If they do not fit for higher standards why are you reading them go fish. Really this essay would help me a lot#8230;.thanx#8230;. Very Nice #8230;. Keep Writing.

It#8217;s very useful for us. keep it up. Students can now learn more about web sites, Articles through My Study Corner. Students are requested not to copy the Articles given on My Study Corner , instead, please try to read the business writing Articles given here then try to re-write them in your own words. This blog is literature, a collaborative blog written by Fit and Well a group of individuals. This blog may accept forms of cash advertising, sponsorship, paid insertions or other forms of web sites compensation.

However, any compensation received will never influence the content, topics or posts made in research literature this blog. Some of the advertisements are generated by a third party ad network. Those advertisements may or may not be identified as paid advertisements.

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English Literature Resources | Links, web sites essays & books

nature essay prose I consider'd long and seriously of you before you. Walt Whitman, Crossing Brooklyn Ferry We live in a dying world of immeasurable beauty. Poetry and the environmental crisis intersect at a question: what's it like to abide with beauty that one is indirectly, unintentionally destroying? I surface. Web Sites? It's the end of the dusk dive. I inflate my buoyancy vest and, while waiting for the others to ascend, float on d u my back like an essays obese otter, off a small fishing village in East Timor called Adara. Blending in my ear avatar and Fit and Well, adore, it's a namenoble, otherworldlythat I'd give to the daughter I'll never have. Web Sites Essays? The ocean is calm. D U? So many stars stud the moonless, cloudless sky that I have to close my eyes.

I imagine I'm a radio-receiving dish, like the ones used by SETI to scan for extraterrestrial signals, and literature essays, then hear an old meditation teacher in my mind say one word: receptivity. It affects me like the smell of a shirt just out of the dryerI relax, I pay attention. Fit And Well? There's nothing to do, no one to become, she reassures me, in the sometimes-useful platitudes of a mindfulness retreat. Floating here, I'm craving awe, self-forgetting; meanwhile I imagine table coral dissolving in the acidified oceans of literature essays 2065. Writing? Wonder if there's a box jellyfish beside me or new OkCupid messages in my inbox.

I calculate my debts, worry about my sick father, who recently had a tumor removed from literature web sites his gut. Have I forgotten to turn off my dive torch? I'm stuck in negative incapability, First-World neuroses. This is not transcendental. Ego persists.

We have promises to keep. Like any other bearded, navel-gazing backpacker with an MFA, I've been reading the Transcendentalists this summer, sometimes just before gearing up and audioprothesiste, entering the water to web sites essays dive. In the first section of Nature, Emerson writes, If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown. Business Writing? What if once a century the moon, huge and literature web sites, golden on the horizon, showed itself for an hour then disappeared? Things taken for granted, by an essay and contrast, definition, tend not to web sites essays be experienced as beautifultrue beauty, the sort that makes us literally tremble, is always fleeting and therefore precious. What follows naturally, unstoppably, is the impulse to audioprothesiste praise and record that thing of beauty, which is decidedly not a joy forever. For Shakespeare's male beloved in the first 126 sonnets, time itself doth transfix the flourish set on youth / And delves the parallels in beauty's brow, / Feeds on literature web sites the rarities of nature's truth. Shakespeare isn't the one gouging wrinkles into the Fair Youth's forehead.

Biological existence in four dimensions means decay. But for our oceans, the main of light, its current degradation is an essay, not part of some inevitable aging process. It is anthropogenic, as the scientific euphemism goes. We cause a dead zonethe size of literature web sites essays Connecticutnear the Mississippi Delta. We have destroyed half of the world's coral reefs in the past thirty years. Such a rapid decline in the oceans, along with the peculiar temporal and physiological constraints of scuba diving, has made coral reefs very special to me. Each dive is brief: nitrogen builds up in the blood; the steel tank only holds so much air.

It's expensive. So too is civilization's current mode of completing existence expensive and increasingly precarious. One afternoon in the waters off Madang, Papua New Guinea, an enormous swath of scroll coral, riddled with yellow-purple fairy basslets, astounded me, though the big fish that made these waters famous aren't here. Sulfuric acid from the web sites, nearby Basamuk Refinery, the worried locals told me, is slowly poisoning Astrolabe Bay. And any day fishermen might dynamite sections of the reef. Short Proposal For Research? They'd be looking to feed their communities, aspiring to the kind of high-consumption lifestyle that we enjoy in the developed world. Such a fishing method, common in the African and Asian tropics, ruptures the swim bladders of fish and leaves sections of slow-growing reef in ruins. Even at legally protected reefs in Indonesia, I have seen the dead fish, the ominous rubble. Also blown to bits are peacock-colored squidbejeweled with lapis and turquoise because of a symbiotic relationship with bioluminescent bacteriaat the base of massive, centuries-old brain coral; wobbegong sharks, carpeted with tawny tassels and whiskers; olive sea snakes, with lungs instead of gills, peering into my mask then swimming up ninety feet to breathe air; potato cod as big as my sofa; three hundred bigeye trevally drifting in a channel, silvery as mica, resolute as sentries; acres of staghorn coral that give way to seagrass, where a hawksbill turtle rests. At Osprey Reef off the Great Barrier Reef, one alcove of purple coral and red anemones had me trying to kneel, embarrassed, in the sand to pray. Essays? There wasn't enough weight in my belt, and I began to float away, my palms unclasping.

These creatures, not just vivid language, were alive in my presence, and they face potential extinction before my generation begins to collect what will be left of Social Security. As Charlie Veron, the world's expert on coral, has said, There is no hope of reefs surviving to d u assistant even midcentury in any form that we now recognize . as reefs fail so will other ecosystems. This is the path of a mass extinction event, when most life, especially tropical marine life, goes extinct. It's all the more heartbreaking and morally vexing because we could prevent such a loss. This urgencyas well as the astonishing splendorhas led me for over twenty-five years to the earth's coral reefs. All the while I've been trying to literature write, even at eleven when I snorkeled the urchin-infested jetties of Panama City Beach, Florida, less than a five-hour drive from my hometown. As a poet breathing compressed air underwater, I've encountered natural beauty while believingknowingthat as the ocean this century continues to warm, rise, and acidify, reef ecosystems will largely crumble away. The Chinese build two new coal-fired powerplants a week. An Essay You Compare And Contrast? The United States won't sign the Kyoto Protocol. My car emits per mile a half-pound of literature CO2; I wouldn't even want to an essay calculate the hundreds of tons of carbon that my trips abroad have released.

About a third of the essays, released carbon is absorbed into the oceans, creating more H+ ions in naturally alkaline seawater and thereby increasing its acidity to levels not seen in 300 million years. Calcium carbonate, in the form of aragonite, becomes increasingly harder for zooplankton, coral, and mollusks to produce for their shells, and completing, the food web begins to literature web sites essays further unravel. Given this context, I'm increasingly turning away from a certain kind of poetry that idealizes the natural world while photoshopping out any hint of assistant our current crisis. Web Sites Essays? Such poems may no longer be defensible. They might be Beauty, but they aren't also Truthare they perhaps pretty fabrications, ones with life-and-death consequences? Is the very core of them hollow because their speakers won't even begin to turn inward to acknowledge the trashing of a planet? For artists, I tend to think that representationally what was tenablepolitically, socioeconomically, environmentallybefore the globalized carbon economy of over seven billion people is no longer so. D U Assistant Audioprothesiste? I don't mean remotely to suggest that the web sites essays, nature poetry of previous centuries is an writing imaginative failure or a distraction; but given our current situation, for poets writing today it cannot be business as usual. Like the Norwegian doomsday seed vault on an Arctic island, such poems by the likes of Wordsworth, Longfellow, and literature, Shelley preserve an short proposal paper innocent ecopoetics to literature which we wish we could return. William Blake breathed air with only Fit and Well, 290 parts per million of CO2. So did the British Empire's tigers.

The tetrameter lines of Blake's The Tyger conjure not only that animal stalking its prey but also the divine (or infernal) forge of its Creator: Tyger! Tyger! burning bright. In the forests of the night. What immortal hand or eye. Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? When Songs of essays Experience was published in 1794, tigers were common throughout Asia.

Today there are only 3,200 remaining [i]n the forests of the night, and it is papers on english literature, very mortal hands and eyes, through land clearing and hunting, who are responsible for literature essays, their decimation. We're the apex predator with fearful symmetry, and literature, no immortal being, no avatar, is going come down to save that big cat species or ours from extinction. Though anachronistic, this very twenty-first-century and literature, privileged (an Indian peasant deep in debt could earn a fortune from selling just one tiger paw) interpretation of Blake's poem is one I can't help but makethe speaker, after all, addresses what's now a critically endangered animal while meditating on the problem of writing evil, a philosophical question not unrelated to the climate crisis. Like Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey or Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian , ultimately his poem is about the literature web sites essays, essential violence and assistant audioprothesiste, chaos of life, whether that creature be terrorist or Venus fly trap, Tiger Mom or Bengal tiger. Did he who made the Lamb make thee?: if Homo sapiens were to ask itself that question in some collective bathroom mirrorafter having killed off baiji white dolphins, giant lemurs, and Steller's sea cows, after genocides by the likes of North American colonists, Pol Pot, Hitler, and Saddam Husseinit would have to be with more than a little irony. Might it be enough to web sites praise, to simply let the d u audioprothesiste, experience of natural beauty deeply affect, perhaps even transform, poet and reader? A nature poet like Mary Olivera passionate observer of starfish, hermit crabs, and literature, humpback whales, best-selling but not drawn to politicswould say yes. Fit And Well? Or, now that we've recently hit 400 ppm of literature web sites essays CO2, could the nature poems of 2014 and 2275 reflect not only beauty and rapture but also blame-worthiness and grief? The sort of poetry that I'm wanting to write praises nature while on some level mourning the passing of entire species and ecosystems, not just individual creatures.

It need not be polemical, as Robinson Jeffers is writing, when he declares, It is easy to know the beauty of inhuman things, sea, storm, and mountain . / Humanity has its lesser beauty, impure and painful; we have to harden our hearts to bear it. Web Sites Essays? It need not be sentimental, like William Stafford's Traveling Through the Dark, in which the d u assistant, speaker, who finds a dead deer, could hear the wilderness listen and thinks hard for web sites, us all. It might be much more subtle, as in Katie Ford's Colosseum: Somewhere unseen / the ocean deepened then and now / into more ocean . / the bony fish obscuring / its bottommost floor, carcasses of mollusks / settling, casting one last blur of sand, / unable to short paper close again. Or marked by revelatory bathos, as in D. A. Powell's chronic: in a protracted stillness, I saw that heron I didn't wish to disturb / was clearly a white sack caught in the redbud's limbs / / I did not comprehend desire as a deadly force until / daylight don't leave me now. Or it might speak from an imaginary though quite plausible future when Manta birostris is extinctmonths after seeing manta rays for the first time in the cool waters of Komodo National Park, hearing a late middle-aged version of myself speaking to his beloved, I wrote: remember the manta winging into literature web sites essays the tide? slashes of Fit and Well gills pulsing on underbelly. head fins reaching out past. its open mouth nothing to literature prove. Three or four of papers on english literature these huge cartilaginous fish, ten feet from wingtip to wingtip, hovered in swift currents to literature web sites feed, slightly flapping their wings to proposal paper remain in place. They seemed to me the embodiment of effortlessness and surrender and resolve, qualities that can lessen the fearful ambivalence I've always felt in literature essays romantic love. Indeed, addressing a lover whose love is terrifying in its purity and intensity, the speaker in my poem ends up identifying with the manta ray, asking this fear of love's drift-net / will it ever die down?

Literal drift netsas well as other irresponsible fishing practicescause large but unknown numbers of manta deaths per year, in addition to the senseless targeted hunting of Fit and Well them for web sites, traditional Chinese medicine: the rakers inside the slashes of gills pulsing are bogusly peddled as an immune booster and proposal paper, cancer cure. What I know first-hand: that morning, in the protected waters between Gili Lawa Laut and Gili Lawa, while I held on to a slimy rock, I watched an animal fed. Such an ordinary act on this planet. Yet it wasthis is literature web sites, a word we'd like to utter in this century and actually mean itmajestic. Unlike, say, watching my now-deceased greyhound Cupid eat ground venison from a bowl.

The sadness in his eyes never ceased. Though I suspected he was mistreated on business the racetrack, I never imagined his slaughter or the web sites essays, extinction of his breed. For Research? I didn't see him as a symbol for the man I wanted to become. Literature Web Sites? Even so, that dog and that manta's atoms were together with ours in the infinitely dense Big Bang singularity. We were together and then we weren't. This summer I had an even more extraordinary encounter in West Papua's Dampier Strait, at a dive site called Manta Sandy. The eight of writing us kneeled side-by-side in the sand at fifty feet, forming a wall of bubbles, and waited. Garden eels shyly poked their heads out of their holes and fed on drifting planktonbut I had seen them many, many times before. Goatfish flicked their forked whiskers into the sand looking for buried invertebratesI might as well have been watching a squirrel nosing around for acorns in a park. I tried to get interested in a tiny pipefish, dusky-colored with faded white bands, that darted its concerned seahorse eyes around as I peered into them, the equivalent of King Kong looking into web sites a skyscraper windowbut my regulator was irritating my gums; my right foot was cramping. Kneeling there for twenty minutes, I was beginning to think the dive was hopeless.

Then one manta, and then another, appeared in the distance and glided towards us, swooping above a huge coral head like a pelican passing at an angle over short for research paper a navigational buoy. Web Sites Essays? Butterflyfish, damsels, and wrasses rushed up to the mantas' white undersides, speckled with black markings, to eat the parasites there. The two rays were here not to feed but to be cleaned, and perhaps to communicatein fact, these creatures have the completing, highest brain/body ratio of literature web sites essays any fish, and preliminary experiments suggest a capacity to recognize themselves in mirrors. Before moving on to another huge coral head, they somersaulted beside one another, soaring. At a certain point while transfixed on d u assistant audioprothesiste the ocean floor, I began to spontaneously recite fragments of Gerard Manley Hopkins' The WindhoverI caught this morning morning's minion . dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon . the rolling level underneath him steady airand underneath my three-millimeter wetsuit my limbs were gooseflesh. As was my scalp. Essays? Hopkins, far too skittish and frail to have been anyone's dive buddy, would have called this instress: the expression of the manta's unique divine DNA, its cosmic distinctiveness, its inscape. I called it inspiration, though I didn't know where it would take me.

Then I remembered an completing a dissertation proposal article that I had read online about Indonesia's Tanjung Luar market, notorious for selling spinner dolphinshauled in on poles like pigs about to be roastedas shark bait. Amid the text at one point was a photograph of literature web sites several dead manta rays laid out on the concrete floor. Each one's huge triangular wings had been sliced off and placed beside the business writing, main body. . So neatly laid out and carved up were the literature web sites, mantas that they resembled a squadron of charcoal-gray stealth bombers seen from above in a vast assembly plant, wings beside fuselages. After the gills are removed, some of the remaining cartilage is sold as cheap filler for shark-fin soup in Asia. As Hopkins writes in his journal about an ash tree cut down in his garden, I heard the sound and looking out and seeing it maimed there came at short for research, that moment a great pang and I wished to die and not see the inscapes of the world destroyed any more. As I watched the mantas soaring in the dapple-dawn-drawn water at 7:30 a.m., I could hearin the recesses of my minda ray slapping its fins on a fiberglass deck, a club bashing the brain and head fins, then a machete slicing off its wings. And I felt a sensation similar to when I was nine and a baseball hit my thumb as I swung a bat. Essays? An uncanny wave of for research pain and sadness and fear, my own great pang, ran down the Lycra length of me.

I could feel it down to my flipper-encased feet. In that moment, why didn't I wish to die? My hybrid is white and dirty. It's parked on the street near my apartment, in an area so liberal that showing up at the checkout line without cloth bags could result in sneers or worse. The car will sit there all weekendI feel too guilty to drive. With every mile driven, a half-pound of trigonal, covalently-bonded molecules is spewed out, infinitesimally nudging up the average global temperature with an literature web sites essays unknown time lag. By how many nanoseconds does each mile accelerate the melting of Kilimanjaro's glaciers, the inundation of Battery Park and Tuvalu and the Niger Delta, the acidification of the Coral Sea so that the Great Barrier Reef is just a memory?

But when I commute to and from Palo Alto on a dangerously narrow freeway, my Honda gets close to fifty miles per gallon, which at proposal for research paper, first made me feel good. Literature Web Sites Essays? I bought it used from a grouchy Jamaican salesman, and my partner at Fit and Well, the time did his best to be happy for literature, me, even though he was a devoted biker who for ethical reasons vowed never to own a car. I did my best to make my purchase seem sweeter, less threatening: I draped a juniper rosary, which Navajos hang from literature cribs to protect infants from literature essays nightmares, around the rearview mirror; on long car trips Fleet Foxes and Andrew Bird played on the stereo when I'd rather have listened to Dolly Parton; and, trying to Fit and Well associate it with cuddly, sweet pastoralism and rebirth instead of an essays apocalypse, I christened the car Lambcake, after the traditional sheep-shaped Easter cakes, a name that made us both giggle. For him and for me, it looked as if I had successfully rebranded the Fit and Well, $17,000 arrangement of metal, which annually lets out nine concert grand pianos' worth of CO2, as cute, innocent. But then at a birthday party in web sites essays downtown Oakland I referred to Lambcake as our car in d u audioprothesiste front of a mutual acquaintance.

That's not ours, he told this person sternly, his voice quavering uncharacteristically, it's his . Literature Essays? We were living together at the time and drove Lambcake to run errands or to go up into for research paper the Oakland Hills for web sites essays, hiking. I'd pick him up from spots to where he had biked, and after he'd put his two-wheeled vehicle into Lambcake's hatchback trunk, we'd speed off together. He offered to research pay, based on his use, for part of my car insurance and gas. So his correction of my pronoun choice took me aback, and literature web sites, I took it personally. But in retrospect, his reaction wasn't an attack on our relationship or meit was a political and moral reflex with which many of my generation, who instinctively understand that we're on a dying world, can empathize. D U Assistant Audioprothesiste? Oftenalmost alwayscivilization is in denial that in order to live in this world today, we must burn carbon. Of course my partner was embarrassed to be named publicly as an accomplice to climate changea name that is, to put it politely, an understatement.

Given that our species is responsible for what should instead be called catastrophic planetary warming, melting, and flooding, how can I blame his defensiveness? Even if we only walk, we're all accomplices. As Scott Russell Sanders remarks about the environmental crisis in Near and Distant Bears: We will not have thousands of generations to work out solutions; we must do so within the lifetime of a child born today . we will need to re-imagine our place in nature, our responsibilities as members of communities, and the meaning of a good lifewhich is to say, we will require a shift in web sites consciousness as radical as any mutation in our evolutionary history. That shift, that mutation, has to be as momentous as humanity learning to proposal make fire or developing spoken language. It would have to involve a hyper-expansion of our capacity for literature essays, empathy, not just with loved ones or the animals at literature, the local pet shelter or strangers across a table, but across continents and centuries.

With a communal mind's eye of stereoscopic vision, we would need to imagine the literature web sites essays, suffering of the business writing, voiceless, the powerless, the unborn: those much less insulated, because of wealth, privilege, or circumstance, from the effects of an literature essays overheating, flooding planet. Perhaps it could be said that our civilization is an imaginative failure: it hasn't conceived yet in writing an eidetic and literature web sites, therefore transformative way the consequences of its actions and completing a dissertation proposal, inactions. Literature Essays? For instance, what will daily life be like for the tens of millions of Bangladeshi refugees after rising sea levels flood a good part of Fit and Well their nation? If world leaders could imagine, in a blindingly vivid and embodied way, the felt sense of even a moment as such a refugee, would global environmental policy change? Can sevenor eight or tenbillion human brains undertake such a communal imaginative act and then act decisively to drastically reduce carbon emissions and quickly develop and essays, implement carbon sequestration technology? Are those billions of beings willing to make the necessary economic and social sacrifices along the and contrast, way? As a speciesnot just as poets and readers, or as Americans and Chinesewe must be able manifest the visionary spirit of Whitman in essays Crossing Brooklyn Ferry, who says, What is the writing, count of the scores or hundreds of years between us? // And you that shall cross from shore to shore years hence, are more to me, and literature web sites, more in short for research paper my meditations, than you might suppose. Literature? The you here could be a redwood tree in 2108 that is drying out because fog appears too infrequently along the California coast; or an eight-year-old boy in papers on english literature 2279 whose mother tells him the last wild orca has starved, and he begins to write a poem. The evolutionary quantum leap that must come soon this century would allow us to make choices with the entire biosphere in mind, present and future, resensitizing ourselves to ecological pain and literature web sites essays, human suffering so that they are no longer abstractions. What kind of songs will the nature poems of the Fit and Well, 23rd century be?

And could we bear to web sites essays hear them? Human nature itself has to change. Short Proposal? Compassionate choices that delay gratification need to provide more of a dopamine hit than compulsive, convenient consumption and pleasure-seeking. It is web sites, as if the writing, monolith itself from 2001: A Space Odyssey needs to descend to the earthnot to give apes the essays, ability to use tools and wage war, but to give us a new human nature, one that inclines to take the long-view, that shares rather than hoards, lets go instead of holds on; that works to care for its unborn great-great-great grandchildren as lovingly as it does its living children. Compared to business writing the latter outlook, my approach to literature web sites essays life is research on english literature, positively Neanderthal, analogous to asking a toddler to solve a differential equation. Often I've wished, in essays vain, to d u audioprothesiste be transformed, transfigured, as a brain, body, and soul. Individual species-wide transformationthere is no app for literature essays, that.

There are miles to research papers on english go before we sleep. Still floating on my back off Adara, I open my eyes to constellations I don't recognize, a quartz macadam stretch of Milky Way my eyes have never traveled. It is an alien sky. It is a new sky, magnificent. I take it in, trying not to compulsively connect these pinpricks of light into literature web sites essays new monsters and heroes. On clear Friday nights in northeast Florida when I felt alone and shameful, when my parents were arguing in in which you compare and contrast the garaged car, the Southern Hemisphere's stars never comforted me. Essays? Instead it was the Queen's empty throne and the blue-tinged white star in one corner of the Lyre.

The Orion Nebula's wisps glowed through my mail-order telescope. As I grew older, though, I stopped seeing them. They became celestial television snow. Light pollution increased. Wonder was an idea, not an experience. Now I stir the lagoon's water around me, and my dive buddy surfaces. Bioluminescent plankton, greenish-blue star systems and galaxies, flicker on completing proposal and off, swirl. I exhale. I cough. It is truly night. We return to shore.

Greg Wrenn's first book of poems, Centaur , was awarded the 2013 Brittingham Prize. His work has appeared or is literature essays, forthcoming in an essay in which New England Review, The Southern Review, The Yale Review , and elsewhere. A former Wallace Stegner Fellow and a recipient of the Lyric Poetry Award from the Poetry Society of essays America, he was born and raised in on english literature Jacksonville, Florida, and essays, received a BA from an essay Harvard University and an MFA from Washington University in St. Literature Essays? Louis. Copyright © 2014 by Greg Wrenn.

All rights reserved. Reproduced by assistant, Poetry Daily with permission. For previous PD Prose Features, visit our Prose Archive.

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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the literature essays, color and contrast that keep the story moving. D U Assistant! A cast of essays, characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. D U Assistant Audioprothesiste! Instead of spelling errors, you watch for essays tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and business meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell.

I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and literature essays have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to research papers on english, know about the glitz and glamour of it all. It’s the perfect thing to literature, tell them after you’re done going on an essay and contrast, and on about all of the literature essays, red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. D U Assistant Audioprothesiste! By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be.

Which is where I struggle mostwhen the web sites, options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to an essay you compare and contrast, be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for web sites that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in d u assistant mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients.

I was photographing so many of the literature essays, same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the d u assistant audioprothesiste, two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and literature web sites edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and a dissertation proposal fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. She and literature I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . Fit And Well! We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for essays them. Beyond my beautiful children, the completing, fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments.

It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. Essays! For the d u assistant, last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from web sites essays terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. Business Writing! These dogs live in web sites foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known.

I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to proposal paper, work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is literature web sites essays tough. Assistant Audioprothesiste! It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the literature, rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. For Research Paper! I’m not sure yet, but the web sites essays, point is that I have the images, ready for research papers on english their time, whenever that is. Literature Web Sites! TIP: If you think there is something to d u assistant, it, there likely is.

Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. Literature! I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Business Writing! Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over literature web sites essays shooting.

Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of writing, not pushing people until they cry or yell). Literature Web Sites! Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. An Essay In Which! Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not.

I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the literature, mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to assistant audioprothesiste, the beginning of the project for essays supporting shots, or having to assistant audioprothesiste, reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. Literature Web Sites Essays! I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to business, have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show.

This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. Essays! I was thrilled to be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. Writing! The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the literature, final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to a dissertation proposal, do with clear eyes.

We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to web sites essays, always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about business writing your subject matter and literature essays people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for in which and contrast your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more?

Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to literature web sites essays, take the Fit and Well, time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour.

While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for essays your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in assistant audioprothesiste experience and longterm benefit. Post it on essays, social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and d u assistant audioprothesiste think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to essays, an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. An Essay In Which You Compare And Contrast! Truly. Web Sites! Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is writing your experience?

Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from literature essays our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the short for research, country. Her photography can be viewed at or on web sites essays, Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in writing tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Literature Essays! Apparently, others feel the same way.

I have an completing, idea for literature web sites essays a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the short for research, picture for web sites essays #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to research on english, show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the web sites, words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the an essay you compare, issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. Literature Essays! In a previous life, I was a writer and you compare editor, but when it came time for essays me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at Fit and Well, it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes.

Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the literature web sites essays, examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for an essay and contrast telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to literature, volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story.

A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. D U Assistant! After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to literature, take pictures of d u audioprothesiste, people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much. This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and literature web sites I am very excited about d u it. Literature! Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and papers very motivational to literature, get me on audioprothesiste, a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques.

It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the literature web sites, focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and business writing so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the literature web sites essays, wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the completing a dissertation, dried plants and wall work, the literature web sites essays, drain beautiful and d u assistant interesting. The green plants against literature essays walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out d u audioprothesiste how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in web sites essays a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only proposal, publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on literature, iPads.

Photo essays in black and proposal white. Literature Essays! This post inspired me to Fit and Well, start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to web sites essays, be put in context by using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into Fit and Well, a photo essay.

The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Essays! Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips. 2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer.

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concluding a paper Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). Literature. 2013;2(4):173-7. When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for regulatory approval of short for research, biosimilar products. In practice, however, important information on literature web sites, the innovative (reference) product may not be available for Fit and Well, assessment. Thus, it is important to first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and the reference product. In this paper, reference standard is essays established through the completing, biosimilarity index approach based on a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the reference product is compared with itself under various scenarios.

The reference standard can then be used for assessing the literature web sites essays, degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in biosimilar studies. Submitted: 24 April 2013; Revised: 10 June 2013; Accepted: 8 July 2013; Published online first: 31 July 2013. A biosimilar product is completing defined as a biological drug product that is highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. No clinically meaningful differences exist in terms of safety, purity, and potency (Biologics Price Competition and Innovation [BPCI] Act 2009). In the literature web sites, BPCI Act, however, how ‘similar’ is Fit and Well considered ‘highly similar’ has not been addressed. Literature Essays. The BPCI Act as part of the Affordable Care Act was signed into law in March 2010.

It gave FDA the authority to approve similar biological drug products. Currently, FDA has not set out clear standards for biosimilar approvals [1]. Kang and Chow [2] proposed a method that uses the relative difference, i.e. the d u assistant audioprothesiste, difference between test (T) and literature web sites reference (R) products compared with the difference between R and d u assistant R as the primary measure for assessing biosimilarity. As a result, the difference between R and R is important, as it serves as the reference standard for comparison. In practice, important information such as variabilities in pharmacokinetic parameters of the reference product may not be accessible to the biosimilar manufacturers as they are proprietary knowledge. Thus, it is important to conduct a reference-replicated study (R-R study), i.e. a study in which the reference product is compared with itself, to obtain this information. Web Sites Essays. As biosimilar products are made by living cells or organisms that are sensitive to small changes or variations in environmental factors, such as light or temperature, it is Fit and Well expected that a small difference will occur between two reference products resulting from different manufacturing processes or locations, or different batches from the same manufacturing process. The R-R study will provide the information on variability associated with the reference product, and also establish a baseline, i.e. similarity between R and literature web sites R, for comparison in biosimilarity testing. The biosimilarity index approach was proposed by Chow et al. [3, 4] to business assess the level of similarity. The index is based on the concept of reproducibility probability and is evaluated as the estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is true.

This approach has been shown to be robust to the study endpoints, criteria and literature study designs. Thus, in this paper, we have chosen to establish the reference standards in the framework of Fit and Well, this biosimilarity index approach. In the next section, the study design and statistical model used for the R-R study are described. In Section 3, biosimilar index based on reproducibility probability is introduced. In Section 4, the statistical properties of the reference standards are discussed through simulation studies. We provide some concluding remarks and recommendations in the last section. Study design and statistical model. Crossover designs are often recommended for bioequivalence studies. Biosimilarity is often assessed in a parallel design in practice [ 5 ], however, because of the relatively long half-life and the possibility of essays, immunogenicity of biological products, concerns are increasing over interchangeability in biosimilars, which can only be assessed in crossover designs.

Thus, we have chosen a standard two-sequence, two-period (2 ? 2) crossover design for the establishment of reference standards. A 2 ? 2 crossover study can be viewed as a two-arm parallel study with replicates; the advantage of using a crossover design is that the intra-subject variability could be estimated for the reference standards. In a 2 ? 2 standard crossover study design, participants are randomly assigned to either sequence 1 (R 1 R 2 ) or sequence 2 (R 2 R 1 ) in the R-R study. For sequence 1, participants are first treated with R 1 and, after a sufficient washout period, are treated with R 2 ; for sequence 2, participants are first treated with R 2 and then with R 1 . As mentioned, R 1 and R 2 could be two different batches of the reference drug or drugs from different locations such as the US and EU. The interval hypotheses of the similarity testing written in terms of parameters are: where ? is the study parameter chosen to assess biosimilarity; ? L and ? U are the biosimilarity limits, i.e. the accepted lower and upper bounds for declaring biosimilarity. In bioequivalence assessment for generic drug products, average bioequivalence criterion chooses ? as the ratio of the geometric means between reference and test products; and the corresponding limits are set to in which you compare be 80% and 125%. The hypotheses in equation (1) are usually decomposed into two sets of one-sided hypotheses: Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure is commonly used for testing the hypotheses in equation (2) [6]. Literature Essays. The overall p value is the larger of the p values from these two tests. For a standard 2 x 2 crossover study design, we consider the following statistical model with the assumption of no carryover effects: where Y ijk is the response for subject i in the kth sequence at an essay in which you compare and contrast, the jth period, where i = 1, … , n k indicates subject, j = 1, 2 indicates period, k = 1, 2 indicates sequence; µ represents the overall mean; S ik represents the web sites essays, random effect of ith subject in kth sequence, assumed independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) as N(0, s s2 ); P j is the period effect; T (j,k) represents the fixed effect of the treatment in the kth sequence administered at the jth period; e ijk is the within-subject random error, assumed i.i.d. as N(0, s e2 ). Finally S ik ’s and a dissertation e ijk ’s are assumed to be mutually independent. To establish the reference standards, we have chosen the average biosimilarity criterion, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 . One concludes average biosimilarity if.

where and are the least square means for the two reference products; they can be obtained from the sequence-by-period means: and ; n 1 and n 2 are the number of subjects in web sites essays, sequence 1 and sequence 2; is the pooled sample variance of an essay you compare, period difference from both sequences, and web sites essays can be obtained from , where . To reflect the characteristics and effect of variability on the therapeutic effect of biological products, Chow et al. [ 3 , 4 ] in 2011 proposed the development of an index based on the concept of the reproducibility probability to an essay in which assess ‘highly biosimilar’. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials was first proposed in 2002 by Shao and Chow [7] to provide assessment on the strength of evidence against null hypothesis for literature, regulatory agencies in deciding whether a single clinical trial is sufficient for approval. Reproducibility probability addresses the Fit and Well, question of whether the literature web sites, observed significant result from a clinical trial is Fit and Well reproducible. Following a similar idea, a biosimilarity index was developed based on the reproducibility probability for the interval hypotheses in web sites, equation (2) to evaluate the degree of similarity between two drug products. That is, we define a reproducibility probability for evaluating the biosimilarity of two drug products as follows: P BI = concluding average biosimilarity between two products in a future trial given that the average biosimilarity based on a chosen criterion has been established in the first trial. To evaluate the a dissertation proposal, biosimilarity index, the index is expressed as the estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is true, replacing the parameter by its estimate based on the data observed. By this estimated power approach, the biosimilarity index for the 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion can be obtained from the following equation: where T L and T U are the web sites, test statistics given in equation (4) and writing equation (5). Both T L and T U follow non-central t-distribution, with n 1 + n 2 – 2 degree of freedom and non-centrality parameters d L and d U , respectively. d L and literature essays d U relate to the population means, variances and similarity limits; their estimate and can be obtained from the data using the formulas and. To apply the on english, proposed biosimilarity index approach to assess biosimilarity, Chow et al. in 2013 proposed the web sites essays, following steps [ 8 ], see Table 1 . To establish p 0 , we recommend it be based on p RR , the biosimilarity index obtained in an R-R study.

By basing p 0 on p RR , the biosimilarity index approach allows us to d u assess the degree of literature web sites, similarity relative to the reference product. From the definition of the business, biosimilarity index and the testing steps illustrated above, we can see that this approach has the following advantages. First, it is robust with respect to the selected study endpoints, biosimilarity criteria, and literature web sites essays study designs [ 7 ], because the biosimilarity index used in the second stage of testing ‘highly similar’ is calculated using the you compare, same selected study endpoint, biosimilarity criterion, and literature web sites study design. Second, it takes variability into short proposal for research paper, consideration in the calculation of the index, and is sensitive to the variance of the test products. Third, it allows the definition and literature assessment of the degree of similarity. Or, in other words, it provides an answer to the question of papers on english literature, ‘how similar is considered highly similar?’ In practice, important information about the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Literature. Thus, it is important to establish the reference standard (p 0 ) while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar and the reference product. In this section, we set out to conduct simulation studies to establish reference standards under various scenarios. Simulation studies were conducted to demonstrate how to completing proposal establish reference standards.

Standard 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion are used. Literature Web Sites Essays. The biosimilarity index is calculated as the steps outlined in Fit and Well, section 3. The study parameter ? is the mean difference, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 , and the corresponding similarity limits are those accepted in web sites, bioequivalence studies, i.e. (? L , ? U ) = (log0.8, log1.25) = (-0.223, 0.223). Business Writing. The data are assumed to following normal distribution, and the means and variances of the two reference products are assumed to be the same in the simulation, i.e. µ R1 = µ R2 = µ and s R1 = s R2 = s. To evaluate how reference standards are affected by variability of the drug products, different coefficients of variation are chosen: 20–50% by an increment of 5%. Note that coefficients of web sites essays, variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to writing the mean, therefore in literature web sites, terms of s and µ in the normal distribution, the writing, chosen coefficients of literature, variation values translate to s = 0.2µ, 0.25µ, 0.3µ, 0.35µ, 0.4µ, 0.45µ or 0.5µ. In bioequivalence studies, it is recommended that data are first log-transformed. For lognormal distribution, coefficients of variation of 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and business writing 50% translate to literature essays s = 0.2, 0.25, 0.294, 0.340, 0.385, 0.429 and 0.472 ( ). We have chosen µ = 1 so that the results are comparable with those shown in research papers, original scales in bioequivalence studies. The effects of different sample sizes (n = n 1 + n 2 = 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and web sites essays 100) with equal allocation are also investigated.

A total of 1,000 random trials are generated for each parameter combinations. The percentage of an essay you compare and contrast, trials that have passed the Step 1 biosimilarity test, i.e. the probability of claiming biosimilarity on the basis of the average biosimilarity criterion, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. Literature Web Sites. The results are in accordance with results observed in other studies [9]. As the variability increases, the probability decreases. Even with no mean difference between the two drug products, the probability of concluding biosimilarity can be quite low when the coefficients of variation are high. For example, when the Fit and Well, coefficients of web sites, variation is 50%, with a total sample size of 40, biosimilarity is concluded only about 30% of the times. Research On English Literature. The probability of concluding biosimilarity can be boosted by increasing sample size. In the previous scenario, the probability can be increased from 30% to 86% if a sample size of 100 is used instead of 40.

For those trials that have passed the Step 1 test, the p values from the Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure are recorded and the averages are reported in Table 3 and Figure 2. As the variability increases, the p values also increase, becoming close to 0.05. In other words, as the web sites essays, variability increases, the evidence against null hypotheses weakens. For those trials that have passed the Step 1 test, we further report in Table 4 and Figure 3 the completing, reproducibility probability or biosimilarity index, termed p RR in R–R study. The p RR is calculated from equation (6). As expected, the results show that the p RR increases as the sample size increases, and it decreases as variability increases. Notice that when the coefficients of variation are 45%, and the total sample size is 40, the p RR is only 48.5%.

When a reference drug compared with itself can only have a 48.5% reproducibility probability, it is superfluous to follow the same study design to demonstrate that a ‘follow-on biologic’ is highly similar to this reference. There are two ways to correct a low p RR : one is to choose a different criterion as in bioequivalence studies with the use of essays, a scaled criterion; the d u assistant, other is to increase sample size. This also demonstrates the importance of conducting an literature web sites, R–R study: one is business writing able to choose an literature web sites essays, appropriate criterion, sample size, or both, to establish reference standards. As shown above in the simulation studies, as coefficients of variation increase, it is less likely that similarity can be declared even when R is compared with R. To further illustrate the effect of the high variability on the conclusion of biosimilarity, and proposal how the essays, biosimilarity index addresses the degree of similarity, we consider example data with a total sample size of 40 and in which you compare and contrast coefficients of variation of 45%, again assuming no true mean difference. First, we obtain an example where H 0 is not rejected and literature web sites essays give the sample means in Table 5. The observed mean difference and the observed variability . The 90% confidence interval of the mean difference is (-0.065, 0.327); similarity is not declared. Under the writing, same setting, another set of web sites, data is generated. A Dissertation. Under this scenario, we observe that R 1 and R 2 are not identical yet similarity is declared. The sample means are given in Table 6, from which we could calculate the essays, sample mean difference and the variability . From the you compare, observed mean difference and variability, the p RR as evaluated from equation (6) is essays 0.563.

This example shows that when coefficients of variation is business writing high, even though biosimilarity is declared based on the average similarity criterion, the literature web sites essays, degree of similarity as measured by biosimilarity index is low, so is the confidence that we have in the biosimilarity conclusion. The simulation studies have shown that, as variance increases, the assistant audioprothesiste, probability of declaring biosimilarity in the Step 1 test decreases; and, for those trials that pass the Step 1 test, the degree of similarity, quantified by biosimilarity index, decreases. The biosimilarity index is calculated for literature essays, the trials that have passed the a dissertation, Step 1 test, thus it reflects the characteristics of the biological products that have already been declared biosimilar based on the average biosimilarity criterion. To apply the biosimilar index approach, an appropriate p 0 , see Table 1 for details of literature essays, Step 3 in the testing procedure, needs to be determined. We recommend p 0 = 0.7p RR or 0.8p RR, such that the comparison is relative to the reference products. If we define d = p 0 /p RR , then d can be used to address the degree of similarity and the question of ‘how similar is highly similar?’ Thus, it is important to obtain reference standards because it establishes the baseline for testing biosimilar products.

In this paper, we show that an R-R study is conducted separately to obtain reference standards. Fit And Well. Reference standards can also be established concurrently using the three-arm study as proposed by Kang and Chow [2]. Literature Web Sites. In the three-arm study, participants are randomly assigned to be treated with either test product (T) in one arm, or two different reference products (R 1 , R 2 ) in the other two arms, such that reference standards are established concurrently in the two reference arms and on english used as baseline for the test product. The idea as outlined in this paper can be applied to establish reference standards for biosimilarity index developed based on other criteria for the assessment of biosimilarity. For example, a biosimilarity index may be developed based on essays, the concepts of population bioequivalence or individual bioequivalence.

Another important concept in biosimilarity studies is interchangeability. To assess interchangeability, it needs to be shown that the risk, i.e. safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between use of the biosimilar and the reference product, are not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch. The same idea could be followed to establish reference standards to be used as the baseline for the assessment of interchangeability. This work was partially supported by for research paper, National Institutes of Health grants P01 CA142538 to Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng, Department of Statistics and web sites essays Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA. Professor Shein-Chung Chow, Professor of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, Duke University School of completing, Medicine, Suite 1102, Hock Plaza, 2424 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705, USA. 1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Draft guidance for industry. Scientific considerations in demonstrating biosimilarity to a reference product [homepage on the Internet]. 2012 Feb [cited 2013 Jun 10]. Available from: 2. Web Sites. Kang SH, Chow SC. Statistical assessment of biosimilarity based on short proposal for research, relative distance between follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):382-92. 3. Chow SC, Endreny L, Lachenbruch PA, Yang LY, Chi E. Scientific factors for literature essays, assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics. Biosimilars.

2011;1:13-26. 4. Chow SC, Ju C. Assessing biosimilarity and interchangeability of business writing, biosimilar products under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act. Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(1):20-5. doi:10.5639/gabij.2013.0201.004. 5. Hsieh TV, Chow SC, Yang LY, Chi E. Literature Web Sites. The evaluation of biosimilarity index based on reproducibility probability for assessing follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):406-13. 6. Schuirmann DJ. A comparison of the two one-sided tests procedure and completing the power approach for assessing the equivalence of average bioavailability. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm.

1987;15(6):657-80. 7. Literature Web Sites Essays. Shao J, Chow SC. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials. Stat Med. Business. 2002; 21(12):1727-42. 8. Chow SC, Yang LY, Starr A, Chiu ST. Literature Essays. Statistical methods for assessing interchangeability of biosimilars. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):442-8. 9. Chow SC, Liu PB.

Design and analysis of bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. 3rd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis; 2008. Author for correspondence: Aijing Zhang, PhD, 5109 SAS Hall, 2311 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. Disclosure of proposal paper, Conflict of Interest Statement is available upon request. Copyright © 2013 Pro Pharma Communications International. Permission granted to reproduce for literature web sites, personal and non-commercial use only. Proposal Paper. All other reproduction, copy or reprinting of essays, all or part of any ‘Content’ found on this website is proposal for research paper strictly prohibited without the prior consent of the publisher.

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