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bunyan bryant essay Fighting Enviromental Racism: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. by Irwin Weintraub, IrwinW@brooklyn.cuny.edu, Brooklyn College Library. Environmental racism can be defined as the intentional siting of hazardous waste sites, landfills, incinerators, and polluting industries in othello test communities inhabited mainly by African-American, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians, migrant farm workers, and the working poor. Minorities are particularly vulnerable because they are perceived as weak and passive citizens who will not fight back against the poisoning of teacher their neighborhoods in fear that it may jeopardize jobs and economic survival. The landmark study, Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States (Commission for Racial Justice, United Church of othello Christ 1987), described the on capturing, extent of environmental racism and othello test the consequences for those who are victims of polluted environments. The study revealed that: Race was the most significant variable associated with the location of hazardous waste sites. The greatest number of commercial hazardous facilities were located in communities with the highest composition of racial and ethnic minorities.
The average minority population in communities with one commercial hazardous waste facility was twice the average minority percentage in communities without such facilities. Although socioeconomic status was also an important variable in the location of these sites, race was the most significant even after controlling for urban and regional differences. Get Paid Homework? The report indicated that three out of every five Black and test Hispanic Americans lived in communities with one or more toxic waste sites. Over 15 million African-American, over 8 million Hispanics, and about 50 percent of in america Asian/Pacific Islanders and Native Americans are living in communities with one or more abandoned or uncontrolled toxic waste sites. Bullard (1993) points out that many of the at-risk communities are victims of land-use decisionmaking that mirrors the othello essay test, power arrangements of the dominant society. School Essay? Historically, exclusionary zoning has been a subtle form of using government authority and othello takehome power to foster and perpetuate discriminatory practices. A study by the Environmental Protection Agency concluded that socioeconomic conditions and to do homework for others race are the major factors determining environmental discrimination. Communities inhabited by essay, poor whites are also vulnerable to toxic threats. In its two-volume report, Environmental Equity (1992), the Environmental Protection Agency alluded to the difficulties of assessing the impact of environmental hazards on low income and minority communities.
While admitting that those communities suffer a disproportionate share of the essays in america, burden, there appears to be a general lack of data on the health effects of pollutants in those communities. Othello Takehome Essay? The report asserts that environmental and health data are not routinely collected and analyzed by categories of income and race. Critics maintain that the information is available but the EPA considers it a public relations issue, not a civil rights issue, and, therefore, does not take the claims seriously enough to for adoptions, gather the takehome essay, necessary data by income and race. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1992; Satchell 1992; Mohai and Bryant 1992.) Some real life examples of hazards facing minority communities in financial planning the United States: The largest hazardous waste landfill in the United States is located in Emelle, Alabama, a poor, predominantly African-American community. It receives toxic materials from forty-five states and several foreign countries. Takehome? Over 300,000 Hispanic farm workers and their families, including a large percentage of women of child-bearing age, are seriously affected by pesticide-related illnesses. An industrial toxic waste site is located in a predominantly Hispanic neighborhood on the South Side of Tucson, Arizona.
The air and water are polluted with toxic chemicals which have caused a high rate of cancer, birth defects, genetic mutations, and essay teacher other illnesses among the inhabitants of the area. The community is tainted with twenty times the acceptable levels of trichloroethylene. Waste disposal companies have been attempting to convince Native Americans to permit dumping on the reservations under the guise of improving the economic conditions. High rates of lung cancer and takehome essay poisoned land have occurred on Navajo reservations as a result of uranium mining. The South Side of Chicago, which is predominantly African-American and Hispanic, has the greatest concentration of hazardous waste sites in the nation. Radiation exposure is a major health problem in get paid to do the Marshall Islands, Bikini, and other Pacific Islands which have been used as test sites for nuclear and atomic weapons.
The portion of minorities living in communities with existing incinerators is 89 percent higher than the national average. Pharmaceutical companies, oil refineries, and petrochemical plants are responsible for making Puerto Rico one of the world's most heavily polluted places. Six of the eight municipal incinerators and five of the municipal landfills in Houston, Texas, are located in predominantly African American neighborhoods. Communities where incinerators are proposed have minority populations 60 percent higher than the othello essay test, national average and school ties prejudice property values 35 percent lower than the national average. In communities with existing incinerators, the average income is 15 percent less than the national average and test property values are 38 percent lower than the national average. (Commission on Racial Justice, United Church of Christ 1987; Lee 1990; De La Pena 1991; Satchell 1992; Lee 1993.) Studies suggest clear relationships between a high concentration of minority populations, or low average incomes, with an unhealthy environment. Poor people do not have the economic means to leave their neighborhoods for resettlement elsewhere. Housing discrimination often makes it difficult to essay for my favorite teacher, find alternative dwellings at affordable rates. Industries that pollute are attracted to poor neighborhoods because land values, incomes, and other costs of doing business are lower.
The industries are drawn to takehome essay, poor neighborhoods where political power and community resources to fight back are weak or lacking. Higher income areas are usually more successful in preventing or controlling the entry of polluting industries to their communities. (Mohai and Bryant 1992.) The effects of pollution and environmental hazards on people of color, the poor, and the working class have been overlooked by environmental policy makers because it was perceived that those communities were politically powerless and would not protest the siting of such facilities. African Americans, for essay on capturing, example, were seen as less informed, less aware and less concerned with environmental issues than whites (Taylor 1989). However, recent studies indicate that poverty and lack of empowerment is a better indicator of othello takehome essay environmental racism than race itself. These studies, which measured the broad environmental perspectives of African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, showed that, when considered broadly, without specific emphasis on a particular environmental aspect, concern among racial minorities and the poor is as strong and school ties essay prejudice active as in the larger population.
Structural barriers and lack of adequate resources within the communities account for the low level of activism by minority groups. When citizens in the contaminated communities are adequately informed about the hazards, their level of awareness and opposition to the toxic facilities results in active protest. (Ostheimer and Ritt 1976, Noe and Snow 1989, Caron 1989, Booth and Jacobs. Takehome? 1990, Mohai 1990.) The mainstream environmental movement has been criticized for its glaring lack of minority representation. Critics claim that these organizations fail to recruit minority memberships and have not addressed the daily environmental hazards in minority communities. With the possible exception of organizations like Natural Resources Defense Council, Greenpeace, and Earth Island Institute, mainstream environmental organizations appear to be more interested in wilderness and planning for a business wildlife preservation, resource conservation, and population control than in human environmental hazards. (Baugh 1990, Adams 1992.) One of the first steps toward addressing the problem of environmental racism was the establishment of the Conference on othello takehome essay test Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards held at the University of ties essay prejudice Michigan in January 1990. This conference gave national visibility to the public debate on essay environmental racism and served as a catalyst for residents of school ties prejudice polluted communities to organize. This is not a situation that lends itself to overnight solutions or simple policy formulations. As the papers at the conference illustrated, there are historical, economic, political, and ethical ramifications of environmental racism which require bold action and equitable environmental decisionmaking. Activists in communities around the country are using the strategies of the civil rights and antiwar movements of the 1960s and 1970s for the environmental struggles of the 1990s. The movement's goal is to remedy past injustices and promote fairness in local, national, and international environmental decisionmaking (Bryant and Mohai 1992a, 1992b; Grossman 1992; Taylor 1992). Citizens who are tired of being subjected to the dangers of othello test pollution in their communities have been confronting the power structures through organized protest, legal actions, marches, civil disobedience, and other activities.
Community newsletters, pamphlets, magazines, classes, lectures, and videocassettes have made it possible to recruit large numbers of people. In addition, minorities are using the power of the ballot and economic pressures to make their stands (Kuzmiak 1991). Minority voter blocs are forming around the country to exercise clout in many areas where their opinions are not usually sought. They have the strength in numbers and the activist skills to form effective coalitions with environmental organizations to on porn in america, promote effective change. In addition, the Black Congressional Caucus has a strong record of solid support for environmental issues.
Mainstream organizations would benefit from the skills and savvy of the grassroots organizations by forming coalitions to press for establishment of desirable environmental agendas (Jordan and Snow 1992). Carol Merchant (1992) sees this revitalized protest activity as an attempt to solve the human health and welfare problems which are rooted in the malign side-effects of industrial capitalist development. The movement is attempting to resolve the takehome essay test, contradictions between production of goods and reproduction of the friedmans their daily lives in healthy neighborhoods with an othello test acceptable standard of living through regulation of aspects of production or economic restructuring. Snow (1992) appeals to the environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to recruit minorities into essay prejudice their ranks: Efforts must be made to othello takehome test, expand the national constituency for for adoptions, conservation through deliberate recruitment of leaders from minority and low income communities and through focused efforts to address environmental issues of particular concern to othello essay, these communities. . . . This effort could be initiated through the development of a new conservation fellowship program designed to groom minority and low income students for positions of ties professional leadership among conservation NGOs. But the effort must go farther and othello essay test must include the deliberate engagement of environmental issues of greatest concern to nonwhite citizens, coupled with recruitment of for others leaders from the communities that have traditionally been omitted from the conservation constituency. The Environmental Equity Workgroup of EPA offered several recommendations that would enable the Agency to deal more equitably with minorities and the poor in environmental decisionmaking. A summary of the recommendations follows (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1992): Increase the othello takehome test, priority given to issues of environmental equity. Establish and maintain an effective database for assessing risks on the basis of get paid to do homework income and takehome test race. Get Paid? Improve the risk assessment procedures to ensure better characterization of risk across populations, communities, or geographic areas.
Create measures to reduce high concentrations of risk among specific population groups. When making major decisions or promoting Agency initiatives, assess and consider the takehome test, distribution of projected risk. Integrate equity into EPA programs by addressing high risk communities in its permit, grant, monitoring, and enforcement procedures. On Capturing? Increase efforts to communicate with racial minority and low income communities and involve them in environmental policymaking. Establish mechanisms to essay, include equity considerations in long term planning and agency operations.
This bibliography consists of selected resources describing the empowerment of racial minorities and the poor in their struggles for environmental justice. The items chosen for inclusion represent the variety of approaches being used by grassroots environmental groups to make their views known to those who make decisions that affect their lives. It is intended to offer readers an overview of the activities and orientations of those who are fighting environmental racism and to demonstrate the importance of citizen action in issues of public health and welfare. For citations to to do homework for others, additional resources on environmental racism, see the bibliography by othello takehome essay, Link (1993). Adams, John A. 1992. Planning? The Mainstream Environmental Movement: Predominantly White Memberships Are Not Defensible. EPA Journal 18 (1): 25-27. Baugh, John H. 1991. African Americans and the Environment: A Review Essay. Policy Studies Journal 19 (2): 182- 191.
Booth, Annie L. and Harvey M. Jacobs. 1990. Ties That Bind: Native American Beliefs as a Foundation for Environmental Consciousness. Environmental Ethics 12 (1): 27-43. Bryant, Bunyan and Paul Mohai, editors. 1992a.
Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards : A Time for Discourse. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Othello Takehome Test? Bryant, Bunyan and Paul Mohai. 1992b. The Michigan Conference: A Turning Point. Essay The Friedmans? EPA Journal 18 (1): 9-10. Bullard, Robert D., ed. 1993.
Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston: South End Press. Bullard, Robert D. Othello Takehome Essay? 1993. The Threat of Environmental Racism. Natural Resources and Environment 7 (3): 23- 26, 55-56. Caron, Judi Anne. 1989. Environmental Perspectives of Blacks: Acceptance of the `New Environmental Paradigm'. Journal of Environmental Education 20 (3): 21-26. Commission for Racial Justice. United Church of prejudice Christ.
1987. Toxic Wastes and othello takehome test Race in the United States: A National Report on essay for adoptions the Racial and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites. New York: Public Data Access. xiii-xvi. De La Pena, Nonny. 1991 (March).
Fighting for the Environment. Hispanic, 18-23. Grossman, Karl. 1991. Environmental Racism. Crisis 98 (4): 14-17, 31-32. Jordan, Charles and Donald Snow. 1992. Diversification, Minorities, and the Mainstream Environmental Movement.
In: Voices from the Environmental Movement: Perspectives for a New Era, edited by Donald Snow, 71- 109. Washington, DC, Island Press. Kuzmiak, D.T. 1991. The American Environmental Movement. Geographical Journal 157 (3): 265-278.
Lee, Charles. 1990. The Integrity of Justice: Evidence of Environmental Racism. Sojourners 19 (2): 22-25. Lee, Charles. 1993. Beyond Toxic Wastes and Race. Test? In: Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots, edited by Robert D. Bullard.
Boston: South End Press, 41-52. Link, Terry. 1993. Environmental Racism/Environmental Equity: A Bibliography. Green Library Journal: Environmental Topics in the Information World 2 (1): 17-22. Merchant, Carol. 1992. Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World. Ties Essay Prejudice? New York: Routledge. 181 p. Othello Takehome Essay Test? Mohai, Paul. 1990.
Black Environmentalism. Social Science Quarterly 71 (4): 744-765. Mohai, Paul and Bunyan Bryant. 1992. Race, Poverty, and the Environment. EPA Journal 18 (1): 6-8. Noe, Francis P. and Rob Snow. 1989. Hispanic Cultural Influence on ties essay Environmental Concern. Journal of Environmental Education 21 (2): 27-34.
Ostheimer, John M. and othello takehome essay Leonard G. Ritt. 1976. Environment, Energy, and Black Americans. Sage Research Papers in the Social Sciences (Human Ecology subseries, no. 90- 025).
Beverly Hills and London: Sage Publications. p. 38. Perfecto, Ivette and Baldemar, Vel squez. 1992. Farm workers: Among the Least Protected. EPA Journal 18 (1): 13-14. Essays On Porn? Satchell, Mitchell. 1992 (May 4). Takehome Essay? A Whiff of Discrimination?
U.S. News World Report 112 (17): 34-35. Essay For Adoptions? Snow, Donald. 1992. Inside the Environmental Movement: Meeting the Leadership Challenge. Washington, DC: Island Press. p. 213-214. Taylor, Dorceta E. 1989.
Blacks and the Environment: Towards an Explanation of the Concern and Action Gap Between Blacks and Whites. Environment and takehome test Behavior 21 (2): 175-205. Taylor, Dorceta E. 1992. The Environmental Justice Movement: No Shortage of Environmental Volunteers. EPA Journal 18 (1): 23-25. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. Environmental Equity: Reducing Risk For All Communities. Washington, DC: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of on capturing the friedmans Policy Planning and Evaluation. Baugh, Joyce A. Essay? African-Americans and the Environment: A Review Essay. Ties Essay Prejudice? Policy Studies Journal 19 (2): 183-191, Spring 1991. This review essay examines the reasons why Blacks have generally been absent from the environmental movement and the activism that is now emerging in the communities where they live. Baugh cites studies indicating that the primary activism against environmental racism emerges from local groups not from othello takehome essay, mainstream environmental organizations. Her examples include protests, demonstrations, lobbying, and lawsuits against companies in West Dallas, Texas; Institute, West Virginia; Alson, Louisiana; Emelle, Alabama; and for my teacher Northwood Manor, West Virginia. Beasley, Conger, Jr. Of Pollution and othello takehome essay test Poverty: Part 2: Keeping Watch in Cancer Alley.
Buzzworm: The Environmental Journal 2 (4): 38-45, July/August, 1990. In the on capturing the friedmans, seventy-mile stretch between Baton Rouge and takehome test New Orleans known as Cancer Alley there are ninety-three oil refineries and chemical plants emitting toxins into get paid the air and othello essay test water. A nine and a half square mile stretch of the Mississippi River below Baton Rouge includes the predominantly Black small towns of Geismar, St. Gabriel, Reveilletown, and Alsen. The area has eighteen processing plants that convert chemicals into raw materials. These plants release 196 million pounds of financial for a business pollutants into the air and water each year. Takehome Essay Test? Residents of the area suffer from school ties essay, miscarriages, cancer, massive tumors and other pollution related illnesses. Othello Takehome Test? Grassroots multiracial organizations have sprung up to initiate lawsuits and fight the polluters. Activists Amos Favorite and essay for adoptions Helen Robinson carry out takehome test information campaigns to educate the residents about the environmental hazards wrought by the chemical companies. The Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN) helps in this effort and essay on capturing has offered assistance in actions against the companies. LEAN was instrumental in getting the Air Toxic and Solid Waste Bills through the state legislature.
The movement's leaders have lobbied legislators and othello takehome essay test are continuing legal fights against the intransigence of the chemical companies. Citizens of the Cancer Alley communities are also seeking compensation through lawsuits. In Reveilletown, for instance, the community filed suit against school, Georgia- Gulf after traces of vinyl chloride were found in the blood of local children. Bullard, Robert D. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Equity. Test? Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. 165 p. Dumping in Dixie is an in-depth study of environmental racism in black communities in essay the South. Bullard explores the othello essay test, barriers to environmental and social justice experienced by blacks and the factors that contribute to the conflicts, disparities, and the resultant growing militancy.
He provides case studies of strategies used by grassroots groups who wanted to take back their neighborhoods in Houston's Northwood Manor neighborhood; West Dallas, Texas; Institute, West Virginia; Alsen, Louisiana; and favorite Emelle- Sumter County, Alabama. In these predominantly Black communities, grass roots organizing was carried out to protest against landfills, incinerators, toxic waste, chemical industries, salvage yards, and garbage dumps. Strategies included demonstrations, public hearings, lawsuits, the election of supporters to state and local offices, meetings with company representatives, and other approaches designed to bring public awareness and accountability. Bullard offers action strategies and recommendations for greater mobilization and othello consensus building for essay, the ensuing environmental equity struggles of the 1990s. Grossman, Karl.
Environmental Racism. Othello Takehome? Crisis 98 (4): 14-17, 31-32, April 1991. For Adoptions? Atgeld Gardens, a housing project on takehome essay test the Southeast Side of Chicago with 10,000 predominantly African-American residents, is surrounded by pollution. Chemical plants, a paint factory, two steel mills, and lagoons filled with contaminants emit 30,000 tons of toxic substances into the air each year. Environmentally caused diseases such as cancer, brain tumors, respiratory problems, birth deformities, blindness, and death are rampant. Homework? Grossman locates Atgeld Gardens in a historical continuum of incidents of environmental racism in the United States since the 1920s. Essay? Grassroots citizens' groups have been established in Atgeld Gardens and other communities to for adoptions, fight pollution and protect the health and safety of the inhabitants. Door-to- door organizing and voter registration efforts have resulted in large numbers of people participating in the protests. Active organizations like the Gulf Coast Tenants Association in New Orleans; West Harlem Environmental Action in New York; Center for Environment, Commerce, and takehome essay test Energy in Atlanta; Native Americans for a Clean Environment in northeast Oklahoma; Southwest Organizing Project in essay favorite Albuquerque; Asian American Woman Advocates in Oakland, California; and Blacks Against Nukes in Washington, D.C., are using education campaigns in their communities and strategies of the civil rights movement to confront those who make the environmental decisions. Greenpeace, Earth Island Institute, and the National Toxic Campaign have assisted in some of the neighborhood actions.
Bennet, James. Hispanic voters and the Politics of Sludge. New York Times, 5 March 1993, B1. Hispanic voters in the Sunset Park section of Brooklyn, New York, pressed the essay test, mayor and other city officials to essays, withdraw plans for othello essay test, a sludge composting plant in their neighborhood. The plant was designed to transform sludge into fertilizer and other products. Several citizen groups and individuals, including the Brooklyn Borough president and a Hispanic appointee to the City Planning Commission, were instrumental in persuading the financial business, mayor to block the takehome test, plan. Essays On Porn In America? Hispanic voters reminded city officials that they accounted for 13 percent of ballots cast in the 1989 mayoral campaign and those votes were vital for the mayor's narrow victory. Othello Takehome Essay? Asian Americans who live in the area put pressure on an Asian member of the Planning Commission to oppose the plan because it was a choice made on the basis of race and class. Ambler, Marjane. 1991 (November).
On the Reservations: No Haste, No Waste. Planning 57 (11): 26-29. The dumping of wastes on Indian reservations has been determined in the past by for a, state and federal regulations which did not take into account the wishes of the tribes. In the late 1980s Congress gave Native Americans the authority to adopt their own standards and regulations and to make contracts with the EPA controlling waste dumping on Indian lands. Many tribes around the country are now involved in controlling environmental decisions on the reservations. Tribes such as the Umatilla in Oregon, the Sioux in South Dakota, the Kaibab-Paiute in Arizona, the Kaw in Oklahoma, and the Choctaw in othello takehome Mississippi have rejected proposals to place solid and hazardous waste landfills on the reservations. Their ability to regulate the use of reservation lands has enabled them to work with county planning boards and essays state and federal agencies to influence environmental decisions which benefit the tribes.
Beasley, Conger, Jr. Of Pollution and Poverty. Part 3: Deadly Threat on Native Lands. Buzzworm: The Environmental Journal 2 (5): 39-45, September/October 1990. The Navajo Reservation, which spans the othello test, New Mexico- Arizona border, was polluted in 1979 when an accident at the United Nuclear Corporation's Church Rock Mill near Gallup, New Mexico released 94 million gallons of radioactive waste into the Puerco River. The river winds through the reservation and the communities of Manuelito and Lupton.
Since the river is still polluted, the 10,000 Navajos who live along the Puerco River must use shallow wells and springs to draw water for their livestock and personal needs. The spill, which was not publicized in school essay the press and was not taken seriously by the tribe due to lack of information about its dangers, caused a dramatic rise in essay animal deformities and cancer-related deaths in the communities along the river. The Southwest Research and Information Center in Albuquerque initiated a program in essay on capturing the friedmans 1986 called the Puerco River Education Project (PREP) to enable affected communities to othello takehome essay test, develop their own water resources with sovereign authority over all Indian waters. The Southwest Organizing Project (SWOP) has helped local activists develop strategies for empowerment. SWOP also assisted Hispanics in northwest Albuquerque in get paid to do protests against a particle board company which ultimately invested US$2 million to othello takehome essay test, reduce air and noise contaminants. Through voter registration and candidate accountability forums, SWOP has made it possible for local grassroots groups to confront the financial planning for a business, polluters and othello essay demand compliance with environmental laws. Ruben, Barbara.
Grave Reservations: Waste Company Proposals Targeting Native American Lands are Meeting with A Growing Pattern of Resistance. Environmental Action 23 (1): 12-15, July/August 1991. Homework? Native Americans around the othello essay test, country are organizing to resist the siting of hazardous waste sites on reservations. Over 42 of the on porn, 360 tribes in the United States have been approached by waste disposal companies and 30 have rejected the proposals. Takehome? The Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota is organizing resistance to planning for a, the building of a 5,700 acre landfill underneath the reservation and surrounding lands.
The Kaw Tribe in northern Oklahoma rejected a $100 million hazardous waste disposal plant on a 5,000-acre tract owned by essay, five tribes, to have included a combined landfill, tire recycling facility, and toxic waste injection well. A Native American activist in the area founded the Campaign for Sovereignty to preserve the get paid for others, independence and autonomy of the tribes and to essay test, regulate the decision making process. On Capturing? The Oglala Lakota Sioux in Pine Ridge, South Dakota, refused to allow a garbage sludge and incinerator ash dump on takehome the reservation. The Los Coyotes Reservation in the mountains east of San Diego revoked permission for the building of teacher a landfill. The Paiutes in Kaibab, Arizona, rejected plans to build an othello essay test incinerator with a capacity to burn up to 100,000 tons of hazardous waste. The Choctaw Tribal Council in Choctaw, Mississippi, rejected a hazardous waste site after a joint protest of Native Americans and non-Indians. A 1990 conference on the environmental threat to tribal lands was held in South Dakota. The conference offered workshops on grassroots organizing and methods of dealing with waste and school ties developing environmentally sound economic alternatives. The Toxics on Indian Land Network in Ontario, Canada, is othello essay test, organizing activists from the United States and financial for a Canada to focus on issues of environmental justice for Native Americans. Battling Toxic Racism: El Pueblo Para El Aire y Agua Limpio. In: Street, Richard Steven and Samuel Orozco, Organizing for Our Lives: New Voices from Rural Communities.
Portland, Oregon: NewSage Press and California Rural Legal Assistance, 1992. 20-32. Mexican farmworkers in Kettleman City, California, organized a multi-ethnic coalition, El Pueblo Para El Aire y Agua Limpio (People for Clean Air and Water), to oppose the building of a toxic waste incinerator in the area. The company, Chem Waste, had built a toxic landfill in test Kettleman City in 1979 which has contaminated the area with odors and illnesses from the more than 200,000 tons of poisons dumped at the site each year. Latino farm managers, migrant farmworkers, and Anglo residents who operate large farms in the area lobbied, marched, and homework for others gained national attention. Takehome Essay? California Rural Legal Assistance filed a lawsuit against Chem Waste claiming that environmental racism played a role in their decision to choose Kettleman City. County supervisors were charged with running discriminatory public participation proceedings by holding public hearings thirty five miles from get paid, Kettleman City so that farmworkers would not be able to othello test, attend. Meetings were conducted in English and critical documents were not translated to Spanish. Many farmworkers who attended could not understand the to do homework for others, proceedings.
Civil rights organizations, environmental activists, politicians, and organizations like Greenpeace and the Sierra Club joined the protests. After a three year struggle, the state superior court ruled that Chem Waste failed to provide adequate information regarding the incinerator's environmental impact and was ordered to prepare and translate a Spanish-language version of the othello essay, impact report. Bids by the company were rejected twice in 1992 and construction is years behind schedule. Beasley, Conger, Jr. Of Pollution and Poverty.
Part 1: Reaping America's Unseemly Harvest. Buzzworm: The Environmental Journal 2 (3): 40-47, May/June 1990. Essay On Capturing The Friedmans? Migrant farmworkers in the fruit and vegetable growing areas of the San Joaquin Valley of California suffer from pesticide related illnesses due to the uncontrolled use of dangerous pesticides. Takehome Essay? The predominantly Hispanic farmworkers suffer from cancer, birth defects, headaches, dizziness, skin rashes, cardiac arrest, and death from pesticides. Pesticide regulations are not enforced and enforcement agencies ignore the farmworkers' complaints. Air and essay water in the nearby town of McFarland is seriously polluted from the pesticide drift which enters the town. The late Cesar Chavez, president of the United Farm Workers (UFW), led protests in takehome the state capital and get paid to do for others marches in essay the San Joaquin Valley to protest the unregulated use of pesticides on produce grown in the area. UFW is calling for school ties, a ban on the most dangerous pesticides and enforcement of pesticide use regulations. Othello Essay? Organizing efforts are underway by the UFW to unite farmworkers in a common cause for labor contracts and environmental justice. Truax, Hawley.
Untold Suffering. Essays? Environmental Action 24 (3): 14-17, Fall, 1992. Over 300,000 farmworkers suffer from the effects of pesticide-related illnesses each year. Children are also exposed to pesticide poisoning because they accompany their parents to the fields. Migrant labor camps are contaminated by pesticide drift from adjacent fields and othello takehome lack appropriate running water and washing facilities. The Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC) in Michigan and Ohio has achieved a variety of gains against Campbell Soup and Heinz after years of strikes and boycotts.
Negotiations with these companies resulted in a more equitable wage system, compliance with basic field sanitation requirements such as running water and toilets, and essay for my a requirement that farmworkers be notified prior to any pesticide spraying. These agreements have allowed farmers and farmworkers to interact as parties with common interests. Bullard, Robert D., ed. Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston: South End Press, 1993. 259 p. Test? A book of essays addressing all aspects of environmental racism and the victimization of people of color in urban and rural areas. The contributing authors are academicians and activists who are prominent in the movement for essay, environmental justice. Test? Toxic wastes, siting of waste facilities, urban industrial pollution, childhood lead poisoning, farmworkers and pesticides, land rights, sustainable development, global threats due to export of toxic and other issues affecting African Americans, Latinos, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are covered by the contributing authors. The essays present case studies and strategies used by essays on porn, the emerging grassroots environmental movement to othello takehome, empower people of color to confront government agencies, industries, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations on essay on capturing the friedmans behalf of serious change, social justice, and mutual respect in takehome essay environmental decision making.
Demonstrations, legal actions, political action, union organizing, clearinghouses and public education, public forums, and demands for accountability from elected officials are among the strategies used. Colquette, Kelly Michele, and Elizabeth A. Henry Robertson. Environmental Racism: The Causes, Consequences, and Commendations. Tulane Environmental Law Journal 5 (1): 153- 207, December 1, 1991. This detailed discussion of environmental racism examines the factors that influence siting of toxic waste sites. Examples are provided of siting decisions, regulations, and consequences for various communities in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Wisconsin, Louisiana, Texas, and essay for adoptions several Indian reservations. Methods of protest by grassroots organizations representing African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans are described. Essay Test? Strategies for opposing the sites included protests, demonstrations, picketing, political pressure, and litigation.
The authors conclude that government officials and agencies have exercised their power to exploit the less politically influential, the less informed and the poorer members of society. Rather than receiving protection from a democratic system designed to protect the minority voice, the ethnic and racial minority communities became a convenient scapegoat for essay, difficult political decisions. As public awareness grows, minority opposition to environmental racism will continue until the neighborhoods in which they live are no longer treated as safe places for takehome, polluters. Dowie, Mark. The New Environmentalism. Utne Reader, no. 52:104-111, July/August, 1992. Dowie analyzes the growth of essay grassroots community organizations that are emerging around the country to demand participation in environmental decision making. He points out that mainstream environmental organizations have failed to attract minorities and the poor.
Grassroots activists perceive these organizations as arrogant and essay test elitist, more concerned with wilderness, wildlife, and natural resource conservation than with the environmental damage to low income communities around the to do homework for others, country. The grassroots environmental movement involves women, the poor, and people of othello takehome test color confronting environmental hazards in their neighborhoods. Examples include a toxic waste dump in rural Arkansas, an ocean incinerator off the Texas coast, a pesticide sprayer in the Central Valley of California, a refinery in New Jersey, and shipments of nuclear waste through small towns in Wyoming. Affected groups have been successful in the friedmans bringing changes to the environmental agenda through demonstrations, consumer boycotts, shareholder suits, and nonviolent protests. Dowie urges the American environmental movement to develop into a broad-based, multi-ethnic movement that takes a long term global view, challenges prevailing economic assumptions, promotes environmental protection as an extension of human rights, and engages in direct action when necessary. If it pursues this goal, the movement can forge a new society. Godsil, Rachel D. Remedying Environmental Racism. Michigan Law Review 90 (2): 394-427, November, 1991. Takehome Test? Godsil examines equity issues that arise in the placement of for adoptions commercial hazardous waste facilities. Since affluent communities oppose hazardous waste facilities in their neighborhoods, developers often place these facilities in othello essay test predominantly poor and minority communities. Consequently, minorities are unfairly bearing an excessive burden of environmental hazards while the benefits of production that result in hazardous wastes are dispersed among the larger society.
The nature and causes of the disproportionate burden of hazardous waste are described. Godsil presents current state and federal hazardous waste legislation and its failure to address issues of environmental racism. She recommends that constitutional remedies such as the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment be invoked to challenge environmental disparities and essay for my favorite proposes federal legislation to ameliorate the burden of waste siting in minority communities. The proposed act would allow minority communities to argue that there is takehome, a disparate impact. It would permit definition of the population that would be physically or financially harmed by the sites. Plaintiffs would have to prove that there is a disparate impact on the minority community relative to the affluent community. Get Paid To Do Homework? Legislation at the state level should permit the relevant state agency to othello takehome essay test, take the race and socioeconomic status of a community into account when considering the financial planning for a, potential hazards of takehome essay such sites.
Godsil provides examples of court cases in which race and class played a role in decisions concerning environmental equity. Essays? Hayes, Arthur S. New Specialty Helps Poor Fight Pollution. Wall Street Journal, 3 October 1991, 3. A new legal specialty called Environmental Poverty Law helps minorities and the poor fight their environmental battles in the courts. Othello Test? The Environmental Poverty Law working group was formed to serve as a clearinghouse for poverty lawyers who handle environmental cases. Legal strategies pursued by this new breed of to do homework lawyers are designed to othello essay, get government agencies to essay for my teacher, release data, forcing municipalities to hold public hearings on projects that may pose health hazards, and filing lawsuits against companies and government agencies who use racial or ethnic bias in pollution projects. Attorneys involved in environmental poverty law have been successful in delaying construction of essay test incinerators, cleaning up abandoned factories and warehouses, gaining access to information on hazardous projects and other issues.
Mann, Eric. L.A.'s Lethal Air: New Strategies for Policy, Organizing and Action. Los Angeles Labor/Community Strategy Center, 1991. 80 p. A detailed report on the toxic air and essay for adoptions water in Los Angeles and its detrimental effects on the health and well being of the citizens of the city. Industries in takehome essay the Los Angeles area emit great amounts of nitrogen oxides, organic gases, and dangerous toxins into the air, water, and workplaces. Working class people, the poor, and people of color are most vulnerable because the polluting industries are located mainly in their neighborhoods. Favorite Teacher? However, the toxins are present throughout Los Angeles and test affect all citizens.
Failure of the regulatory agencies to control the pollution and enforce the law made it necessary for the citizens of Los Angeles to act. A multi-ethnic coalition of essay for adoptions workers, minorities, labor unions, and environmental groups formed an organization called Labor/Community Watchdog to confront the polluters and demand a clean up of L.A.'s air. Public education campaigns, lawsuits, protest rallies, and other active strategies will be used to monitor and pressure the existing regulatory agencies and othello takehome essay test provide a watchdog strategy to ties essay, confront corporate polluters. Using strategies of the civil rights movement and labor struggles, Watchdog plans to fight in essay test the courts, legislatures, workplaces, the media, and the marketplace. Face-to-face negotiations with executives of polluting companies and concrete demands will be part of the strategy. This coalition comprises workers, high school and college students, women, Latinos, African Americans, Asian Americans, white working people, farmworkers, and inner-city residents who are victims of air pollution, waste incineration, and groundwater contamination. Labor/Community Watchdog has been instrumental in gaining dialogue with polluters and forcing regulatory agencies to monitor the industries. Watchdog is demanding that corporations which profit from pollution be required to pay for clean up. Many more successful strategies are being planned as the organization grows. Essay For Adoptions? Perkins, Jane. Recognizing and Attacking Environmental Racism.
Clearinghouse Review 26 (4): 389-397, August 1992. Perkins discusses legal strategies for addressing environmental racism involving location of hazardous waste sites and exposure of essay test children to toxic lead. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on grounds of race, color, or national origin in programs or activities receiving federal funds. Perkins points out that local and state environmental and health programs and activities often receive federal funds and must abide by Article VI. She recommends using this as a legal remedy when the siting of toxic waste sites will have a discriminatory effect on on porn in america minority groups. Other remedies include public hearings when companies apply for permits and compliance with state and test federal environmental impact provisions. Essays On Porn? Citizens should attend those hearings and demand that state and federal authorities enforce environmental laws. Lead poisoning can be attributed to paint, gasoline, solder, food, soil, water, and takehome essay air.
Parents in East Baton Rouge, Louisiana, formed an organization called Parents and Teachers Organized to Prevent Lead Poisoning. In New York, the Coalition to End Lead Poisoning sued the city for protection from lead based paint in public housing. People United for a Better Oakland (PUEBLO), a community based group in Oakland, California, filed a class action lawsuit to force the essays, state to comply with state statutes and takehome test Health Care Enforcement Administration guidelines to require testing children for lead levels in the blood. Citizens can also sue for enforcement of the Lead Contamination Control Act of 1988 to eliminate lead contaminated drinking water in get paid homework public and private schools and day care centers. For protection from othello essay test, lead poisoning in paint, citizens should demand enforcement of the Lead Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act of 1971. Prout, Linda R. The Toxic Avengers.
EPA Journal 18 (1): 48-49, March/April 1992. Essay For My Teacher? Latino and African American students in othello essay test the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, New York, are fighting environmental racism in their neighborhood. Eight activists, ranging in age from sixteen to twenty, have lectured, marched, and organized rallies against the Radiac Research Corporation, which stores and transports toxic waste and low-level radioactive and flammable materials. They object to its location next to a public school playground. A study by Hunter College found twenty-eight facilities in the Williamsburg-Greenpoint area which stored large amounts of toxic waste. Eleven of those sites contained substances classified as extremely dangerous by the EPA and exceeding government recommendations.
The Toxic Avengers have started a recycling program in the neighborhood and workshops for inner city youth around the country. The group has received public service awards and gained the attention of state legislators. For My Favorite? Russell, Dick. Environmental Racism: Minority Communities and othello takehome their Battle Against Toxic. Amicus Journal 11 (2): 22-32, Spring 1989. Russell describes the activities of to do for others MELA, Mothers of East Los Angeles, a predominantly Hispanic organization established in 1985 by Lucille Roybal-Allard (who was elected a state assemblywoman in 1987) to fight the essay, construction of an incinerator in essay a Hispanic community.
A predominantly Black coalition, Concerned Citizens of Central Los Angeles (CCSLA), which succeeded in stopping a plan to build a large garbage incinerator in othello a predominantly Black neighborhood, joined MELA in its efforts. Through public hearings, petitions and public information campaigns, CCSLA and MELA fought successfully to prohibit the building of incinerators in minority areas. On short notice, MELA could muster 400 volunteers to make announcements at churches, place bilingual advertisements about hearings and marches in neighborhood newspapers, and distribute updates and flyers. As public outcries intensified, CCSLA and MELA gained additional support from Greenpeace, Citizens for a Better Environment (Oakland, California), National Health Law Program, Center for Law in the Public Interest, and the Institute for prejudice, Local Self Reliance. Additional alliances were formed with two groups that advocate slow growth, Not Yet New York and the California Alliance in Defense of Residential Environments. These protests against incinerators and takehome toxic industries in minority neighborhoods have forged a powerful coalition that has gained many important victories through local protests and essays in america marches, lawsuits, attendance at othello takehome essay test hearings, notification of voters, demonstrations, and picketing. Suro, Roberto. Pollution-Weary Minorities Try Civil Rights Tack.
New York Times, 11 January 1993, A1. Grassroots protests by Black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian groups are battling pollution hazards in their communities using a variety of strategies. Homework For Others? A report from the Environmental Protection Agency revealed that racial and ethnic minorities suffer disproportionate exposure to othello essay test, dust, soot, carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur, sulfur dioxide, lead, and emissions from hazardous waste dumps. Planning For A Business? An environmental justice movement has developed out of many local protests. Essay Test? These groups are using the strategies of the planning, civil rights movement to battle environment racism around the country. The West Dallas Coalition for Environmental Justice has filed lawsuits against local, state, and federal agencies to fight for the cleanup of contaminated soil from a lead smelter that closed in essay 1984.
Black residents of Wallace, Louisiana, helped to defeat plans to build a $700 million wood pulp and rayon plant on one of the remaining nonindustrial stretches of the teacher, Mississippi River between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. With assistance from the Natural Resources Defense Council, several Harlem groups filed suit against a sewage treatment plant that produces odors offensive to othello takehome test, the community. The suit contends the site was chosen because it was perceived as a poor community that lacked the political clout to oppose the plant. Grassroots groups have formed alliances with established civil rights and environmental organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, and school essay prejudice the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund to support their legal struggles. Tsao, Naiking.
Ameliorating Environmental Racism: A Citizens'Guide to Combatting The Discriminatory Siting of Toxic Waste Dumps. New York University Law Review 67 (2): 366-418, May 1992. Tsao provides a comprehensive analysis of state and federal legal options for opposing discriminatory hazardous waste siting procedures based upon race, class, and resource allocation. He discusses state and local hazardous waste siting procedures currently in use; state statutory, common law and constitutional options for litigants affected by the discriminatory sitings; and the relevance of the equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution for issues of environmental justice. Tsao finds that states have tended to interpret constitutional equity provisions more broadly than has the U.S. Supreme Court. He recommends, therefore, that litigants pursue state law options first; federal claims should be made only othello, after evaluating the effectiveness of state law. Webster, Donovan. Get Paid To Do For Others? Sweet Home Arkansas.
Utne Reader, no. 52: 112-116, July/August 1992. The Environmental Congress of Arkansas (ECA), representing sixteen grassroots environmental organizations, gathered to discuss strategies to reclaim Arkansas, the othello essay, third most polluted state in the country. Examples of some of the successes of local groups include Citizens Against Polluted Streams, which received court awarded damages from Tyson Chicken for dumping chicken feces and scraps into local waterways. Essay On Capturing? Friends United for a Safe Environment successfully fought against an overstuffed landfill. ECA led successful protests against an incinerator in Jacksonville, Arkansas, which was permitted to burn dioxins. Takehome? The incinerator was built on a site which was used to dispose of 28,300 barrels of on capturing the friedmans toxic waste, 140 vats of heavy chemicals and over 100 acres of contaminated soil which has accumulated at test the site since the 1960s. Teacher? ECA strategies included protests at othello takehome test the state capitol, media attention, and press releases.
Citizen protests and class action lawsuits caused the company to file for bankruptcy, pay a fine, shut down the essays on porn, operation in Jacksonville and othello relocate to Memphis, Tennessee. Financial? (This success was short lived. The EPA and takehome the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology granted the company a license on 2 January 1992 to burn toxic waste in the Jacksonville incinerator). Other protests have been undertaken against a hazardous waste incinerator in El Dorado which resulted in a $500,000 fine for on capturing, noncompliance with the Clean Air Act. Protests in othello takehome essay test Camden, Arkansas, resulted in the relocation of a 300 acre landfill. Ties Essay Prejudice? ECA has gained credibility with the test, state Attorney General and the Pollution Control Department, further enhancing the organization's visibility and empowerment. [ Our Project | Santa Clara County Maps | E.I.
Bibliography | Annotated E.J. Bibliography | Links ] Copyright © 1996-1999 Michael R. Meuser and Andrew Szasz.
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native genius essay Peter N. Herndon. Contents of Curriculum Unit 99.03.03: This war did not spring up here in our land. It was brought upon us. by the othello takehome children of the Great Father (whites) who came to take our. land from us without price, and who do many evil things. . . . On Capturing The Friedmans? It. seems to me that there is a better way than this. When people come. to trouble it is better for both parties to come together without arms, to talk it over, and find some peaceful way to othello takehome test, settle. (Spotted Tail. Brule, Sioux leader, 1877)
Five hundred years after Columbus' discovery of the New World, the descendants of the original native immigrants he encountered continue to feel the effects of the 'second great immigration'-the European invasion. What happens when claims of older inhabitants and essay for adoptions, new immigrants conflict? This question was first addressed in U.S. Test? history in the conflicts between the native tribes and European colonizers, and it has never been resolved. There are still major issues that concern Native Americans: citizenship, civil rights, religious practices, land use, fishing rights, resource development and self-governance. Here in Connecticut, the Mashantucket Pequots and Mohegans are making new rules in financial for a, a game that includes amassing huge amounts of money by way of immensely profitable gambling casinos. Tribes in New Mexico, California, Nevada, Wisconsin and Washington State have won court cases that re-establish ancient land and fishing rights, while local citizens can only stand back and complain. Ancient Native American ancestral artifacts and othello takehome essay, bones have been removed from anthropological museums across America, due to successful Indian lawsuits. How is it that these victories have been won in planning, courts that for centuries shut the door on so-called Indian cultural and legal claims?
What are some of the takehome implications for the future, if courts continue to reinterpret the law in favor of essays in america, Native American claims? And what implications do these Indian settlements have on civil rights cases that may be brought into courtrooms on behalf of other native minorities or immigrant groups in America today? What are some of the major issues that confront Native Americans in the 1990s? What tribal rights--political, religious and cultural--should be given protection from our government? Should Indian lands be returned to them, even if it means displacing other citizens or industry? How has government policy changed since the late 1960s when President Richard Nixon stated that federal policy would include Indians on key committees and assured the othello takehome test Indian that he can assume control of his own life without being separated from the tribal group? (Bordewich, p. For Adoptions? 12) What of the takehome essay test legendary mismanagement of the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which a Congressional report in ties prejudice, 1990 called a national disgrace?
How realistic are notions of preserving a distinct Indian culture in an America in which statistics reveal that Indians are continuing to blend in with the dominant population through intermarriage at an ever-increasing rate? ____ I hope to create a teaching unit that addresses not only past issues of cultures in conflict but also will make students more aware of othello takehome, legal issues that continue to plague our society as many Indians are continuing to essay the friedmans, find it difficult to cope with life in othello essay, present-day America. Are Native Americans just one more minority ethnic group that is finding it difficult to become mainstreamed into get paid American life? Or does their status as first peoples make them so historically and othello test, culturally unique that they belong in a separate category where conventional laws and values don't apply? The ultimate question I want students to pursue is: Who are the Indians in to do, the 1990's?
What are they to essay, us and what are we to them? To most of us, there is something appealingly noble and free about an essay favorite Indian warrior. In the 1991 film, Dances with Wolves, the takehome essay main character, John Dunbar, played by Kevin Costner, found something he had always been missing when he became accepted into the Sioux community: the mystery of his own personal identity. The cavalry soldier, Dunbar, toward the end of the for adoptions film, makes the amazing statement, I had never known who John Dunbar was, but as I heard my Sioux name being called, I knew for the first time in my life who I really was. I plan to show segments of this Oscar-winning film as part of my unit, primarily because the movie is very sympathetic to othello takehome essay test, American Indians, who are depicted as heroic people with real ambivalence toward whites. Essay For My Teacher? In my view the othello takehome essay film poses two major conflicts that are virtually always present between older inhabitants and the friedmans, new immigrants: conflicting cultures and conflicting values. I would like my students to observe and write about the more obvious external conflicts portrayed in the film; and also the more subtle inner conflicts. Is the film true to history?
Are there any stereotypes in the movie? Is the othello essay ending a satisfying one? Is there more to the story? I want students to on capturing the friedmans, divide into groups and try their hand at writing a sequel to the movie. Essay? This film is very much about the Indian identity and the ruthlessness of the policies of the United States government. This is ties essay prejudice a popular view. To what extent was it true?
One of Costner's lines upon discovering hundreds of bison carcasses left to rot on the plains was, Who would do such a thing? It must be a people without values, without soul. He is, of course, referring to members of his own race. In referring to the Sioux, in contrast, he declares, Every day ends with a miracle. John Dunbar has reversed himself. He now despises what his own race represents and acknowledges what he perceives to be the higher ecological and spiritual plane that his blood brothers, the Sioux have attained. Students must be careful not to stereotype Indians as people that have always lived in complete harmony with the land and have somehow passed down this attribute to their descendants. Test? How far must the courts go in essay, protecting sacred Indian religious rights? We will be discussing these issues later in the section on modern court cases involving Native claims to tribal sovereignty and test, self-determination.
____ The residents of St. Lawrence Island are descendants of the first Asian migrants to the so-called New World. They are Eskimoes who still stretch walrus hides on essay, wooden racks to make traditional skin boats for whale hunting every spring, since the noise of modern aluminum boats causes the whales to dive out of harpoon range. There are no island roads to speak of, so the people get around by modern dune buggies. They ice-fish and hunt deer in the winter, as well as cater to the tourists who fly over from the mainland. Takehome Essay? Their lives are a curious blend of the to do homework ancient and modern worlds. Even before man's arrival to the New World, the so-called land bridge was the route of choice for many pre-historic creatures such as the three-toed horse, the eohippus, the camel and others. Othello Takehome? And what about man's first steps onto North American land? When do scientists date his arrival and what were the conditions that surrounded his migration?
Semi-nomadic Asiatic people lived on Beringia, the subcontinent that connected eastern Siberia and Western Alaska, and contained a low basin where animals and people from northern China and favorite, Mongolia lived to flee the spread of the glaciers. It was fertile, but its existence was temporary. When the ice melted, the basin filled with water, sending its residents scurrying to higher ground. According to scientists, between 15,000 and othello essay, 10,000 B.C., the final flood began, caused by the melting ice of the huge glaciers. First the essay for adoptions western plain flooded, preventing a return to Siberia. Othello Essay Test? The only essay, choice was to travel east, into the less fertile plains of Eastern Beringia. The scene must have been terrifying:
During the evacuation, as catastrophic as anything in human experience, hundreds, perhaps thousands of people fled the plain, as biting winds blew down from the glaciers, darkening the sky with volcanic grit. Imagine families separated and children lost, a scene of confused alarm and desperate flight as the tide broke through the othello essay test straits, linking the Arctic Ocean with the Bering Sea for the first time in essay for adoptions, thousands of years, drowning the plant life, and disrupting the great animal herds. (Morgan, p. 23) These frightened refugees moved from essay test bison watering holes to marshy areas teeming with migratory waterfowl. They crossed frozen lakes and school ties essay prejudice, rivers, working their way south, not knowing what they would face or where they were going. This was the Great Migration of Early Man. These were the First Families of America. And they walked here. Some groups moved eastward into Alaska and Canada. Some moved farther south down the Rocky Mountains into Montana and Colorado where there were no more threat of glaciers. Some went as far as Mexico and takehome essay test, beyond, across Panama into Colombia, down the coast of Chile, and even as far as the tip of South America, a distance of 12,000 miles. The trip down the Pacific Coast took approximately 1,250 years, at a rate of to do homework for others, about 10 miles per year. Othello Essay? (Morgan, page 24)
The earliest American immigrants began inhabiting two continents with nobody else already there. Nobody to run them off their land. Nobody telling them to favorite, go home where they came from. They would have this land exclusively to themselves for takehome essay about 15,000 years! What they would do in America and how they would advance culturally is the on porn in america subject of our next segment. ____ The Spaniards wandered through an Indian metropolis of more than 200,000 people, and marveled at a great market that rivaled those of othello, Seveille and Constantinople. The Aztecs, polished warriors and diplomats, people of for a business, grace and othello takehome essay, manners, were a far cry from the essay the friedmans Bahamian Indians, even if they did engage in takehome essay, human sacrifice. (Fagan, page 16) Amazed residents of Spain in essays in america, the 1520s observed imported cultured Aztec nobles and performing acrobats. Curious citizens of Bristol, England watched some North Americans clothid in beastys skinnys, ate meat raw and had the manners of bruyt bestis. (Fagan, page 16) It became obvious to takehome essay, all that there was a world of difference among Indian tribes and civilizations, many of them in competition with one another.
Scholars wondered how such lifestyle and cultural differences existed among societies that lived only a few hundred miles apart from on porn each other? According to one historian, most Europeans thought of all Indians as a heathen, irreligious people in need of Christian teaching. They had come from the takehome test Garden of Eden and had not been in essays on porn, the New World for very long. The philosopher Francis Bacon summed up this view in the following quotation: 'Marvel you not at othello test, the thin population of America, nor at the rudeness and ignorance of the people, for you must accept your inhabitants of America as a young people: younger a thousand years, at essay, least, than the rest of the world.' (Quoted in Fagan, page 28) ____ There was a second early view of the othello essay test Indian, a more ominous one. Columbus also wrote of the elusive cannibalistic Caribs, who go to all the islands and eat the people they are able to capture. In Virginia, following the Jamestown colony's war against the Powhatans, a Virginia poet wrote in 1622, that the essay for adoptions Indians were. ____ 'Rooted in Evill, and opposed in Good; Errors of nature, of inhumane Birth, The very dregs, garbage and othello takehome test, spanne of Earth.' In 1711, the Virginia House of essay the friedmans, Burgesses set aside 20,000 pounds as bounty money for those who would do the colony a favor and exterpate (sic) all Indians without distinction of Friends or Enemys. (Bordewich, page 35) Except for the Iroquois of the Northeast woodlands, who created a military state to keep away neighboring tribes and takehome essay, Europeans alike, most of the early inhabitants of North America lived in small settlements, scattered throughout the continent.
At the time of Columbus discovery, there were probably fewer than 10 million citizens of North America. School Ties? Native Americans had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively…. Yet they did sometimes ignite massive forest fires, deliberately torching thousands of othello takehome essay, acres of trees to create better hunting habitats, especially for school ties essay prejudice deer. (Bailey, page 7) The fact is that the Indian population was so thinly scattered around North America that huge areas were literally untouched by human beings prior to 1492. This would soon change upon the arrival of the new immigrants, the Europeans. Colonial Times and the Clash of Cultures. The Powhatans, like Native Americans in other locations, had been the victims of several factors, each of them beginning with the letter D: Disease, Disorganization and Disposability. (DISEASE) 'they were extremely susceptible to European-imported maladies.
Epidemics of smallpox and measles raced mercilessly through their villages. (DISORGANIZATION) The Powhatans also…lacked the unity with which to make effective opposition to the relatively well-organized and militarily disciplined whites. (DISPOSABILITY) Finally … they provided no reliable labor source and, after the takehome essay Virginians began growing their own food crops, had no valuable commodities to offer in commerce. They therefore could be disposed of without harm to the colonial economy. Indeed the Indian presence frustrated the colonists' desire for a local commodity the Europeans desperately wanted: land.' (Quoted in Bailey, page 29) Not all policies toward Native Americans were as systematically cruel as De La Warr's in financial planning, Jamestown. During the othello test early period of colonization, whites and Indians lived in scattered settlements that were, for the most part, peaceful. In New England missionaries offered the financial planning Indians the opportunity to settle into praying towns where they were encouraged to essay test, pray to the Christian God. Roger Williams, the founder of essay, Rhode Island, and William Penn in Pennsylvania both fought the barbaric ways the test Indians were often treated. Williams was an for adoptions advocate of humane treatment when it was unpopular to othello essay test, be so.
During the bloody Pequot War of 1636, he had the courage to write: ____ ____ 'Boast not proud English of thy birth and blood, ____ ____ Thy brother Indian is by birth as good. ____ ____ Of one blood God made him, and thee, and essay, all, ____ ____ As wise, as fair, as strong, as personal.' (Quoted in Bordewich, page 36) Indians were often cruel to their enemies. Although it is often claimed that the whites invented scalping as evidence of having killed an test Indian, words for ceremonial scalping (as well as other forms of dismemberment) existed in many Indian languages prior to the white man's arrival. Also, there were many strictly Indian wars among cultures such as the Iroquois who fought the Hurons, and essay for my favorite, the Navahos who colonized the Hopis. The Sioux on the Great Plains ruthlessly put down and subjugated smaller groups who dared oppose their empire building. It was the norm for othello essay members of each tribe to consider themselves the People and everyone else something less. For example, the essay for my favorite teacher Catawbas of South Carolina considered other natives to be dogs or snakes and white colonists Nothings. The name Comanche comes from a Ute nickname which means those who are always against us. Othello Test? Apache comes from the Pueblo word for enemy. (Bordewich, pages 36-37) Early Policies Toward Native Americans. In 1791, the essay prejudice Treaty of Holston between the othello United States and the Cherokees warned that if any non-Indian should settle on any of the Cherokees' lands, such person shall forfeit the protection of the get paid United States, and othello takehome, the Cherokees may punish him, or not, as they please. (Bordewich, page 37) Secretary of on capturing the friedmans, War Henry Knox proposed criminal action against violators.
But the flood of settlers was unrelenting. The central government was too distant; the othello takehome test hunger for essay the friedmans land too great. So, despite treaties and government warnings, American settlers streamed into Indian lands with little regard for the law. Indians sometimes responded to othello test, the situation with an eye toward the future, realizing it was in their best interest to adapt to on porn in america, the changing times. In 1791, the Seneca chief Cornplanter wrote to Quakers in Philadelphia for financial help so that he could provide his people with the technical skills they would need in order for them to become more Americanized and less dependent on the old ways. (Bordewich, page 38) According to Thomas Jefferson and many early Christian missionaries, the essay way of the future was to teach the Native Americans the principles of property ownership, farming and essay teacher, cattle raising. In the early nineteenth century, government policy toward pacifying the Indians was to attempt to incorporate them into the American culture. Quakers, Methodists, Moravians and Baptists established model settlements along the frontier intended to attract Native Americans to a life-style in keeping with Protestant values.
Along with Bibles, church groups supplied the Indians with plows, looms, spinning wheels and livestock, often courtesy of federal funds. Christian missionaries trekked into the wilderness hand-in-hand with government-paid carpenters and blacksmiths. The whites gave religious instruction along with house-building and tool-forging skills. David Zeisberger, who committed his life to working among the Delawares, and believed that all people had the right to a place in God's family, welcomed the Native Americans into the Christian community as equal members. He noted that Those who come to Christ and takehome, join the church turn to agriculture and financial planning for a business, raising stock, keeping cattle, hogs and fowls. (Bordewich, page 39) There seemed to be a definite link between church and state policies of the time, since both intended to assimilate Native Americans into the Euro-American way of othello takehome test, life. The government's task, then, was to convince the Indians to essay, reject their old identity as antiquated and othello takehome essay test, impractical and embrace new ways and skills that would better equip them to survive in a land that was rapidly changing its identity. Among questions many Native Americans must have been asking themselves were: will it be worth it? Will the gains outweigh the losses? Is becoming a white-Indian and adopting white ways a good deal, or one that should be rejected on moral and other grounds?
Will it work? Case Study in essays on porn in america, Assimilation: The Cherokees. ____ The Cherokee nation's constitution of 1827 modeled itself after the one in Washington, D.C. It had an elected congress made up of a lower and upper house, who then chose three members of the executive branch: the Principal Chief, his assistant and a treasurer. The independent judicial branch was made up of othello, eight district courts and an appeals court. The Friedmans? There was a bill of rights, taxation laws and protection from unreasonable searches and seizures. Othello Essay Test? Their representatives created a preamble that emulated the for adoptions original: We the othello takehome essay Representatives of the people of the Cherokee Nation, in Convention assembled, in order to establish justice, ensure tranquillity, promote our common welfare, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of liberty . . Financial? . (Bordewich, page 41)
Elias Boudinot, the Cherokee Phoenix editor, was the man most responsible for westernized leadership of New Echota. He was born as Kilikeena, a full-blooded Cherokee in othello takehome essay test, 1804, and later took on on capturing, the name of his white benefactor. He was formally educated in Connecticut at the school of the American Board of Foreign Missions and even corresponded with Jedidiah Morse, who taught astronomy at Yale. After graduation, he married a white woman, then returned to Georgia, as pressure steadily increased to open Cherokee lands to white settlement. Boudinot's vision for the Cherokees was inseparably tied to a future for the United States where both would benefit. He was convinced that the survival of the Cherokee nation depended on their leaving behind the old ways in order to avoid extinction. Under Boudinot's leadership the Cherokees had adopted democratic ways and private enterprise, and pointed the way to peaceful change, a model for other tribes in partnership with the United States government. He realized how important the Cherokee model was to the future of such experiments nationwide. Takehome Test? If it should succeed, other tribes would certainly follow suit and there would be great expectations of an enlightened solution to the age-old Indian question.
If it should fail, Boudinot said, then all hopes are blasted, and for my favorite teacher, falls the fabric of Indian civilization. (Bordewich, page 43) His vision was a remarkable one. Takehome Test? In 1826, Boudinot went throughout the United States on a speaking tour to create support for for others the Cherokees. His speech, An Address to the Whites, was later published as a pamphlet. In it, he appealed to logic and spiritual reasoning: '…The world should know what we have done in the past few years (in Georgia) to foresee what yet we may do with the assistance of our white brethren, and that of the Common Parent of takehome, us all. In times of peace she will plead the common liberties of America. In times of war her intrepid sons will sacrifice their lives in your defense. And because she will be useful to you in coming time, she asks you to assist her in her present struggles. She asks not for greatness; she seeks not wealth; she pleads only for assistance to become respectable as a nation, to enlighten and ennoble her sons, and to ornament her daughters with modesty and virtue.' (Quoted in Bordewich page 43) As those who have studied our nation's history know, despite successful appeals to the United States Supreme Court, Boudinot's worst fears were realized when, in January of 1830, Georgia declared Cherokee laws null and void and essay, prohibited Cherokees from testifying in cases involving whites. Several months later, Congress passed President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal bill, which resulted in the state of takehome test, Georgia auctioning off Cherokee lands without any consultation with the Indians.
Several thousand U.S. army troops arrived in New Echota and school ties prejudice, herded the native inhabitants into stockades where some two thousand died even before the forced march began. Then, in the fall of 1838, the Cherokees started their grueling Trail of Tears to takehome essay, Oklahoma, which resulted in the death of another four thousand Cherokees from exposure and sickness. The fate of the Cherokee nation as a self-governing body was sealed. In a larger sense, with the death of New Echota in Georgia any hopes of Indian tribes having the right to decide their own fate were essentially gone. Still to come were the Plains Wars of the 1870s, the closing of the frontier, and the creation of reservations. Essentially, once the Cherokee decision was made, there would be no turning back. Independent tribal life was doomed and essay, the Indian voice was silenced. Not until the civil rights movement of the 1960s did American Indians begin to raise their voices publicly and appeal to the wider American conscience. Under increasing pressure, in 1960 the U.S. government decided to stop their decade-old policy of termination of Indian rights on reservations. (Hazen-Hammond, p. 258) At various locations throughout the United States Native Americans held fish-ins to highlight the refusal of the government to honor tribal fishing rights, public school boycotts and sit-ins. Othello Takehome Essay? In 1969, Native Americans invaded and on porn, occupied the old prison buildings on Alcatraz Island as a way of protesting government policies toward Indians. (Ibid., p. 268) Organizations such as the National Congress of American Indians, the American Indian Movement and the American Indian Historical Society were formed. Cultural museums were founded.
Important books were written such as N. Scott Momaday's House Made of Dawn, which was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1969. In the same year, Vine Deloria, Jr. wrote Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, which challenged whites to look at Native Americans and Native American history from the Indian perspective. (Ibid., p. 270) Congress and the courts began to pay attention in the l970s. Tribal members began to get compensation and reparations payments to make up for past wrongdoings done to them by the government. For example in takehome test, 1971, Alaska Natives collected $962 million under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. (Hazen-Hammond, p. 275) Other states followed suit; in 1980, the Maine Indian Land Claims Settlement Act was passed. (Ibid., p. Essays On Porn? 295) Many unrecognized tribes, such as the Mohegans of Connecticut (in 1994) received federal recognition and othello takehome essay test, reestablished their legal right to exist on tribal lands. (Ibid., p. 310) Today, the future looks bright for American Indians. Since the late 1970's Indians have made many gains. In 1978, the Supreme Court declared that the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 gives tribes sovereign power to rule within their borders. Essay? (Hazen-Hammond, p. 290) In the same year, Congress authorized funding to set up tribally controlled community colleges within their borders. In the decade of the 1980's many tribes gained the right to manage hunting, fishing and natural resources within their territories. Millions of dollars in government compensation payments have been made to tribes such as the $100 million granted the Sioux Indians in payment for the illegal government seizure of the Black Hills in takehome test, the 1880s. Also, $29 million in for my teacher, compensation for unsound federal accounting practices have been awarded to tribes such as the Blackfeet.
Tribes now have a major say in the development of energy resources on their lands and takehome essay, have received the right to tax mining operations, as a result of a 1982 Supreme Court decision. (Ibid., p. 296) In 1985, the Supreme Court permitted tribes to levy business and property taxes on their lands, without any interference from the get paid homework Department of the Interior. (Ibid., p. 300) Then in 1987, the Court opened the door for othello takehome test casino gambling on Indian reservations (California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians), when it allowed tribes to negotiate with states in setting up casino operations. (Ibid., p. 302) Pro-gambling and anti-gambling factions are split on school ties prejudice, the benefits and drawbacks of gambling. In terms of takehome essay test, Indian culture and history, in in america, 1990 Congress declared that all museums in the U.S. are required to make an inventory of Indian human remains, sacred artifacts and cultural objects. (Hazen-Hammond, p. 305) Important items would then be turned over to tribes that claimed them. Museums such as the Peabody in New Haven have been required to return objects permanently borrowed from Indians. For example, the Omaha Indians of Nebraska, in othello essay, 1991, reclaimed and reburied ancestral remains on their lands, and received back the Sacred White Buffalo Hide from the essay Museum of the American Indian. Othello Takehome? The number of cultural festivals and powwows are on the rise. Native American culture is being celebrated widely and freely.
Indians in some states, supported by activists in the Native American Church, have won the right to use and transport the traditional hallucinogenic drug peyote on tribal lands. In America? (Ibid., p. 306) Among the San Carlos Apaches, medicine people predict the takehome Anasazi Indians will return from their home in get paid to do, the Big Dipper and create a renaissance of Native American beliefs and life. (Quoted in Hazen-Hammond, page 314) I recently visited the state-of-the-art Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center in Ledyard, Connecticut. I could not help wondering if this prophecy was in partial fulfillment, at least in our local area. Are more and more Americans taking more of a genuine interest in who Indians are and why their history is so unique as first Americans? Hopefully this teaching unit will spark interest in othello essay, both teachers and on capturing the friedmans, their students to put away a romanticized notion of who Indians were and begin to inquire into who they are and why their history and culture is of such significance in takehome test, our pursuit of who we are: Americans all. I close with a quotation by Chief Blackfoot, the on capturing the friedmans Mountain Crow leader who spoke at a peace council in Montana in 1873: ____ 'We always give the Great Spirit something. I think that is takehome test good.
We see the sun, we give him something; and the moon and business, the earth, we give them something. We beg them to take pity on us. Othello Takehome Essay Test? The sun and moon look at us, and the ground gives us food. You come and see us, and that is why we give you something. Essay For My Teacher? We are men like each other; our religion is different from yours.' (Quoted in Hazen-Hammond, page 168) 1. To make students aware of recent court cases involving Indian rights; 2. To cause students to prepare for a debate and defend their position;
3. To encourage students to learn in small groups; 4. To prepare and give a classroom presentation to other students. 1. Students are assigned one of several topics of takehome essay test, current interest in in america, Indian communities; 2. They are divided into groups of takehome essay test, four or five students and each is given a Background Issues sheet, describing the pros and cons of each issue. 3. The group then decides how to proceed in preparation for their presentation to the rest of the class. Options include: · a short dramatization, · a courtroom simulation, · a role play where different spokesmen present their views; · a visual presentation, where students prepare a visual display to illustrate factual information Procedures:
1. The teacher prepares a Recent Issues Sheet handout for each group. (See below) Topics may include but are not limited to financial planning for a business, the following: · Casino Gambling · Hunting and Fishing Rights · Peyote Use and Religious Freedom · Artifacts and Burial Remains · Reservation Mismanagement · Powwows (cultural festivals) 2. Students use the teacher prepared handout to get them started. They may use the Internet and other information available to them. In their presentation the issues for debate must be clearly presented by both sides. 3. Othello Essay? They must try to come up with a solution to the problem that both sides can agree to. If not, have the class vote on a solution to the problems. (How should the government respond to essay, the Issue under discussion?) 4. Students will prepare a first draft to hand in to the teacher, along with evidence of further research, prior to each group's classroom presentation. ____ Pros include: Increased tribal revenues Increased job opportunities, both for tribal members and Connecticut citizens Cons include: Deterioration of tribal values, replaced by greediness and commercialism Dangers of organized crime involved.
Is the takehome essay state willing to lend us money to essay for adoptions, develop our land into a. public recreation area for boating, fishing and camping? Is the test state willing to give us unrestricted hunting and fishing rights within reservation land according to our traditions? Is the state willing to allow us to sell hunting and fishing permits to essay on capturing the friedmans, Connecticut residents who want to hunt or fish during the othello takehome essay regular season? ____ State Concerns: What guarantee would the prejudice Mohegans make to be able to repay the state for takehome loans made to improve their lands? Unlimited hunting and fishing would threaten to eliminate all wildlife and fish from the area. How would this be prevented?
There would be a loss of revenue to the state if Indians sell hunting and fishing licenses that the state would otherwise sell. How would the state share in money charged to Connecticut residents? ____ ____ Obstacles: State laws would need to be changed to make exceptions for Indian lands. There are costs to funding these projects. Any plan affecting land use needs to be environmentally acceptable. Should Connecticut tax funds be used to help the Mohegans develop their tribal lands in planning for a, a way that would benefit them? Is this project something the taxpayers should support or oppose?
Why? ____ Note: Similar Recent Issues Sheets could be developed for essay test each topic. There are various ways the homework for others teachers and othello takehome essay test, students may choose to present both sides of these issues. See narrative section for a fuller description of issues. LESSON: Understanding the Indian Mind. 1. To acquaint students with some of the famous Indian leaders of the past; 2. To familiarize students with some of the enduring ideas expressed by these leaders; 3. On Capturing? To discuss reasons for the statements made by othello test these individuals in an attempt to understand the context for these remarks; 4. To get into the heads of the individuals who spoke for others as well as themselves and create empathy with them.
5. To remind students that difficulties in communicating across cultures still exists today among peoples of the friedmans, different racial and cultural backgrounds. (native Americans and immigrant Americans, for example) ____ ____ 1. Takehome Test? Introduce the lesson by reminding students that Indians often suffered and were killed for essay on capturing no reason other than the fact that they were in the way of progress. What good is progress if in the process we treat innocent people as obstacles and forget that they are human beings? Were there solutions available other than the trail of tears or outright extermination and starvation? Why weren't they put into place? What does this tell us about the character of many of our citizens? ____ ____ 2. The Indian leaders we will discuss were different from one another in appearance, personality and othello takehome essay test, culture. Get Paid? As we read these quotations, ask yourself: · What is the attitude of this person (defiant, sad, resigned, philosophical)? · Are there events causing this person to speak as he did? · What values does this person express? · Who was this person's audience? · Be able to summarize in your own words what the speaker was really saying. Procedures: 1. The teacher prepares students for takehome test this lesson by handing out the Quotation Sheet: The Indian Mind (below) for homework the night before discussion in class. Essays In America? Students should pick three of their favorites to othello, summarize in their own words and be prepared to read their summaries.
2. Pick students to read one of their summaries to essay for my, the rest of the takehome essay class. They should tell why this quotation appealed to them. Ask other members of the class to comment until most of the quotes have been discussed. 3. Financial Business? After asking the questions about several quotes above (under Methods #2) the teacher can give some of the remarks context by explaining who the person making the quote was and the circumstances behind the remarks. Essay Test? 4. Ask the students to write a page essay, entitled The Indian Mind in the 1900's using several quotations as illustrations to be read in essay, class.
A. Brother: We are of the same opinion with the people of the United States; you consider yourselves as independent people; we, as the original inhabitants of this country, and sovereigns of the soil, look upon ourselves as equally independent, and takehome essay, free as any other nation or nations. This country was given to financial business, us by the Great Spirit above; we wish to enjoy it, and have our passage along the lake within the line we have pointed out…. Othello Takehome? We have told you our patience is worn out; but not so far, but that we wish for peace, and on porn in america, whenever we hear that pleasing sound, we shall pay attention to it. --Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant) Mohawk leader, at a council with whites, 1794. B. I have done the white people all the essay test harm I could.
I have fought them, and fought them bravely. If I had an army, I would yet fight, and contend to the last. But I have none. My people are all gone. I can now do no more than weep over the misfortunes of my nation. --Red Eagle, Creek leader, surrendering to Gen. Andrew Jackson, 1814. C. The Great Spirit made us all-he made my skin red, and yours white; he placed us on this earth, and financial business, intended that we should live differently from each other. He made the whites to cultivate the earth, and feed on domestic animals; but he made us, red skins, to rove through the othello essay test uncultivated woods and plains; to feed on wild animals; and to dress with their skins. He also intended that we should go to war…cultivate peace at for adoptions, home and promote the happiness of othello test, each other.
--Petalesharo, Pawnee leader, speaking to President James Monroe, 1822. D. They are now running their plows through our graveyards, turning up the bones and ashes of our sacred dead, whose spirits are calling to essay for my favorite, us from the land of dreams for vengeance on the despoilers. Will the descendants of takehome essay test, Nanamakee and our other illustrious dead stand idly by on porn in america and suffer this sacrilege to be continued?… The Great Spirit whispers in my ear, no! --Black Hawk, Sac leader, speaking to his people in takehome essay, April 1832. E. If among the whites, a man purchased a piece of essay for adoptions, land, and othello essay, another came upon it, you would drive him off. Let the Sioux keep away from our lands and there will be peace. --Keokuk, Sac leader, at a council in which Sioux and Sacs accuse one another of encroaching on each other's lands, October 5, 1837.
F. This is our war. We have more right to complain of you for interfering in prejudice, our war than you have to quarrel with us for continuing a war we had begun long before you got here. If you will act justly, you will allow us to othello takehome essay, settle our own differences.--Sarcilla Largo, Navaho leader, complaining about interference from the U.S. Army in the long-standing battles beween Hispanic and Navajo New Mexicans. November 21, 1846.
G. Essay For Adoptions? Revenge by young men is othello takehome test considered gain, even at the cost of essay, their own lives, but old men who stay at home in times of takehome essay, war, and mothers who have sons to lose, know better. --Seattle, chief of the essay for adoptions Suquamish and Duwamish, 1853 or 1854 H. Why should I mourn at the untimely fate of my people? Tribe follows tribe, and nation follows nation, like the waves of the sea. It is the order of nature, and regret is othello takehome essay test useless. Your time of decay may be distant, but it will surely come, for even the White Man whose God walked and talked with him as friend with friend, cannot be exempt from the common destiny. We may be brothers after all.
We will see. --Chief Seattle, 1853. I. Your friend is your enemy. --Saying among the San Juan Paiutes, as a reminder that the only people you can really count on the friedmans, are family. J. When I was young, I walked all over othello essay test, this country, east and the friedmans, west, and saw no other people than the Apaches. After many summers I walked again and found another race of people had come to take it…. The Apaches were once a great nation; they are now but few, and othello test, because of the friedmans, this they want to takehome, die.
--Cochise, Apache leader, at a peace council, September 1866. K. I once thought that I was the only man that persevered to be the friend of the white man, but since they have come and school essay prejudice, cleaned out our lodges, horses, and everything else, it is hard for me to believe white men anymore. --Black Kettle, Cheyenne leader, October 12, 1865. ____ L. The Great Spirit made us both. Othello Essay? He gave us land and he gave you land.
You came here and we received you as brothers. When the Almighty made you, He made you all white and essay for my favorite, clothed you. When He made us, He made us with red skins and poor. You do not know who appears before you to othello essay test, speak. He is a representative of the original American race, the first people on this continent. We are good and not bad…. If we had more lands to give you, we would give them, but we have no more.
We are driven into a very little island, and we want you, our dear friends, to help us with the Government of the United States. --Red Cloud, Sioux leader, speaking to a white audience at Cooper Institute in New York, June 16, 1870. ____ M. Essay The Friedmans? A long time ago this land belonged to our fathers; but when I go up to the river I see camps of soldiers on its banks. These soldiers cut down my timber; they kill my buffalo; and when I see that, my heart feels like bursting; I feel sorry. I have spoken. --Santana, Kiowa leader known as Orator of the Plains, in takehome essay test, 1867) Allen Paula Gunn. Voice of the Turtle: American Indian Literature, 1900-1970.
New York: Ballantine, 1994. A collection of fascinating stories geared toward middle and high school readers. Deloria, Philip J., et al. The American Indians: An Illustrated History. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, 1993. A classic photographic work which students should find difficult to put down. Dockstader, Frederick. Essay? Indian Art in America: The Arts and Crafts of the othello North American Indian. Essay Teacher? Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1961.
Beautifully done. An excellent resource for possible art projects. Eastman, Charles Alexander. Indian Boyhood. Reprint edition. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991. Warm and personal story of Dr.
Charles Eastman who grew up Sioux, was educated at Dartmouth, and became nationally and internationally known. Flemming, Paula R. and Luskey Judith. The North American Indians in Early Photographs. New York: Dorset Press, 1988. An excellent resource to essay, familiarize students with Indian life and culture. Fascinating pictures of Indian ceremonies, dress, dwellings, hunting, warfare and family living. Gridley, Marion E. Contemporary American Indian Leaders. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1972. Short biographies of twenty-five men and women who struggled to overcome prejudice and poverty to become spokespersons for their people in the twentieth century. Hauptman, Laurence M. and Wherry, James D., eds.
The Pequots of Southern New England. Norman Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma Press, 1990. For students who want to know more about the history of a Connecticut Indian tribe known for its recent prosperity and philanthropy. Hazen-Hammond, Susan. Timelines of on porn in america, Native American History. Through the Centuries with Mother Earth and Father Sky. New York: Perigee Books, 1997. A fascinating chronological account of events, including court decisions.
An excellent resource for students who need to find information about othello takehome essay important events and quotations by famous Native Americans. Contains brief histories of over 30 tribes. Utley, Robert M., and Wilcomb E. In America? Washburn. The American Heritage History of the othello takehome essay Indian Wars. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1987. Many familiar paintings and photographs that bring home the ultimate consequences of for adoptions, Manifest Destiny.
Willis, Velma. Takehome Essay? Two Old Women: An Alaska Legend of Betrayal, Courage, and Survival. Financial? New York: HarperCollins, 1994. For students who enjoy adventure stories set in the Alaskan wilderness. Bordewich, Fergus M. Killing the White Man's Indian.
Reinventing Native Americans at the End of the Twentieth Century. New York: Doubleday, 1996. Well-researched and takehome essay test, detailed, the author exposes stereotypes of Indians, past and present. Describes tribal issues today in the context of the virtual revolution that is occurring in Indian communities across the nation. I relied on this book extensively. Barton Lois. A Quaker Promise Kept: Philadelphia Friends' Work With the essay for adoptions Allegany Senecas 1795-1960. Eugene Ore: Spencer Butte Press, 1990.
An eye-opening perspective on American missionary work with the Indians in Pennsylvania. Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs and Conditions of othello takehome essay, North American Indians, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover Publications, 1973. Classic resource for essays on porn in america the study of Indian cultures in the United States. Couthlin, Ellen K. Takehome Essay? Returning Indian Remains. The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 16, 1994. In light of recent court decisions, what various museums have done to essay, comply with the law. Deloria,Vine. Custer Died for your Sins.
Norman Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma Press, 1969. Classic book that challenges Americans to look at Native Americans and othello test, their history from the perspective of on porn, Indians. Fagan, Brian M. The Great Journey. Othello Essay? The Peopling of Ancient America. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1987. Well-researched study that traces the path of America's earliest immigrants.
Indispensable to my teaching unit. Contains over 125 illustrations and financial planning business, photographs. Fedullo, Mick. Light of the Feather: A Teacher's Journey into Native American Classrooms and Culture. New York: Anchor Books, 1992. Contains ideas for student projects, based on primary sources. Hazen-Hammond, Susan. Timelines of Native American History.
New York: Perigee Books, 1997. A gold mine of othello takehome essay, quotations, facts, tribal histories, biographies, Indian legends and symbols. Essay The Friedmans? Appropriate for student research. Othello? (See Student Bibliography) Jaimes, M. Annette, ed. The State of essay for adoptions, Native America.
Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. Boston: South End Press, 1992. Over sixteen contemporary writers and historians discuss tribal sovereignty and othello test, legal issues such as water and fishing rights, religious freedom, and ties, education. Well-documented and footnoted. Jennings, Francis. The Founders of America. New York: W.W. Norton and othello essay test, Company, 1993.
Contains over 30 pages of photo-illustrations and maps. Discusses the theories of immigration, the essays on porn challenges to settlement, the building of civilizations, and the history of cultures in othello, conflict. Includes a chapter called Immigrants in Their Own Country. Morgan, Ted. Wilderness at Dawn. The Settling of the North American Continent. New York: Simon and essay on capturing, Schuster, 1993. Follows a typical United States history textbook chronology, from othello before the Land Bridge migration to the description of how people lived on the various frontiers that have existed in North America, including Frontiers in Collision and the Black Frontier. Well documented and illustrated.
Passell, Peter. Foxwoods, a Casino Success Story. New York Times, August 8, 1994. Chronicles the story of the Mashantucket Pequot renaissance in Connecticut. Sarf, Wayne M. God Bless You Buffalo Bill: A Layman's Guide to History and the Western Film. East Brunswick, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, 1991. Contains helpful suggestions regarding the discussion of films that stereotype Indians.
Woods, Wilton. American Indians Discover Money Is Power. Fortune, April 19, 1993. Discussion of the get paid homework sweeping changes that have affected reservation life due to casino gambling.
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The Wife of Martin Guerre by Janet Lewis. “An impossible dilemma” by Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Articles, 2016) Time and essay place (the political, religious and social context of the 16 th century feudal society) are critical to the denouement of Lewis’s plot and the understanding of her main protagonists. The feudal structure is “maintained so strictly and upon so large a scale by these peasants of Artigues” (13) that it determines the social hierarchy and influences all relationships. It also determines the pattern of relationships between Martin Guerre and his father and Martin and Bertrande de Rols that will have a significant impact upon on capturing, the married couple’s life.
During his father’s lifetime, Martin remains “legally a minor” and othello essay subservient to the “absolute head of the house” and the “cap d’hostal”. Homework For Others. Any liberty that he might enjoy “was to be enjoyed only othello takehome test under his father’s rule”. The father, who resembles “some Homeric king”, “some ruler of an island commonwealth who could both plough and fight” is the bedrock of this social, religious and school political system and represents “both authority and security”. The entire household, including servants, wife and children depend upon him for their livelihood, and if the “farm is safe” then the “whole world was safe and as it should be” (17). In such a hierarchical order, the father’s absolute authority should not be questioned and takehome essay he expected “strict obedience and on capturing reverence” from those in othello takehome test, his charge. He is at times bold and violent, but also kind and authoritative. In his turn, Martin “resembled his father” and members of the household, and indeed readers, expect him to follow his absolute rule. In this regard, Martin exhibits a degree of “smothered resentment” as well as “impatience” but Bertrande instinctively knows that he “will make a protector for this family as like his own father as two men well may be, and for essay prejudice that thanks to God”. Thus his subsequent departure comes as a shock. In such a strict patriarchal society, women are treated as second class citizens.
They are dependent on their husbands, who protect them, provide for takehome essay them and essays take responsibility for them. Legally and socially, men were in charge. The French philosopher, Montaigne, reflects this view when he claims, “a man had the right to beat his wife and othello takehome test could get away with murder in homework for others, the case of adultery.” He cites an example of a women in Bergerac who threw herself off a bridge because she could not bear her husband’s mistreatment. The marriage between Bertrande and Martin is othello essay, a marriage of convenience. On Porn. They are both married as children (Bertrande is 11 years old) and Bertrande had never spoken to Martin.
In fact, she didn’t even know of the marriage. During the affair, the “small bride received very little attention.” The marriage has been prepared for the two youngsters, two generations ago. Their main aim is to ensure ‘dual prosperity’ between the families. The marriage is governed by economic considerations. “Marriage was not a sentimental affair… marriage was a means of productivity: of crops, goods, and children for the future.” The union between Bertrande and Martin conveniently settles the “intense hatred” and the longstanding feud that had developed between the two families (de Rols and Guerre) and othello takehome essay peace is get paid to do homework for others, eventually restored. Not only is Martin a stranger to Bertrande prior to othello essay test, the wedding, but she is at school essay prejudice first scared, frightened and othello takehome essay test unsure of her relationship with him. As time unfolds, she is grateful that “he leaves her alone”. Essays In America. There is othello takehome, no love and scarcely any affection between them. Her mother-in-law teaches her the affairs of the household. Essay. Note that she only “directs”.
She does not have any authority. The strict social order limits women’s choices and opportunities and for Bertrande, it is not only restrictive but, as she will gradually discover, inherently unjust. At the outset, Bertrande is othello takehome essay, aware of her limitations. She works within the confines of the system and becomes aware of her place in a social and political system that perpetuates the place, the prosperity and school ties prejudice the honour of the family. “More than ever she understood her position in the household, part of a structure that reached backward in time towards ancestors of othello takehome essay, whose renown one was proud and forward to a future in which Sanxi was a young man”. Bertrande’s relationship with her in-laws is set out from the outset. When Martin’s father, the embodiment of get paid to do for others, authority and feudal law, he stands in the doorway to “wish his children a formal goodnight”, his features become “exaggerated in the flare of the torch” which reflects her awareness of his power.
He has an “expression of great seriousness” and she comes to realise that “henceforth her life lay beneath his jurisdiction” (8) She also learns through her relationship with Madame Guerre to show unquestioned allegiance to this male embodiment of takehome essay, power. She does not dare to question his actions even if she thinks they are extremely harsh, such as the violent asault. “She did not protest against her husband’s severity”. At first, dawning upon on capturing, Bertrande that her life is dependent upon takehome, his authority, (it “lay beneath his jurisdiction”), she becomes overwhelmed and alarmed. Typically, Lewis describes the setting in the kitchen in such a way as to reflect Bertrande’s feeling of entrapment. “The door closed behind him. The unglazed window was also closed, but between the leaves of the shutter a draught came which shook the flame of the torch. Otherwise the air was still and dead. The floor was bare, and the room was unfurnished …” (8). The only time she does try to break out she is financial business, scolded. For example, on her wedding night she explores the Guerre household and enters a corridor that seems to be prohibited (7).
Martin reprimands her. “He cuffed Bertrande soundly upon the ears.” She learns that she is not entitled to roam freely and that Martin can control her, even violently, with impunity. Whilst she gradually becomes more comfortable and accepts her role, there is a degree of takehome essay, joy and security. But as Lewis, suggests, in a foreboding tone, “the estate which was to for adoptions, bring her so much joy” also brings “such strange and unpredictable suffering” as Bertrande is thrust into a position wherein she must question the secure and safe authority of the establishment. In this regard, Martin’s insubordination becomes the takehome essay test, source of her suffering and the two parallel acts of disobedience precipitate the chain of events that will undermine any solace she will ever experience. Although Martin clearly feels obliged to follow in the footsteps of the cap d’hostal, his acts of insubordination work against him.
While both acts differ – one being of an individual nature and the other socially motivated – both compel him to make his life-changing decision. Firstly, his adventures with the bear hunt clearly undermined his farm duties, and went “against paternal authority”. Without telling anyone about his plans, Martin “had risen early and gone off to join the hunters”. Financial For A. He returned, and “depositing his booty before his father” made excuses for his absence. Although conditioned to accept his father’s authority and takehome test the “justice” that is meted out to him, there is a sense that he is startled by its severity. The fact that Madame Guerre also “caught her breath” suggests that the punishment is harsher than expected. However, both mother and essay son believe that, no matter how harsh it was, it was also “just”, which shows the general acceptance of paternal authority. Despite his two “broken” teeth and an aching jaw, Martin realises that it was the father’s right to deal out punishment because “I didn’t ask him if I might go”.
At the same time, he realises that he joined the bear hunt in a spirit of othello takehome essay, exuberance, and get paid to do homework for others he was prepared to takehome essay test, take the get paid to do homework for others, punishment because of the thrill of the othello takehome test, hunt. “(It was well done, was it not to essay on capturing, kill a bear?”). This first act influences the second, as Martin does not want to suffer the othello essay, same brutality after planting the remaining wheat. Martin took from his father’s granary, without his father’s permission, “enough seed wheat to get paid to do for others, plant the half of his field” Martin believes this was a sensible act as the seed would go to waste but it is an act that undermines his father’s authority, which is to “put aside whatever grain I need from my own harvesting” (23). Although Martin’s actions would benefit the community, he knows his father will be outraged, and he is not prepared to stay and test suffer what he believes are the undeserving consequences. Martin hopes that his father will eventually recognise the wisdom of his decision and that he will prove his own worthiness. For A. “It is done for the good of the house – he will see that” (23). He decides to absent himself for at least “eight days”. These acts of insubordination also cement the emotional bonds of the young lovers who become “a camp within a camp”. Bertrande is aware of takehome essay, a split in her allegiances as she sides with Martin, rather than with the essay on capturing, admirable harsh and just authority of the father. Thus begins the sequence of events that have “singled out Bertrande de Rols from the peace and obscurity of othello takehome, her tradition”.
Bertrande’s solitude and Martin’s absence. When Martin leaves, Bertrande’s life changes as she struggles to cope with her solitude and for adoptions raises her child, Sanchez. Still in the full beauty of her youth, she has to suffer with the father’s displeasure because he believed that she shared in Martin’s plan. She copes with the takehome test, fading of her hope and learns to live with despair. After the death of her in-laws, she starts to essays on porn, realise that she is capable of running the household and performing responsible tasks. Martin’s absence weighed upon the whole family (27) His mother died and then in the fourth year after his departure, the father died (28) Death is not just a vague possibility; it becomes real. “Death was something that not only could happen but that did happen.” Previously she was “too young to believe in test, the reality of death”. (29) Bertrande sees a stranger and imagines Martin; she is financial for a business, filled with emotion and then disappointment (30) At first Bertande was joyful at the return of her “husband”.
Everyone is in othello takehome essay, good spirits and essays on porn it seems fortuitous that he is “better” and takehome “nicer”. “When she sees him working in the field she is filled with a piercing joy” (45). She experiences “a vividness of feeling” because of her “love for this new Martin Guerre and because of the delight and essay health of her life-giving body”. Increasingly, Bertrande struggles with her emotions as she gradually falls in love with her new husband, Arnaud du Tilh. After an absence of eight years, she rejoices in his love and companionship. “Gladly she surrendered the responsibilities of the takehome essay test, farm to for adoptions, her husband’s care and essay test surrendered herself to his love.” “From having been a widow for eight years, she was suddenly again a wife.” Bertrande enjoyed the lively conversation and the music in the house. She also loved to watch her son, Sanxi as he enjoys having a father: he “grew manly in the companionship of a hero.” For a while, Bertrande enjoys her husband’s newfound kindness and gentility. However, she is intuitively worried. Sometime after the imposter settles into the household, Bertrande gives birth to essay prejudice, a daughter who dies an hour after birth. Bertande suffers both physically and emotionally. Her almost still-born child symbolises the othello takehome, death of on porn in america, her relationship to the imposter.
It signalises a change from takehome essay, joy to despair, and from happiness to guilt as she begins to examine her conscience. Confronted with an impossible dilemma, Bertrande knows she must challenge the patriarchal authority but she also knows from conditioned behaviour that this can be self-defeating. School. She becomes isolated and takehome essay test depressed. The still-born birth of her daughter symbolises the deterioration in Bertrande’s relationship with the new “Martin” and her belief in his imposter status. When she confesses her worst fears to the priest, Bertrande realises that the priest values Arnaud more than Martin. He believes it is on porn in america, possible for a person to change for othello takehome essay test the better and Martin deserves this chance. He wants Bertrande to think carefully about school ties essay prejudice, her accusations. For Bertrande, a shadow of suspicion, the “shadow of sin”, lurks behind her love. If he were an imposter she has unknowingly committed a sin and her sin weighs heavily upon her conscience . “I am imposed deceived, betrayed into adultery. (47) ” She relies solely on essay test the strength of her convictions. Her search for the truth is very difficult because no one, except Uncle Pierre, believes her.She challenges the priest and the sisters, who are angry that she wants to take him to court.
They believe that it is only “the truth for her” (73) The imposter and his mistaken identity. Upon “Martin’s” return, Bertrande is plagued by mixed emotions. She recalls the stranger , then her “loved husband” and then someone who was not the young Martin Guerre (35). Martin appears surprised at her beauty. Get Paid To Do For Others. Uncharacteristically, he is not anxious at her outburst and essay test rapprochement (37) She enjoys Sanxi’s growing and spontaneous attachment (39) The estate prospers (40) Bertrande is pregnant (41) Her fears increase: she worries that he may not be the “true Martin”; she stifles her fears and rejoices, but the on porn in america, shadows keep returning. At first the othello takehome, “better/ nicer” Martin makes Bertande happy as she enjoys a more fulfilling and ties happier relationship. She realises he would never have spoken so “gaily to his own son” (42). She fear’s God’s punishment, but “this is also punishment in itself” She asks him for “proof of his identity” (42) She finds that he only resembles his father in “flesh”. The imposter challenges her: why does she dismiss his change, his wisdom and his kindness: “A man can change.” (43) She is suspicious of his “gift of the tongue” (43) She tries to rationalise her suspicions as confusions arising from her pregnancy; it could be a “delusion” (44) Her happiness is constantly tinged by test, suspicions; she is plagued by a shadow of sin and danger (46)
Unknown (Inadvertent) deception and the friedmans betrayal; Gradually she becomes convinced that the othello takehome essay test, new Martin is an imposter. (47) This has serious consequences for their relationship. She asks him to leave (52) and he becomes angry just like the true Martin. He appears to have learnt well. School Prejudice. She experiences mixed emotions: both passionate hatred and fear (53) The soldier from Rochefort accuses Martin of being a fraud (55) She refuses contact with Martin. At the court, Bertrande rehearses the three conversations: of the priest, the sister and the housekeeper (75) She believes that Martin must be dead. She worries whether it would have been better just to live with her shame (76) She broaches the question of his identity with sisters who are affronted (49) and othello essay ask that she does not consider it again. The sisters also are angry that she wants to take him to court. They believe that it is essay, only “the truth for othello her”. (73) There is a great deal of dissent among the sisters after his arrest. (64) The sisters urge her to reconsider (“how can i deny the truth”).
They say, “it is only the truth for you, not for us; for essay favorite the truth that none of us believe, you would destroy us all. We shall never be happy again. The farm will never prosper again. (73) Housekeeper and othello takehome the dove – Nothing “goes well for us” (74); the blood dripping from the bird becomes a symbol of their demise. “I would have you still be deceived” Bertrande shows enormous courage in challenging the priest’s view which is reflected by ties, those in the household. He clearly does not approve of othello essay, her quest to expose the imposter. (50) The Priest praises Martin’s kindness and defends his change of spirit. (49).
During her discussion with the priest after Martin’s arrest, the in america, priest urges her to withdraw the charges. (72) The imposter confesses to the Priest that perhaps he it would have been better to leave. (59) The priest gives him permission to leave (otherwise it would seem an admission of guilt) and advises him to take the “sum of money” that was left “with your uncle when you were a boy”. (60) With a “wry smile”, Martin prepares to leave and to purchase the gift. (60) Uncle Pierre, whose authority is othello takehome essay, simple and direct, is the last defender of the planning, old authority of her husband’s house (77); it is devoid of the subterfuge of superfluous charm and keeps them “in a secure and othello takehome wholesome peace”. Uncle Pierre begins to believe her, especially regarding the sums of money. The money had been used for the fields. (61). School Ties Essay. He asks permission to accuse this man of his crime. Fighting against the resistance on the farm, Lewis suggests, is critical to Bertrande’s personal growth. It tests, strengthens and determines her resolve. Killing the dove, the takehome test, housekeeper makes Bertrande aware of just how much is at stake – the loss of peace. Essays On Porn In America. Bertrande realises that that in exposing the imposter she will be disturbing the peace and takehome essay test the bliss of the family and to do possibly killing a “peaceful” imposter.
As Bertrande watches the dove dying in her housekeeper’s hands, she realises just how hard it is to takehome essay test, fight against for adoptions, the desires of the takehome essay test, family. She learns from the housekeeper that it is preferable to continue with the way things are. Killing the essay for adoptions, innocent white dove, and watching the “blood drop by drop leave the weakening body” Bertrande also feels her own “strength drop slowly like the othello takehome essay test, blood of the dove”. Looking into the “affectionate brown eyes of her housekeeper, Bertrande becomes aware of her desire for essay favorite teacher peace and othello essay its symbolic loss. “Madame, I would have you still be deceived. We were all happy then.” Lewis notes that the housekeeper “laid the dead dove with the others and stopped to pick up the for adoptions, dish of blood”.
The deliberations of the trial proceed at first in Arnaud’s favour. But upon the appearance of Martin Guerre, who lost his leg before St Quentin in the year ’57 (88) all is lost. Martin is typically severe and harsh in his judgement (*91) and accuses Bertrande of bringing his name into disrepute. Martin proves to be prophetically similar to the father when his intransigent character is revealed at the trial. He tells Bertrande that her error of judgement is her fault and has been caused by “wilful blindness.” She is takehome essay test, responsible for the “dishonour which has befallen me”. Unfortunately, Bertrande is the one always at the mercy of a cruel and essay for adoptions heartless world which is ruled by othello takehome essay, successive cap d’hostal figures. Arnaud testifies to her beauty that brought about his change to an honest man. Arnaud’s heavy spirit clearly reveals his later comments that his transformation was to be accredited to her beauty and love. “Can you not marvel now that the rougue, Arnaud du Tilh, for your beauty and planning business grace, became for three long years an honest man.”
Exploring her soul, Bertrande “feels great emptiness but a sense of freedom”. She is free of both passions for both men: the love which she had been forbidden and the love which had rejected her (92), but truth costs her dearly. She cruelly suffers the rejection of test, Martin whose name she had tried to clear (92). Essays On Porn In America. Lewis foreshadows Bertrande’s decline: “but when hate and love have together exhausted the soul, the body seldom endure for long.” (93) Accordingly, Lewis invites readers to witness the othello essay test, significance of Betrande’s moral and religious dilemma that promises no happy ending for the main protagonist.
She is dammed by both the imposter who subverts the strict patriarchal system and seeks to set her free, and by Martin who tragically perpetuates the Old Martin Guerre’s harsh regime that delivers a harsh judgement.
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The ‘ Eid Al Kabir’ otherwise called ‘ Eid Al Adha ’ is a transliterated Arabic word which means ‘Feast of Sacrifice’ or ‘ Major Festival’ and ‘ Eid Al Fitr’ mean ‘Lesser Eid ’ or ‘The Festival of test Breaking of Fast’. For Muslims, both festivals. Allah , Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr 1285 Words | 4 Pages. wearing perfume and going to the mosque or a place of congregation for Salat, a form of prescribed prayers. The dates and days of celebration are set . according to the Islamic calendar. Three of the greatest festivals in Islam are Eidul Fitri, Eidul Adha and Al -Hijra. One of the greatest festival in Islam is Eidul Fitri, which is one of the most meaningful events for Muslims all over the world. It is celebrate every year in the month of Syawal in Islamic year.
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Culture , Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr 421 Words | 2 Pages. Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: ??? ????? ‘Idu l-Fi?r?), often abbreviated to Eid , is a three-day Muslim holiday that marks the end of . For My Favorite Teacher. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of takehome test fasting (sawm). For Adoptions. Eid is an othello essay Arabic word meaning festivity, while Fi?r means conclusion of the fast; and so the holiday celebrates the to do conclusion of the thirty days of takehome dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The first day of Eid , therefore, falls on the first day of the essay for adoptions month Shawwal. Eid -ul-Fitr Salat (Namaz in Urdu/Persian). Bayram , Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr 7128 Words | 23 Pages. computer lab, gymnasium, library, and prayer room. Essay Test. They recently had a fire in essay on capturing the computer room.
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Al Capone , Debut albums , Elie Wiesel 1393 Words | 3 Pages. ? Al -Shabaab or the “Youth” terrorist organization HLSS June 9, 2013 The organization . Al -Shabaab, or The Youth, is an takehome essay al -Qaeda-linked group and U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization fighting for the creation of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Somalia.i The group, also known as Harakat al -Shabaab al -Mujahideen, and its Islamist affiliates once held sway over for a Mogadishu and major portions of the Somali countryside, but a sustained African Union. Al-Qaeda , Hassan Dahir Aweys , Islam 1878 Words | 5 Pages. Abd al -Malik ibn Marwan Abd al -Malik ibn Marwan, (646 – 8 October 705) was the essay 5th Umayyad Caliph. He was born in Medina, . Hejaz. `Abd al -Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler, despite the many political problems that impeded his rule. 14th century Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun states: `Abd al -Malik ibn Marwan is essay on capturing one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs. He followed in the footsteps of `Umar ibn al -Khattab, the Commander of the Believers, in regulating state affairs. Abd al -Malik. Abd al-Malik , Ali , Caliph 1551 Words | 5 Pages. Al Jazeera – Case Analysis History and othello essay test, Current Growth Al Jazeera was set up in the mid 1990’s by Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa . Al Thani.
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There are only two Muslim festivals set down in financial planning for a business Islamic law: Eid -ul-Fitr and Eid -ul- Adha ( Eid or . Essay Test. Id means festival). There are also several other special days which Muslims celebrate. Al -Hijra (1 Muharram) The Islamic New Year’s Day. This festival commemorates the Hijra (or Hegira) in 622 CE when the essay for my favorite Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) moved from takehome essay test Mecca to Medina. This was the beginning of the for a growth of Islam into a world faith.
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law school on resume Writing your law school personal statement is a daunting task. But at takehome least you can quickly realize that you don’t have to boil your entire life down into get paid homework, two pages – you can tell a single story that had a profound impact on you. The resume, on the other hand… You have one page to tell me what you’ve done with your life. Go. A lot of people view the law school resume as superfluous. While it doesn’t carry the weight of othello other elements, it does represent a whole lot more.
You’ll be showing the law school what type of essays in america student you are, what you spent your time doing, and othello essay test, what accomplishments you can list. It sets the essay for my, tone of your life, and if it doesn’t create a good impression, admissions officers will be going through your law school application with a sour taste in their mouths. So how can you make a great resume? Key #1 to takehome, a Great Law School Resume: Cut anything from high school. You were captain of your school’s baseball team and drove a sweet Camaro. Good for essay you. Now cut that stuff from your law school resume. If you have high school achievements on your law school resume, schools will think you peaked in takehome, high school (which is get paid homework for others, just sad). They’ll also view you as immature, since you’re lending more weight to things than they should have. Unless it’s an othello takehome essay test Olympic medal, it’s gone.
Key #2 to essays, a Great Law School Resume: One page. Seriously. I’ve edited hundreds of resume going to othello takehome test, law schools. Two of them have warranted a second page. One person had spent a decade doing missionary work overseas. Business! The other was a decorated military veteran. If you aren’t either of takehome test these people, get it down to one page.
I don’t need a description of your job as an essay teacher administrative assistant. Takehome Essay! I don’t need to know what programs you worked with when you were managing payroll. Let me know what you spent your time doing, and financial planning for a, leave it at that. Key #3 to a Great Law School Resume: This is an academic resume. What’s this mean? Your academic achievements should be highlighted.
Education information up top, cut work achievements to fit in academic ones, and include relevant coursework/papers if you need to fill in some space. Key #4 to a Great Law School Resume: I don’t care that you’re good at MS Word. Throwing a section in the bottom letting me know that you’re proficient in Word, Excel, or Powerpoint is a waste of space. Including an Objective section is a waste of space. I assume you’re proficient in Word at a level that law school work requires because you’re submitting an test essay written in Word. Essay! I know your objective in applying to law school – to get into essay, law school.
That being said, I almost always recommend including an Interests section. You never know who’s going to share your love of crafting homemade butter churns and become a cheerleader for essay you during the test, process. Key #5 to a Great Law School Resume: Add depth to your other elements. A resume should create depth to the rest of your law school application package. Talk about your desire to go into public interest? I better see something on your resume to back this up. Want to essays on porn, use your degree to go into some type of corporate law? (*cough* sell-out *cough*) Make sure to othello takehome test, highlight your internships and role in your school’s business club. Whatever you talk about in your personal statement should be backed up in essays on porn in america, the resume. Check in next week for othello takehome essay some law school resume formatting tips! Photo Credit: W Nicolai Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) I did Running Start, a program that allows Juniors and essay prejudice, Seniors in high School the opportunity to essay, take college classes, and school, graduated High School with my AA.
Due to test, this should I include information about my high school activities during those years? I am 33 years old and business, applying to law school. I will graduate with my Bachelor degree in May, 2014, and essay, work full-time. In America! I have actually been pursuing my education since 2003, with 4 years off between 2006 and 2010, and othello takehome, have always worked full-time. My jobs during my periods of to do homework for others education have been law-related (for example, I’ve worked as a paralegal at a medium-sized law firm for the last 4 years), but those during my hiatus were in Human Resources. Should I include ALL of my work experience while attending school since 2003, or just the takehome essay test, law-related jobs? Definitely focus on the law-related jobs, but feel free to include any others that required helpful skills necessary for law school. To add to what Hank said: Most law schools will ask for get paid homework for others your full work history through the LSAC’s online application.
So you can make your resume shorter and more focused, since they’ll be able to see your full work history anyway. I have previously qualified and takehome essay, worked as a lawyer in Ireland. However in 2009 my son was diagnosed with autism. I have been out of the profession since then , being a stay at home parent and caring for his needs. Essay! I am now in a position to return to law.
I have since moved to the USA and am anxious to apply to othello essay, law school. I am unsure though how to essay for adoptions, address the previous five years in essay, my resume and/or statement. Congratulations on returning to homework, the profession. Othello Takehome Essay Test! If you’re anxious about the gap in your resume, my advice would be to get paid to do, consider the work you’ve done with your son as a strength. Use your personal statement or optional essay as an opportunity to be forthcoming about why you made that choice and what perspective you’ve gained from it, particularly if it’s influenced the way you view the law in some way. That pure fact alone, absent any additional context, indicates to othello, me that you’re a loving and for adoptions, responsible father, which is certainly not going to hurt your application.
As an older (and foreign) applicant, your resume is already going to look much different than the undergrads who you’re competing with, so don’t sweat about it too much – just state your life experience as honestly as possible. The fact is that you have a unique and othello takehome essay, compelling story, and that can certainly be advantageous in your applications. Take a look at these articles, which may be helpful in financial for a, formulating your statement: Any advice would be appreciated.thank you. I just completed a mission trip called The World Race. Takehome Essay! We went to on porn in america, 11 countries in 11 months partnering with local ministries and organizations. In each country we did different work (visited orphanages, taught English, cleaned neighborhoods, spoke at takehome essay churches, helped with children’s programs). How should I address this in my resume? Should I include it as part of my experience so that I can elaborate or add it to community work? If it’s part of my experience, how do I adequately describe it?
First of all, sounds like a great program. Essay! Either way, it’s going to othello essay, look good on your application. As to specifics, if that’s pretty much all you’ve been doing for the last 11 months, I’d say it’s fair to include it in your work experience – otherwise it will look like you’ve been twiddling your thumbs for school ties essay prejudice a year at first glance. However, if it was something along the lines of one weekend per othello test, month for 11 months, it probably belongs in your community service section, since describing at ‘work’ might come off as disingenuous. Another variable to weigh is the strength of different facets on your resume.
You want to essay, look well-rounded, so if your resume is othello takehome, lacking on other forms of community involvement, it might behoove you to place it in to do, that section either way. I have read from essay test multiple sources that the essays in america, best practice for essay law school resumes was to have around 2 pages to go more into detail about various honors organizations, work experience, etc. I originally had my resume at 1 page as you suggest but I recently went into more detail after hearing from various counselors, law school websites’ suggested best practices, and online forums that a longer resume than a 1 page job application resume is preferred. Why is there such conflicting information on this front? Thanks for your help. It’s unlikely that your resume is going to be the thing that makes or breaks your law school application either way. On Porn In America! So don’t stress about it TOO much. But the reason many people suggest trying to keep your resume to essay test, one page is because it forces you to essay on capturing, edit yourself; law schools simply don’t need to know that you were drum major in high school, or that you were the Chipotle Employee of the Month in June 2009. Takehome Essay Test! That kind of stuff is a waste of their time.
You want to present information that is productive and relevant. Most law school applicants don’t have two pages worth of essay the friedmans experience that fits those criteria. So we recommend you shoot for takehome essay test a one page resume for financial the same reason that you don’t start your personal statment with the sentence “I spent the first two years of my life learning English.” If you think you have more than one page of essay test distinguishing accomplishments, by all means submit a two page resume. Essay Teacher! Our advice isn’t so much as “ONE PAGE AND ONLY ONE PAGE” so much as it is “be judicious.”
I had to put law school on hold for a couple years to take care of my grandmother who was diagnosed with cancer. I decided to take on a job as my grandmother’s home health aide. I have put home health aide in othello test, my resume, however, I’m worried law schools will not take that job as serious as others who graduate after college taking on careers. Also, the other jobs on my resume are not very serious, career driven jobs, such as being a server, sales associate, attendant, house staff, etc. Is there something I can put on my resume that will not make my resume look down on? My personal statement is already written.
It does not go into details about my job choices. First, that’s a very noble thing that you did, and you should take pride in it. Don’t try to essay on capturing, diminish your choice in takehome, any way. On the essay the friedmans, flip side, don’t try to exaggerate your accomplishments — that’s a slippery slope that can get you into trouble down the line. Your work history is your work history, plain and simple. There’s no magic resume bullet. You have some options.
If the schools you’re applying to accept optional essays, you could take that additional space to takehome essay, go a little bit deeper into why you chose to take care of your grandmother and what you gained out of it. Alternatively, you could revise your personal statement to focus on that choice. Essay On Capturing The Friedmans! And finally, if you’re extremely concerned about your work history, you can delay your applications to the next cycle to gain some more work/volunteer experience. But honestly, resumes are a small part of the admissions puzzle. If you nailed your LSAT and othello takehome, have a solid undergraduate GPA, a light resume won’t hurt you much, if at all. I worked full time as an ties essay prejudice assistant manager at a convinence store for all 4 years of college.
This didnt allow much time for any other law related internships or voluneer work. Essay! After college I joined the essay for adoptions, Army for 4 years. Now as im preparing for law school, I have the feeling of not being able to put together a strong or relevant resume. Any suggestions? So I am actually an Active Duty Military member and I was wondering if I should put some of the military awards I’ve gotten one the resume (like Leadership awards, meritorious promotions, medals, etc.) or is this type of test information better left off the Law School Resume? Thanks for any help. Yes, you absolutely should.
I’ve been out of college for 5 years, mostly working for get paid to do for others and volunteering for nonprofits relevant to the work I want to do as a lawyer. Othello Essay Test! However, during those 5 years I also held outdoor educational, waitressing and administrative jobs to pay the bills while I volunteered. Do I need to account for every job I’ve held since college? If I don’t include them, will admissions officers look askance at the gaps in work history? My current job is excellent and what I want to focus on in the resume, but I don’t want to planning business, omit things I should be including. It’s probably a good idea to include at least some of those other jobs, both to give depth to the resume and to answer any questions about how you’ve been spending your time. That said, as Matt mentioned in takehome essay, the post, you don’t need to provide a description for those types of jobs unless there’s something worth noting. Also, if you’ve had a lot of those side jobs, I’d suggest picking just the jobs that you had for the longest period of time.
You’re right that the volunteer experience that is more relevant to law school should be emphasized — you could even do “relevant experience” and “other work experience” sections. So, the tl;dr is that it would be good to mention those other jobs as space permits, but definitely not at the expense of highlighting the more directly applicable volunteer experience. I worked both a full-time job as a bartender and a part-time job as a kitchen worker in a sorority house for essay for my the last 3 years of undergrad. Some people have been telling me to leave it off of othello takehome my law school resume because they aren’t “real jobs.” But I feel like it shows that I at least have some time management skills. Any thoughts? I’d say include it — not only does it show that you have time management skills, but it also serves to make your GPA (whatever it may be) look even more impressive. Hello, I am a junior in get paid to do homework for others, Rutgers University majoring in global business management and othello essay, i am applying to top 25 law schools in the U.S. Teacher! My gpa is takehome essay, 3.83 and essay the friedmans, my last is 173/180. I am on deans list for all 3 years and a member of 2 honor society’s. However I have had only 2 internship experiences over the summer and essay test, 1 extrenship.
Is that enough? My goal is for adoptions, Columbia Law school. In high school I was an Eagle Scout and I also was a regional officer for a youth group which regularly had me plan all the essay test, logistics and schedule for weekend long and week long events for 50-400 attendees and give public speeches. I was flying all over financial business, the country for othello takehome test this, and it was a huge time commitment, that really taught me to work on a team, how events are run and gave me a lot of speaking time. Should I include these two things on my resume? They seem pretty big. I have them after my two internships and the friedmans, my senior thesis. Also, where is the best place to address interests and othello, how should relevant course work be highlighted? Hi Chase. I think it’s great to essays on porn, put both of those things on your resume unless it pushes it over takehome, a page. Admissions officers read literally thousands of resumes, and planning for a business, you want to keep yours punchy and othello, not too dense.
I think you can choose to list interests or not. If an interest is not relevant to law school or the for adoptions, practice of law, then it should probably end up on the cutting room floor. And, really, the interests important to law school ought to takehome essay test, get some kind of mention in on porn, your personal statement. Again, with relevant coursework, if there’s room in your resume, it’s fine there, toward the bottom. Essay Test! Otherwise, I don’t think it’s terribly important. So I feel like I’m in a unique position in that my decision to apply to law school is a total career change.
I studied journalism and essay, worked as a reporter for four years before making the leap this summer, quitting the paper and taking a job as a paralegal. Naturally, my resume will be all my newspaper jobs and takehome essay, internships in college at media companies except my new job and a recent start with the local ACLU chapter. How can my resume be strong despite the severe lack of law-related jobs/organizations/internships? Law schools operate on homework the assumption that they’re taking people who don’t know anything about law and making lawyers out of them. So, while they certainly like to othello takehome essay, see legal experience when you have some, a whole bunch of time in a law office doesn’t necessarily mean a lot more to them than experience elsewhere. Instead, what they want to know is that you’ll be a good student with a strong work ethic. So, if your resume reflects that, it might be considerably stronger than someone who had a law office job for school ties essay six months. One last thing, it might be good to mention in your personal statement how your work in journalism relates to takehome test, your ideas about law school and practicing law. On Capturing! If you’ve been a journalist and now work for the ACLU, it seems like you’d be a good First Amendment scholar, which might look better than a stint as a legal assistant.
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