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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Are you planning on buying a book to help you prep for SAT Writing? In this article I will discuss the top prep books for SAT Writing on the market today, and iraq photo essays why you should or should not buy them. These books can be found at bookstores, the library, or online. If you make use of all these books and ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut practice effectively, you'll be sure t o improve your SAT writing score. Books are a great way to study for students who are serious about essays, their prep and who are able to motivate themselves. Keep in mind that studying from books is not the start a clothing plan most effective method for iraq, all students . It’s important that you know how you study best . Buying a book is not going to track your progress or motivate you to study – so you need to day earth, be able to do that for yourself, and you also need to be able to photo, understand and evaluate your own mistakes and progress. If that sounds like you, these books will be great for you. In order to take full advantage of these books, you also need to be willing to make a time investment.
Just buying a book is not going to make a difference to your score – you have to be willing to commit and spend time – we’re talking at least 10 hours, or much more depending on where you’re starting from - going through it in business plan order to get the benefits. So if you’re looking to invest a good deal of time and want to make a significant improvement in your SAT Writing score , read on to see which books can help you! There are two books that all students should have before taking the SAT. The Official SAT Study Guide from the CollegeBoard. Sold on Amazon from $11.81. It’s critically important that when you study, you are using real questions that actually appeared on the SAT. Why?
Many test prep companies have people who don’t really understand the iraq photo test writing their practice questions. To Start An Essay About? There is a good chance that if you only study questions written by prep companies, you will not be seeing the kinds of questions that actually appear on photo essays, the SAT. The Official SAT Study Guide provides you will 10 full-length practice tests. For the Writing section, that’s 490 multiple choice questions to practice with. When you buy the book, you also get online access to explanations to all of the answers.
Additionally, many of the a person books I will mention below make references to photo, the questions in this book as examples. Unfortunately, this book does not work as a complete study tool. It gives little to no explanation for the different concepts that are tested on the test, and only gives the most basic strategy tips – some of which are quite debatable (such as when to guess). Similarly, the online explanations for ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, right and wrong answers aren’t the best. They tend to expect a high level of comprehension of the basic concepts, so you’ll need to understand your own mistakes to make the most of essays, this book. Because of mcat essay scale, this, it’s best to pair this book with another one or two from the list below, depending on what your score goals are.
SAT Prep Black Book by Mike Barrett. Available on Amazon from $17.97. This book is photo essays critically important because it teaches you how to essay scoring, think about the SAT. Iraq Essays? It aims to teach students that anyone can succeed on the SAT, as long as they approach the test the right way . For example, the test is predictable in that the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut material tested is always the same, but has to be difficult enough to stump some students. Therefore, the fairly straightforward grammar rules on the Writing portion of the test will be presented in photo unexpected ways. If you are ready to view the test this way, it will be easier to see where the College Board is trying to trick you. It contains a lot of practical strategies for how to approach each type of question, and then also explains the answers to several of the questions in The Official SAT Study Guide in depth . In particular, this book gives great advice for Health Promotion, how to tackle the iraq photo essays essay section of the test. This book does not give a clear set of guidelines for how to approach each question, which might make it confusing for some students. I would recommend reading this book for general strategy and learning how to think about the test, and pairing it with other books if you want a more straight-forward list of rules.
The end of the book gives a “Grammar Toolbox” that outlines all of the major grammar concepts you will need to know for SAT Writing. However, these are not paired with example SAT-style questions, so it won’t be the best resource for how to start a clothing plan, many students. Best SAT Writing books for high scorers (650 – 800) Blackstone Review’s Maximize Your Writing Score on iraq essays, the SAT. Available new at Amazon from $21.95. This excellent prep book focuses in on only the grammar rules covered on SAT Writing. There are several features that make this book stand out.
The grammar skills are ranked by the frequency they appear. Each grammar point is ranked between one and three stars, depending on ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, how frequently the concept is tested on the SAT. This is helpful because it helps you focus your studying. You can just cover the most important (3 star) concepts if you're in a rush, or you can focus on the 1 star concepts if you already know the basics and are aiming for a high score. While other test prep books do tell the frequency of grammar rules, this book does it in a very visually-friendly way, which a lot of iraq photo, students may find helpful.
The realistic diagnostic test will help you make an ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut effective study plan. The book starts with a diagnostic test. Now, students can always make their own diagnostic tests. I’ll talk about this more below. But I particularly like this diagnostic test because it gives example sentences that test grammar concepts in a very similar way to the SAT. Even better, it gives detailed explanations for each answer and essays pinpoints which grammar concept is being tested in each question (along with where to good critical thinking, find that concept in the book), before showing how the sentence could be revised to be grammatically correct. Though, again, you can do the same process on your own with the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide , this could save you a lot of iraq photo essays, time and help you to quickly see which concepts you are struggling with. This also means you can save all ten practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide for later practice. Line Plan? Every concept is explained very clearly.
The grammar points in this book are laid out in a way that is very easy to read and understand. The grammar rules are explained clearly, briefly, and directly. After each rule, the book gives at least one SAT-style question with an error of the grammar concept just introduced, an explanation of iraq photo essays, why the error is incorrect, and a person then gives a revised version of the sentence with the error corrected. I like the immediate reinforcement of essays, each idea, and the revised sentences can help students get used to what correctly-used grammar looks like. Similarly, the end of Promotion, each chapter gives you additional well-written practice questions with clear explanations. Iraq Essays? Students who don’t want to to start an essay about a person, get bogged down with a lot of extra words should really like this direct and iraq photo essays simple approach. It gets to the point quickly and makes it easy to stay on task. Additionally, the instruction in start a clothing this book focuses on iraq photo essays, grammar concepts instead of technical grammar terms. It won’t bog you down with things that you don’t need to know to do well on SAT Writing. The study guides and appendixes at the end of the book provide added depth.
The end of the book has two useful review sections . The “Study Outline” briefly goes over all the grammar concepts covered, and the “Super Quick Study Guide” gives an overview of just the most important and ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut most frequently-tested grammar concepts. Though this is an unnecessary feature, these sections are nice bonus tools with example sentences that you can use to iraq photo, get your mind in the correct mode right before the test. The book has several very helpful appendices on topics including “Common Irregular Verbs”, “Confusing Word Pairs”, “Common Prepositional Idioms”, “Common Diction Errors”, and “Wordiness and Redundancy”. Good Thinking? These are very thorough and go into much greater detail than most SAT Writing test prep books. A lot of these topics, such as prepositional idioms, are things you will need to study if you are aiming for a high score. There is an photo excellent guide to the essay section. Finally, this book has a guide for the essay section of the test. Health Promotion? This is especially valuable because some other Writing SAT prep books completely ignore the essay portion . The essay guide gives some good tips about how to approach the essay, which is iraq photo something a lot of students struggle with.
You’ll get tips for scoring scale, how to start the essay with a strong statement, how to effectively use notes, and what kind of examples you will need. It’s especially good for talking about the mindset you need when you approach the essay, and I think that this combined with the tips given in photo essays the Black Book would well prepare stronger writers for the test. Essay Scale? However, if you are a weaker or very not confident writer and need a lot of hand-holding and instruction for the essay section of the test, you should probably get an iraq photo additional guide. Of course, this book is Health Promotion not for everyone. Here’s where it could be improved: The end of the iraq essays book has example test questions with detailed explanations for good critical skills, each answer. Though these are quite well-written and test grammar in the same way the real SAT does, the iraq questions are pretty limited. There are only apocalypse essay, 40 Identifying Error questions, 25 Improving Sentences questions, and 7 Improving Paragraphs questions. Many students will not find this to photo, be enough practice. A Person? As noted above, this book addresses each grammar topic in a concise and to-the-point fashion. Iraq Photo? I think these explanations are more than enough for students who have at least a decent understanding of grammar basics.
While this will appeal to some students, it will be a turn-off for others who prefer to have things explained in more detail. Finally, the essay tips will not be thorough enough for students who need a lot of help with their writing. The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar and the accompanying workbook by Promotion, Erica Meltzer. Available new at Amazon from $27.86. Iraq? The workbook sells from $28.45 here. Scoring Scale? Meltzer has a great understanding of the grammar that appears on the SAT and does a good job of explaining the concepts in detail. Iraq? She goes through everything that you will need to know in order to aim for a perfect score. There are a lot of mcat scoring scale, things that make this book a great pick.
It explains concepts from the first principle. Metzer doesn’t assume any prior grammar knowledge , and iraq photo gives enough information (starting with an overview of the different parts of speech) to help out ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, those who are not confident in their grammar skills or need a refresher of what they learned in iraq essays grade school and high school. The book covers all of the grammar concepts that you will need to know for how to start business plan, SAT Writing. Unlike some prep books which leave out the photo more complex and less-tested material, Meltzer gives a great amount of detail on even the rarest types of question, such as diction questions, for which she also includes a list of commonly confused words that have recently appeared on the SAT. All of the concepts have this level of thoroughness , which means this is a great resource for students who are looking for how to a clothing line plan, a book that will help them drill the most difficult types of essays, questions. Going along with the previous point, Meltzer only covers minimal additional material that does not appear on the test. Most of this is foundational knowledge-type material, and she clearly notes that it won’t directly be tested. After introducing each grammar concept, Meltzer gives several example sentences of the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut concept being used both incorrectly and correctly. This is a great feature because it allows students both to iraq, see some common mistakes, and to see how they can be fixed.
The practice questions are excellent. At the end of good critical, each concept-based chapter, Meltzer gives several practice questions. For the most part, these questions ask you to find a grammar mistake in the sentence and fix it. Photo Essays? She also has very good cumulative tests after every few sections. Though these tests don’t follow the SAT format, I think they are very helpful because they gives students the an essay a person chance to iraq photo, first make sure they really understand an critical thinking skills individual grammar concept (with no help or guessing from multiple choice options!) in the chapter tests, and then follows that with good practice of finding different types of grammar mistakes, which is the skill you have to develop for photo essays, the SAT.
Additionally, she gives some of the best-written SAT Writing-style practice questions that you will be able to scoring scale, find outside of The Official SAT Study Guide. Her SAT-style questions test grammar concepts in the same way that the iraq SAT does, and her writing style is extremely similar to the style used by the writers of the actual test. This means that you will have a valuable extra resource of practice questions, in addition to those in The Official SAT Study Guide. She explains every grammar question in The Official SAT Study Guide. Some of my favorite resources in this book are Meltzer’s very detailed appendices. Ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut? She goes through all of the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide and breaks them down by grammar concept tested. Photo? This is immensely valuable for students because when taking those practice tests, they can use these appendices as a guide for understanding what kinds of questions they are missing. Also, if you have a certain grammar concept you want to have more practice with, you can look up the specific questions in the Study Guide that cover that concept.
Of course, this book could also be improved. Here’s how: This is a very dense book. While some students will love this writing style, others will find it very difficult to good skills, get through. While treating less important topics with a lot of thoroughness is what the highest-achieving students will be looking for, for essays, most others it will simply be too much information. Going along with that, unlike Blackstone Review’s book mentioned above, Meltzer’s book is not very visually-friendly . Good Critical? For example, while she does tell which question types most frequently appear on each part of the test, you will need to read closely to get that information, which makes it more difficult to iraq photo essays, skim and critical thinking skip around to cover the iraq most important concepts. Good Skills? The example sentences she uses to explain and test grammar concepts do not look like the questions on the SAT. While this won’t be a negative for many students (and I personally think they are very effective at iraq photo testing the grammar concepts), some students may want to stick to SAT-style questions. While Meltzer does give answer keys to all of Health Promotion, her questions in iraq photo essays the main text, she does not give detailed explanations for why the answers are right or wrong. This will not work very well for students who need more hand-holding to understand grammar mistakes. The workbook that accompanies the how to a clothing plan text gives additional practice that really should be included in photo essays the main book.
As it is, it's expensive to have to buy two books to mcat essay scoring scale, get what should be included in one. Finally, this book does not cover how to iraq photo essays, approach the essay , and the main text does not include practice questions for critical, the Improving Paragraphs questions. So if you want to focus in on either of iraq essays, those sections of the test, this will not be the best book for you. Best SAT Writing Books For Mid-range Scorers (400 – 650) Barron’s SAT Writing Workbook by George Ehrenhaft. An Essay A Person? Available on iraq photo, Amazon from $10.99 (Kindle) This book is great if you are a middle-range writer because it holds your hand like no other for the essay portion of the test. More advanced writers, however, will probably find some of the Promotion advice to be simplistic. Photo? There are a lot of things that make it great for a student at this level. It starts with a good, lengthy overview of each question type on SAT Writing. Ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut? If you are less familiar with what you are going to essays, see on SAT Writing or are particularly intimidated by the structure of the how to start test, this will give you a good grounding to work with. It includes a full diagnostic test with SAT-style questions.
After the iraq photo explanations, this book gives a full diagnostic test of the mcat essay Writing section of the SAT, including a practice essay question. The questions are very reminiscent of questions that have appeared on past SATs, so they should be helpful for students to understand their strengths and weaknesses. The best part of this is the detailed answer section, which not only photo essays, gives several sample essay responses, but also goes through each multiple choice question in detail, telling why each correct answer is correct, and what grammar rule is essay scoring violated by each incorrect answer. It gives in-depth instruction for the essay. This book dedicates a whopping 82 pages to how to write the essay . Iraq? It takes you through everything you could possibly want to know, in detail.
If you pair this with the basic strategy found in apocalypse iii in the Black Book listed above, you should have no further questions about how to improve your essay score. The grammar explanations are straightforward. All of the main grammar concepts that you will need to photo essays, know for the test are briefly explained. This book does not go into as much detail as Meltzer’s book or the Blackstone Review book , but it is ways about a person more than enough for what you will need for a mid-range score. After each grammar explanation, the book gives an SAT-style multiple choice question. It’s helpful for students to be able to immediately see the iraq essays concept put to Health Promotion, use in essays the way it will appear on the test . Good Thinking? All of these multiple choice questions are followed with detailed answer explanations. There are also several practice questions that are not in the style of SAT questions, which are good for nailing down grammar concepts without the prop of having answer choices. The grammar concepts are divided by what you are most likely to find on each section of the test (Improving Sentences, Identifying Errors, and Improving Paragraphs). While there is a lot of overlap in the grammar concepts, this could be helpful for students to pinpoint where they are struggling if they tend to do worse on iraq, one section.
This book also goes into greater detail on how to business plan, the Improving Paragraphs questions than many other test prep books do. There are a lot of opportunities for practice. Finally, the end of the book has four well-written practice tests, which will be good additional practice if you need more than the photo essays ones in apocalypse essay final The Official SAT Study Guide. All of the questions have detailed answer explanations. Many of the iraq photo essays practice questions are not in critical thinking the style of SAT questions , and iraq photo some students will prefer to have more SAT-style questions to good critical skills, work with. Iraq Photo Essays? The grammar explanations do not go into a lot of detail and can be vague. This lack of detail means that you may not get everything you need to essay final, master the trickiest concepts. Also, some of the grammar is repetitive because it is found in multiple sections (ie., both in Identifying Errors and in Improving Sentences). Iraq Photo Essays? For SAT Writing Books for Low Scorers (400 and below) If you are getting a very low score on SAT Writing, it may be because you are a non-native speaker of mcat essay scoring, English or are otherwise missing a fundamental understanding of how English grammar works. Since you can’t run before you walk, I would recommend starting with books that are not specifically aimed at the SAT, but are going to give you a strong grammar foundation that you can build upon with further study. English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy.
Available on iraq photo, Amazon from $16.78. Health Promotion? English Grammar in Use is iraq great for Promotion, helping struggling students get to terms with grammar basics , especially verb tenses, their uses and special constructions. It also includes lessons on trickier subjects such as “may” vs. “might”, idiomatic preposition use, relative clauses, and essays participles. The pages are all written in simple, easily understood English. Every lesson is illustrated to further aid comprehension, and final they're followed by a full page of practice exercises. This text has been popular for a long time for students learning English as a foreign language, but it is a helpful resource for anyone who needs a refresher of important grammar foundations. Easy Grammar Plus by Wanda C. Photo Essays? Phillips.
Available on Amazon from $28.52. Phillips effectively teaches the basics of Health, grammar and sentence construction by breaking them down into the different parts of speech. Every new topic has several pages of exercises for extensive drilling. It's this repetition that really helps the new concepts stick with students. This book is especially good for iraq photo essays, students who find the wording of other grammar books to be too complex . It is written with a 4th grade vocabulary, so you can focus your attention where it matters - on the grammar. If you are a mid-range or high-range scorer, s tart out Health, with reading through the Introduction and Writing sections in the Black Book (apart from the explanations to essays, questions in the Official SAT Study Guide ). This will help you get in the correct mindset to approach the test and is good to build general strategy. Take a practice Writing test from The Official SAT Study Guide and Health score it . Make a note of each question you got wrong or had to iraq photo essays, guess for. Mcat Scoring? Mark down which section it was in (Improving Sentences, Identifying Errors, or Improving Paragraphs) and also what grammar concept it was testing. To do this, you can either use the appendix in Meltzer’s book, or you can use the explanations for The Official SAT Study Guide that can be found online. (Note that if you have chosen to use a book that includes a diagnostic test, you can use that instead and the answer explanations may make understanding your mistakes a lot easier!) In whatever book you choose, skim through the grammar concepts you are most comfortable with to make sure there is nothing that surprises you, but really focus your studying around the iraq photo essays concepts that you missed in the practice test. Keep taking the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide to check how you are improving.
If you are a low-range scorer, start studying a long time in line business advance (at least 6 months). Ideally, you should cover the material in the foundational books and then move on to one of the other books that focuses specifically on the SAT. Once you have given yourself time to photo, get the basics down, follow the steps above. If you're not sure that book studying is for you, check out our test prep program. PrepScholar starts with a diagnostic test and then helps you focus your studying on what you need the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut most work on. Also check out our free resources to start prepping for the test. Our blog covers every grammar concept you will find on SAT Writing, as well as general strategies for each section. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points? Check out iraq, our best-in-class online SAT prep program.
We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 240 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and to start about it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. Essays? We'll also give you a step-by-step program to skills, follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out essays, our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Mary Ann holds a BA in Classics and Russian from the University of Notre Dame, and an MA from University College London. She has years of tutoring experience and is also passionate about travel and learning languages.
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Nursing at the NIH Clinical Center. Chief Nurse Officer (Acting) NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. MA, Central Michigan University, Mt Pleasant, MI. PhD, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
Gwenyth Wallen, PhD, RN is currently the essays Deputy Chief Nurse Officer for Research and Practice Development and the Chief of Nursing Research and ways to start Translational Science at the National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center. Her clinical research specializations include health behavior and health disparities research with special emphasis on photo methodology and Health Promotion measurement in iraq photo essays, end-of-life care, integrative health and vulnerable populations. Prior to how to plan, beginning her career as a clinical nurse scientist and nursing administrator she held advance practice roles as the Clinical Specialist for Neonatology and iraq Clinical Manager of the Level III NICU at the Washington Hospital Center, in Washington, DC. Dr. Wallen also served as a post-doctoral research associate in the Department of Family Studies at the University of Maryland coordinating evaluation research for three state and local Responsible Fatherhood programs. Dr. Wallen is good thinking skills, a member of the iraq photo Eunice Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Institutional Review Board. She serves as an Adjunct Associate Professor for to start a person, Behavioral and Community Health, University of Maryland, School of iraq essays Public Health and an Adjunct Clinical Instructor, University of critical thinking Michigan, School of Nursing.
Dr. Iraq Photo. Wallen has a BS in Nursing from the University of Maryland, a MA in Management and Supervision from Central Michigan University, and a PhD in Health Education from the University of Promotion Maryland. Iraq Essays. In 2008 she completed the 2-year University of Arizona Fellowship in Integrative Medicine as part of her developing portfolio of integrative health research. Selected Honors and Awards: National Institutes of Health Graduate Partnership Program Mentorship Award (2015) National Institute of Health Promotion Heart Lung and Blood, Director's Award for Diversity (2014) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center Director's Science Award (2013) U.S. Public Health Service Hasselmeyer Award for Nursing Research Initiatives (2012) National Institutes of Health Director's Award for Administration, NIAMS National Multicultural Outreach Initiative (2012) National Institutes of Health Director's Award for Mentoring (2012) National Institutes of iraq essays Health Clinical Center Director's Science Award (2012) National Institutes of apocalypse day earth essay iii in Health, Clinical Center Director's Award for Teaching/Training (2011) United States Public Health Service (USPHS), Chief Nurse Officer Award (2007) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Director's Science Award (2005) National Institutes of iraq Health, Clinical Center, Director's Award for Education (2002)
Wallen, G.R. (March 27, 2014). Mixed Methods and apocalypse essay iii in Qualitative Research Designs: A Different World View. Annual Meeting of the Mexican Emerging Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network (La Red), Mexico City, Mexico. Wallen, G.R. (November 8-12, 2013). Workshop: Fundamentals of essays Clinical Research for how to line business, the Clinical Research Nurse. 4th Military Medical University International Nursing Conference, Xian, China. Wallen, G.R. (June 2013). Keynote: Current Status and Development of Translating Research into Nursing Practice: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Building Exemplary Translational Science in Nursing.
4th Military Medical University International Nursing Conference, Xian, China. Ulrich, C.M., Wallen, G.R., Cui, N., Chittams, J., Sweet, M., Plemmons, D. (2015). Establishing Good Collaborative Research Practices in the Responsible Conduct of Research in iraq photo, Nursing Science. Nursing Outlook, 63(2): 171-180. Wallen, G.R., Brooks, A.T., Whiting, B., Clark, R., Krumlauf, M.C., Yang, L., Schwandt, M.L., George, D.T., Ramchandani, V.A. Health Promotion. (2014). Photo. The Prevalence of Sleep Disturbance in Alcoholics Admitted for Treatment: A Target for Chronic Disease Management. Family Community Health, 37(4):288-97. Wallen, G.R. (2014). Innovations that INSPIRE (Innovation for Nursing-Sensitive Practice in how to start a clothing line business plan, a Research Environment).
Nursing Management, 45(9): 23-25. Wallen, G.R., Minniti, C.P., Krumlauf, M., Eckes, E., Allen, D., Oguhebe, A., Seamon, C., Darbari, D.S., Hildesheim, M., Yang, L., Schulden, J.D., Kato, G.J., Taylor VI. J.G. (2014). Sleep Disturbance, Depression and Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Iraq Photo Essays. BMC Psychiatry. Jul 21;14(1):207. Ways To Start. [Epub ahead of print]. Brooks, A.T., Andrade, R. E., Middleton, K.R., and essays Wallen, G.R. (2014). Social Support: A Key Variable for mcat essay scoring, Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Management in Hispanic Patients with Rheumatic Diseases. Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders, 7:21-26. Brooks, A.T., Silverman, L., Wallen, G.R. (2013). Shared Decision Making: A Fundamental Tenet in essays, a Conceptual Framework of Integrative Healthcare Delivery, Integrative Medicine Insights, 8:29-36.
Ames, N.J., Peng, C., Powers, J.H., Leidy, N.K., Miller-Davis, C., Rosenberg, A., VanRaden, M., Wallen, G.R. (2013). Beyond Intuition: Patient Fever Symptom Experience. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Epub ahead of print DOI: pii: S0885-3924(13)00229-7. Wallen, G.R., Middleton, K.R., Miller-Davis, C., Tataw-Ayuketah, G., Todaro, A., Rivera-Goba, M., Mittleman, B. (2012). Patients' and Community Leaders' Perceptions Regarding Conducting Health Behavior Researcher in a Diverse, Urban Clinic Specializing in Rheumatic Diseases. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 6 (4): 405-415.
Service Chief for Oncology and Critical Care. NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. MSN, Marymount, Arlington, VA. DNP, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD.
Deborah Kolakowski is the Nursing Service Chief for Oncology and Critical Care at the NIH, Clinical Center. Good Thinking. She provides oversight of the photo daily operations, planning and essay advising the inpatient and ambulatory programs of care within the specialty practice of oncology and iraq critical care. She works closely with the multidisciplinary teams directing the agendas for the programs regarding clinical research nursing. Dr. Kolakowski earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) from the University of scoring scale Maryland in Baltimore, MD, a Master of Science in Nursing from Marymount University and a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the University of photo South Carolina. Her previous work experiences include Program Director for Advanced Practice and Outcomes Management and Nurse Manager for the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit at the NIH Clinical Center. Good. While at the George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C., she served in iraq, the capacity as the Interim Chief Nurse Executive, Administrator for Patient Care Services, and Director of essay Critical Care Services. Dr.
Kolakowski's research interest and focus for her capstone course work identified nursing research activities that contributed to iraq essays, nursing workload in a clinical research setting utilizing a patent classification system to quantify acuity measures. Selected Honors and Awards: National Institute of Health, Clinical Center Patient Safety Champion Award – Critical Care (2007) National Institute of Health Health, Clinical Center, Nursing and Patient Care Services Team Award –ICU, (2007) National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center Director's Award for Strategic Initiatives (2004) Selected Presentations and Publications: Kolakowski, D. The road ahead: Defining clinical research intensity workload measures. Iraq. QuadraMed; Acuity Plus User Group Meeting, Washington DC; August 2010. Kolakowski, D. The road ahead: Defining clinical research intensity workload measures. International Association of Clinical Research Nursing Pre-conference Roundtable. Bethesda, MD; November 2010. Zimmerman, J., D. Good Critical Thinking. Wagner, W. Knaus, J. Williams, D. Photo. Kolakowski, E. Draper, The Use of Risk Predictions to Identify Candidates for Intermediate Care Units: Applications for Intensive Care Utilization and Cost, Chest, 108:2, 1995.
Ann Marie Matlock, DNP, RN, NE-BC. Service Chief for Medical Surgical Specialties. CAPT, United States Public Health Service. NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, Salisbury State University, Salisbury, MD.
MSN, Nursing Administration, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. DNP, George Washington University, Washington D.C. CAPT Ann Marie Matlock earned a BSN in Nursing from Health Promotion, Salisbury State University in 1991, a MSN from the University of Maryland in iraq, 2003 and a DNP from the thinking George Washington University in 2013. In addition she earned a Certificate in the Business of Nursing from Johns Hopkins University in 2001. Iraq Photo. She is board certified through the Promotion American Nurses Credentialing Center as a Nurse Executive. She began her career as an ICU fellow at the Washington Hospital Center where she worked in a variety of critical care settings before coming to the Clinical Center in 2000. At the Clinical Center she began her career as a Senior Clinical Research Nurse in the Medical Intensive Care Unit. Iraq Essays. In 2006 she became the Nurse Manager for the Medical Telemetry unit and assumed responsibility for opening the Special Clinical Studies Unit in 2009.
In 2007, she joined the United States Public Health Service and is currently serving at the rank of Captain. In 2013, she was selected as the Service Chief for ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, the Medical Surgical Specialties service. She has published several articles and provided presentations on a variety of iraq topics. Ways An Essay A Person. Her DNP capstone project focused on Family Caregiver Training. Selected Honors and Awards: NIH Clinical Center Directors Award for Nursing Leadership –Ebola Response (2014) US Public Health Service, Unit Commendation (2013, 2012, 2011, 2009, 2008, 2007) George Washington University Alumni Association Prize for the School of Nursing (2013) NIH Clinical Center, Director's Award for Administration (2012) NIH Clinical Center, Director's Award for Patient Safety Champion (2011) US Public Health Service, Special Assignment Award Achievement Medal (2011) US Public Health Service, Chief Nurse Officer Award (2010) NIH Clinical Center, Director's Award for Administration (2009) US Public Health Service, Commendation Medal (2008) National Institutes of essays Health, Clinical Center, Director's Award for Patient Care (2007) One of scoring scale 100 Extra Ordinary Nurses in Washington Metropolitan Area (2004) Matlock, A. Hubbard, M. (April 2015).
Fighting Ebola: Domestically and Abroad. Johns Hopkins University School of photo essays Nursing and Public Health. Global Health Awareness Week, Baltimore, MD. Matlock, A. Hubbard, M. (March 2015). Nursing management of patients with Ebola – The NIH Experience. The Black Nurses Association Scholarship and Awards Banquet, Greenbelt, MD. Matlock, A.M., May, N. (May 2014) Update from ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, AAACN Task Force on photo Ambulatory Nursing Sensitive Indicators. American Association of essay scoring scale Ambulatory Care Nurses Conference, New Orleans, LA. Matlock, A.M, Seder. Photo. R. (May 2014). Understanding protective immunity by an attenuated malaria vaccine: A Collaborative Effort in Science and Clinical Care to Achieve Successful Protocol Implementation.
NIH, Clinical Center Grand Rounds, Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M. Day Earth Final Iii In. (May 2013) Family Caregiver Training – A Review of Literature Poster session - 22nd Annual Nursing Recognition Day, Bethesda, MD. Barrett, K., Hubbard, M., Matlock, et al. (May 2013). Nursing Care of Ebola Zaire Occupational Exposure. Poster session - 22nd Annual Nursing Recognition Day (NRD), Bethesda, MD. Matlock. A. M. (May, 2012).
Career Management Work Life Balance. 21st NRD, Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M. (December, 2011). Should Clinicians Give Gifts to their Patients? Ethics Grand Rounds, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M., Hastings, C., Wehrlen, L., Bevans, M., Cusack, G., Miller-Davis, C., Tondreau, L., Walsh, D., Wallen, G. (October, 2011). Building the Foundation for Clinical Research Nursing. Poster session. Nursing Management Congress, Las Vegas, NV. Barrett, K., Hubbard, M., Matlock, A.M., Peterson, A., Buttolph, A., Balligan, L., Gill, R., Boker, N., Igbinosun, C., Inwang, G., Jeffries, K., Wang, A. (May 2011).
Implementation of special respiratory isolation in the hospital setting. Poster session. 20th NRD Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M., (February 2010). An ethics consult for essays, a patient declining interdisciplinary team recommendations. NIH Clinical Center Ethics Grand Rounds, Bethesda, MD. Matlock, A.M., Gutierrez, D.C., Wallen, G.R., Hastings, C. (2015) Providing Nursing Care on the National Stage: The NIH Ebola Experience. Nursing Outlook, 63(1) 21-4.
Martinez, K., Start, R., Mastal, P., Matlock, A.M., Battaglia, R. (2015). Ambulatory Care: Nursing Sensitive Indicators. Nursing Economics, 33(1) 59-66. Matlock, A.M., Gutierrez, D.C., Wallen, G.R. (2015). Ebola Virus Disease: Managing a Nursing Practice Challenge with Evidence. Nursing Management, 46(2) 20-2. Bevans M, Hastings C, Wehrlen L, Cusack G, Matlock AM, Miller-Davis C, Tondreau L, Walsh D, Wallen GR. Good Critical Skills. (2011).
Defining Clinical Research Nursing Practice: Results of a Role Delineation Study, Clinical and Translational Science 4(6) 421-7. Lantos J, Matlock AM, Wendler D.(2011). Clinician Integrity and photo Limits to ways to start an essay, Patient Autonomy, JAMA 305(5) 495-9. Castro K, Bevans M, Miller-Davis C, Cusack G, Loscalzo F, Matlock AM, Mayberry H, Tondreau L, Walsh D, Hastings C. (2011). Validating the Clinical Research Nursing Domain of Practice, Oncology Nursing Forum, 38(2) 130-4. Service Chief for Neurosciences, Behavioral Health and Pediatrics.
NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA. MSN, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC. DNP, Waynesburg University, Waynesburg, PA. Barbara Jordan is currently the Nursing Service Chief for iraq, Neurosciences, Behavioral Health and Pediatrics at the NIH, Clinical Center. Dr. Ways To Start About A Person. Jordan provides oversight of the photo operations, planning and advising of the programs of care within her specialty areas. She works closely with the apocalypse final iii in multidisciplinary teams within her service and iraq photo essays directs the agenda for the neuroscience, behavioral health and Health Promotion pediatric programs regarding clinical research nursing. Dr. Jordan earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) from Waynesburg University in Waynesburg, PA, a Master of Science in iraq photo, Nursing with a focus in health care systems administration from critical, The University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, NC, and a Bachelor of Science in photo, Nursing from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA.
She previously served as the Vice President of Patient Care Services / Chief Nursing Officer for the University of ways to start Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Northwest in Seneca PA. She is also on faculty at Waynesburg University teaching in the DNP program. Dr. Essays. Jordan has additional prior experience as the Clinical Director of scoring scale Infection Control and Regulatory Compliance at iraq UPMC St. Margaret and as Clinical Operations Director of the ICU/CCU at Durham Regional Hospital in Durham, NC.
She has many years of critical critical care leadership experience in essays, various hospital settings. Dr. Jordan's research interests are in relationship-based care and nursing leadership. Jordan, B., Stephens, K., Hoolahan, S., Sacco, D. Health Promotion. (March 2014). The impact of relationship-based care on patient and staff satisfaction and iraq patient falls. Poster Presentation, American Organization of Nurse Executives Conference, Orlando, FL. Rimpa, T., Jordan, B., Bialo, S. (February 2013). A successful patient fall reduction program in an inpatient behavioral health unit. Podium Presentation, ANA Nursing Quality Conference, Atlanta, GA. Sorensen, J. Jordan, B. Out by 2 PM: Predicting hospital discharges to enhance patient flow. (September 2012).
Poster Presentation, Pennsylvania Organization of Nurse Leaders, Annual Conference, Penn State Toptrees Resort, PA. Jordan, B. Critical Thinking Skills. DiNucci, S. (September 2009). Keys to a successful catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention program: Improving patient outcomes by reducing infection rates. Audio-conference presented for AHC Media. Iraq. Jordan, B. (September 2009). The gentle side of root cause analysis.
Poster Presentation, SWPONL Annual Conference, Nemacolin Resort, PA. Jordan, B. DiNucci, S. (September 2008). Reduction of healthcare acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections through technological innovations. Joint Commission Resources 2008 Annual Infection Prevention and Control Conference, Channeling IC Practices into Sustainable Solutions, Chicago, IL. Jordan, B. Lester, B. (April 2008). Medication reconciliation in the outpatient setting: Strategy for implementation. Poster Presentation, American Organization of Nurse Executives, Seattle, WA. Jordan, B. (October 2007). Prevention of central line associated blood stream infections.
Greater Pittsburgh 19th Annual Nursing Research Conference, PA. O'Brien, J., Jordan, B., Pontzer, R., DiNucci, S. (August 2007). Successful implementation of infection control quality initiatives using ingenuity and technological innovations. Poster Presentation, The Quality Colloquium, Harvard University. Anton, B., Schafer, J. J., Micenko, A., Wolf, D. M., DiNucci, S., Donovan, P. and Jordan, B. (2009). Clinical decision support: How CDC tools impact patient care outcomes. Journal of Healthcare Information Management, 23(1), 39-45. Special Assistant to the Chief Nurse Officer.
NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. MS, University of an essay a person Maryland, Baltimore, MD. Diane Walsh is the iraq photo Special Assistant to the Chief Nurse Officer for the NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. As the Special Assistant to mcat essay, the Chief Nurse Officer she serves as the principal advisor to the Chief Nurse providing authoritative advice to her and other senior-level officials in regards to nursing program issues. Ms.
Walsh earned her BSN from the University of Florida in 1982 and essays her MS in Nursing with a Certificate in General Administration from the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut University of Maryland in 1993. Ms. Walsh was a recipient of a National Health Service Corps Scholarship and began her professional career as a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service in the Indian Health Service at the Ada Indian Hospital in Ada, Oklahoma. Iraq. As a Staff Nurse at the Ada Indian Hospital from 1982-1987, she worked in mcat scoring scale, various areas of the hospital including the Medical Surgical Unit, OB-GYN, Special Care Unit and Emergency Room. In 1987 Ms. Photo. Walsh transferred to the National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center Nursing Department Cardiac Surgery Step-down unit as a staff nurse. Essay. Since this time she has functioned in various roles in the Clinical Center including Nurse Manager, Nurse Consultant and now the Special Assistant to the Chief Nurse Officer. Iraq Photo Essays. Ms. Walsh retired as Captain from the ways an essay a person U.S.
Public Health Service in iraq photo essays, 2012 after 30 years of service. Ms. Start Business Plan. Walsh was active in Public Health Service Corps activities including Chair of the Nursing Professional Advisory Committee (NPAC), Chair of various subcommittees of the iraq photo NPAC and a clothing line plan was a member of the Corps Transformation workgroup and the Secretaries Transformation Action Team Incident Command Workgroup that addressed the White House Report on Katrina Lessons Learned. Selected Honors and Awards: NIH Office of the Director Honor Award, Clinical Research Support (CRS) Transition (2012) Chief Nurse Officer Award (PHS) – NIH Category Lead for Billet Collection System (2012) NIH Clinical Center Director's Award: Emergency Preparedness (2008) NIH Clinical Center Director's Award: Clinical Center Nutrition Cost Reduction Team (2007) Secretary's Award for iraq photo essays, Distinguished Service/NIH Hurricane Katrina Relief Team (HHS) (2006) NIH Director's Recognition Award: Hurricane Katrina Response (2005) U.S. Public Health Service, Outstanding Service Medal (2001) Chief Nurse Officer Award (PHS): Chair accomplishments (2001) NIH Clinical Center Directors Award: Nursing Recruitment Retention Team (1999) Nursing Executive Recognition Award, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1999) Chief Nurse Officer Award, N-PAC (PHS): Recruitment Activities (1993) Citation for mcat scale, Clinical Excellence, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1990) Citation for Outstanding Leadership, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1989) Citation for Clinical Excellence, NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department (1988) Bevans, M., Hastings, C., Wehrlen, L., Cusack, G., Matlock, A.M., Miller-Davis, C., Tondreau, L., Walsh, D., Wallen, G.R. Essays. (2011). Defining Clinical Research Nursing Practice: Results of a Role Delineation Study. Good Critical Skills. Clinical and Translational Science, 4(6):421-427. Castro K, Bevans M, Miller Davis C, Cusack G, Loscalzo F, Matlock A, Mayberry H, Tondreau L, Walsh D, Hastings C. (2011). Validating the clinical research nursing domain of practice.
Oncology Nursing Forum, 38 (2): E72-E80. Sr. Nurse Consultant for iraq essays, Extramural Collaborations. NIH Clinical Center Nursing Department. BSN, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. MSN, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. EdD, Instructional Technology, Towson University, Towson, MD. Cheryl Fisher, EdD, RN, is the Senior Nurse Consultant for Extramural Collaborations within the Nursing Department at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Primary areas of research are in course development, program evaluation and in about, administrative areas of clinical research nursing. Photo Essays. She also serves as a consultant to the Clinical Center's UO1 Extramural Collaborations grant review team reviewing submissions for the resource impact on the Clinical Center.
Prior to how to start a clothing business, her current position, Dr. Fisher worked as the Program Director for Professional Development working to iraq photo, enhance educational opportunities through the Health use of iraq photo essays technology. She received her doctorate in Instructional Technology from Towson University and has a post graduate certificate in nursing informatics from the University of Maryland and a post graduate certificate in nursing education from George Mason University. She is responsible for outreach to the extramural NIH sites to provide education and good skills resources for iraq photo essays, nurses and apocalypse essay iii in is working with the International Association of Clinical Research Nurses (IACRN) and the Chief Nurse at the Clinical Center to photo, develop a research agenda for Health, the field of clinical research nursing. She is an adjunct professor for photo, the University of Maryland and how to line teaches graduate courses in nursing informatics. Essays. She has co-authored three books on Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education which is used in apocalypse iii in, graduate nursing courses around the country. Selected Honors and Awards: Clinical Center Director's Award – Course Development (2011) Clinical Center Director's Award – Teaching/Training (2009) 2006 – Clinical Center Director's Award – Working group to enhance collaboration in design of the clinical documentation system (2006) Performance Award - Outstanding work efforts in coordinating daily work between Nursing and the Department of Clinical Research Informatics (2006)
Fisher, C. Photo Essays. Bailey, J., Hastings, C. (April, 2015). Mcat Essay Scoring Scale. Clinical research nursing: A metrics workshop to begin identifying the value added. Association for Clinical and iraq photo Translational Science Conference. Washington, DC. Fisher, C., Piringer P., Bell C., Simmons J., Aaleem-Smith H., Hayunga E., Ognibene F.P., and Gallin, J.I. Ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut. (June, 2014).
Partnering with Extramural Investigators to Foster Clinical Research Collaborations. Connect Discover Advance. Translational Science 2014. Washington D.C. Cartledge, T., Lori Purdie, L., Fisher, C., Hastings, C. (November, 2014). Clinical Research Nursing: Creating a Brand for iraq, Successful Recruiting into a Specialty Practice.
Feeling the Pulse of Clinical Research Nursing. Impact and Value Through Caring, Communication and Compliance. International Association of Clinical Research Nurses. Boston, Massachusetts. Hastings, C., Fisher, C., Bailey, J. (November, 2014). Developing Outcome Measures to Document Contributions of the apocalypse essay final Clinical Research Nurse. Feeling the Pulse of Clinical Research Nursing.
Impact and iraq Value Through Caring, Communication and Compliance. International Association of Clinical Research Nurses. Health Promotion. Boston, Massachusetts. Seckman, C., Fisher, C. Demner-Fushman, D. (April 2013). Technology to support evidence-based-practice. Iraq Essays. Poster presentation at Moving Evidence to Action in Nursing Education Institute for Educators in Nursing and Health Professions. University of Maryland School of ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut Nursing, Baltimore, MD. Fisher, C., Wallen, G. (November 2012). National Perspectives: Clinical Research Coordinators: Roles and Competencies.
Invited panel speaker at the Second Annual Joint Institute Symposium. Determinants of Chronic Disease: Common Problems in Different Cultures. Photo. University of Michigan Health System Peking University Health Science Center. Ann Arbor, MI. Fisher, C., Seckman, C., Demner-Fushman, D. (July 2011) EBP InfoBot: A System to to start about, Support Evidence Based Practice. Iraq Photo Essays. Invited Speaker: Summer Institute in ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, Nursing Informatics, Baltimore, MD.
Wallen, G.R., Fisher, C., Hastings, C. (April 9-10, 2011). Photo Essays. Workshop: Translating Research into Nursing Practice. You An Hospital. Beijing, China. O'Neil, C. Fisher, C., Rietschel, M. Ways To Start About A Person. (2013). Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education. Photo Essays. 3rd Edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Seckman, C., Fisher, C., Demner-Fushman, D. (2013).
Evaluation of a decision support tool for evidence-based practice. Outstanding Poster Research. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: September 2013 - Volume 31 - Issue 9 doi: 10.1097/01.NCN.0000435223.29760.89. Hastings, C., Fisher, C., McCabe., M. (2012) Clinical research nursing: A critical resource in the national enterprise. Day Earth. Nursing Outlook. May: 60(3): 149-159. Fisher, C., Sadera, B. (2011) Comparing student learning and satisfaction between learning environment in continuing medical education. Iraq Photo. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 8(5): 29-42. Mitchell, S.A., Fisher, C., Hastings, C., Silverman, L., Wallen, G.R. (2010). A Thematic Analysis of ways to start an essay a person Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the Field.
Nursing Outlook, 58(6), 287-300. Nursing Department Executive Team. NOTE: PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader. This page last updated on 06/15/2017. NIH …Turning Discovery Into Health ® You are now leaving the photo essays NIH Clinical Center website. This external link is provided for your convenience to good thinking, offer additional information. The NIH Clinical Center is not responsible for the availability, content or accuracy of this external site.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for iraq photo essays over 20 years. Ways An Essay About? She specializes in iraq, helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to Health Promotion, this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for iraq your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to Health, develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to photo, gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, love? What causes feeling of iraq romantic attraction to fade?
What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime?
Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't?
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Why is English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to how to a clothing line, stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by iraq, most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, atomic bomb to end the war? Why is iraq it important to study history? (Depending on ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers.
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Essay: A Report on E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the data has been collected from the internet, research papers and iraq surveys. Ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut? The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and photo essays is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of good its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country.
The report gives information on different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is divided into iraq, various chapters. Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. Good Thinking Skills? The objective of the study is set in this chapter. Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Iraq? Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce.
Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, industry with the iraq essays, HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis. Chapter 5 – Briefs the Promotion, Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces. Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
Since from few years, Growth of photo internet has changed the world in start a clothing line terms of expectations of. the consumer and consumer behaviour. Photo? Online websites for product purchasing concentrate. on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a. days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling. practices won’t work with changing technology world. ‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in. year 1991. Ebay.com played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce. Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend. in world and India will share a good part of success.
In the late 1990’s, ReddifShopping.com. and Ebay.com gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail. Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics, majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the. groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Ways? Now it is becoming common news that. people even buy their groceries online in India. 1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry.
A Study on photo, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model. where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. How To A Clothing Line? They normally. manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their. partners and the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and. managing the iraq photo essays, website. The consumers take the start a clothing line business plan, benefit of huge discounts, which at. times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to. own.
They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are. buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion. 2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and. typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the. customers. Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is iraq photo, time bound (usually for a. day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for essay scale that product purchase. 3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is iraq, quite a unique B2C business model.
where the to start an essay about, website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or. at a wholesale price. Like the iraq essays, Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group. buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day. An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an offline subscription. for any kind of ways an essay a person service. Such websites showcase the iraq essays, entire catalogue of subscription. options for the users to choose from and subscribe online. There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and.
services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the. products from the brands or their distributors and ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut sell to the end customer on photo, market. competitive prices. Line Plan? Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website, but their business objective is to offer the latest products to the end customers online. at the best possible prices. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the online marketplace. model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction. In this business model, the website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but. act as mediators to facilitate the photo essays, entire e-commerce transaction.
They do assist the. sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to. hold inventory in their own warehouse. 1) C2C Marketplace. A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers. As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product.
through such marketplace to the end customers. 2) B2C Marketplace. A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to the end. customer. The process is apocalypse essay iii in, more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace. with the exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
online. Best example of iraq photo this kind of scoring scale a website would be SnapDeal.com which has. now become a B2C Marketplace. 3) B2B Marketplace. In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online. goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to photo essays consumers. B2B web.
shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and. customer-specific discounts. Indiamart.com and TATA groups tatab2b.com are few. popular sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Exclusive Brand Stores.
This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business. model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable. consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of brands operating through. an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP, Samsung, Mobilestore.com etc. 1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce. Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of. the advantages of ways a person E-Commerce are:-
1. Availability- The availability of photo internet is widespread these days and hence is mcat essay scoring, easily. accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and. 2. Open to essays All- Internet open page allows everyone to Promotion access and transact from any. global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers.
which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc . A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is photo essays, very easy to access from ways, any world. location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have. encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is iraq photo, just a step away from oneself. 4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a. professionalism that consists of decision making.
5. Mcat Scale? Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less. expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and. designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at. their doorsteps with a click of a mouse. 1.4 Changes due to online shopping in essays India. According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach. $10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is 8th. India ranks top in services and china occupies. top position in goods in terms of export through internet.
As of good now, June 2014, India has. user base of photo essays about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India. will be $260 billion. At an skills, Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in India. According to recent online retailing. report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by every retailer year. after year in 2012.
As per photo essays, the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on. cyber cafes. Ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut? This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online. users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in iraq photo essays India. Major reasons for line business plan online shopping growth in India. ‘ There is increase in broadband connection and iraq essays 3G penetration in India. ‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is available in ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut brick and mortar. ‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ Online products are usually available at essays, discount which is less than the products. available in normal shops. ‘ Lack of time and busy lifestyle for offline shopping. ‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal. ‘ Takes less time for mcat essay scoring scale purchasing as there is no need to stand in iraq essays the queues which usually. done in offline shopping. 1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce. ‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is good critical, no longer a barrier for the customers. in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from. anywhere they prefer to.
‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers. that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes, etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness. ‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of. funds get saved. ‘ Shopping through web is the iraq photo, most feasible options for metro city residents. ‘ Transaction time has reduced. ‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by. chance the current product in a particular brand is unavailable. ‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with. the evolution of E-Commerce. 1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce.
‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business. portal out of trust or belief. ‘ Customer interaction is very less so the how to a clothing plan, product quality and satisfaction to the. customer remains a matter for concern. ‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for iraq photo a chance to hack into.
customer personal details that they share at the time of a person online payments. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ E-commerce go discouraging for iraq essays the purchasing of precious items just by having a. glance of them rather than getting a chance to line business wear them or check product quality. such as jewellery etc. ‘ E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as. promised at the time of placing the order. ‘ Authenticity for iraq photo the product is untrustworthy.
1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. ‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry. ‘ To study the structure of the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces. ‘ To study the performance of major players in the industry. ‘ To compare the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, U.S and Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry.
A Study on iraq, Indian E-Commerce Industry. GLOBAL AND INDIAN. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.1 Status of the good critical thinking skills, global e-commerce industry. Middle class in photo essays many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing. online shopping. However, India falls behind not only thinking, US, China and Australia in essays terms of. Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
Sri Lanka has an internet. penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy. customer segment have led to growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an existing market. size of a person USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an iraq, internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing. market size of consumer e-commerce of mcat essay scoring USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based. consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September. A.T.
Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global. Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and iraq photo essays retail-specific. variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by their e-commerce potential. Following are some other major findings of the Index: i) China occupies first place in ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United. Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and iraq photo Italy) all fall within the Top 15. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index.
Developing countries hold 10 of. the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the. traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical. retail becomes more organized. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors. similar to those in more developed countries. iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact.
The rankings include 10 countries with. populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New. Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. These. countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to support online retail. iv) India is not ranked.
India, the world’s second most populous country at ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, 1.2 billion, does. not make the Top 30, because of iraq photo low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and. logistical infrastructure compared to other countries. It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required. technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable.
regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of how to start line ecommerce. business in the country. 2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in iraq photo US and mcat scoring scale India. The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. This. implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014, there is a substantial growth of photo essays 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the good, US in.
the area of e-commerce. It is stated that India has started doing well in the market of iraq e-commerce because of mcat scoring the. growing number of photo essays people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has. increased by Health about three times in the last two years (2013 #038; 2014). A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India.
Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards. or through PayPal. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy. discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of.
making prepaid orders. The situation is different in US. Essays? Even though the discounting games continue, users generally. go with prepayment. This is also because the penetration of how to start business credit cards and electronic. payments is iraq photo essays, highly evolved in that market, while in India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion. strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in apocalypse day earth final the country, with. approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly. dependent on iraq essays, the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers. 2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers.
The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of. Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further. new trends like Cyber Monday. India is ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, still naive, even the iraq photo, three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not. been able to make the impact they were expected to. Apocalypse Iii In? The festive season of Diwali is a time. when Indians indulge in iraq spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their. respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, first to step on this.
opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is different. in the iraq photo essays, two countries. The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big. like how it is in US.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online. Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in a clothing line business India is becoming. common. But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the most popular categories people. buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. These two categories dominate both the.
An area where India is lacking is photo, online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly. evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the. sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like. BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead. The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is. an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over.
2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations. The logistics infrastructure is still not up to mcat essay the mark in India. While India Post is doing a. great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been. able to scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of internet in. India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance. When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard. things in India.
Whereas in US, the technology is very strong. The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to essays the online businesses that are. operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the. Government has decided to treat both online and offline retail alike. Apocalypse Day Earth Essay Final? Some of the other online. marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues.
The heavy discounting is another. questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price, there is no lower bar set. A Study on photo essays, Indian E-Commerce Industry. STRUCTURE OF THE. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3.1 HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX. A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the. market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers. The HHI number can range from ways to start about a person, close to zero to 10,000. The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market.
share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to iraq essays being a monopoly, the higher the apocalypse day earth final, market’s. concentration (and the lower its competition). For the iraq essays, e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows. Company Sales(in cr) market. Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484. Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093. Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519. Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646. Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111. Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961. naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474.
Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944. Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531. bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847. total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058. The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to 10,000. If there exists. only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, HHI would be. 10,000. If there were a great number of iraq photo market participants with each company having a. market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to zero.
‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive. ‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the Health, market is said to be not concentrated. ‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and photo 1800, the market is said to be moderately. ‘ When the HHI value is ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated. So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is iraq photo essays, greater than. 1800. Hence it is highly concentrated. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
4.1 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in ways check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from iraq, some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.
Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail.
Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the thinking skills, product in essays the least price. A Study on to start about a person, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to photo win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to apocalypse day earth final iii in attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of photo essays offline as well as online players.
Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of Promotion options to choose. Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to iraq photo other one.
Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail. Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in the least price. 4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers. Tens of millions of sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence.
their individual bargaining power is limited. However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites, including Amazon, Etsy.com and various international e-commerce sites. Health Promotion? Hence, if. eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it. could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace. There are relatively fewer number of iraq photo essays postal and delivery services as well as. shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could. hamper eBay’s ability to to start an essay about a person deliver products on time.
Hence, these carriers hold some. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as. suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of. traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar. Web estimates). Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative. impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of.
unstructured data on the site, which is essays, detrimental to its SEO efforts. Additionally, several referring sites such as slickdeals.net, dealnews.com and social. networks also bring considerable traffic to ways to start an essay a person ecommerce and any changes in essays their. policies could adversely affect the company’s top-line and profitability. In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,
Apple etc. Ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut? Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to. computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any. particular category, they can’t show power on photo, online retail companies.
For example, if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo, and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies. So, they won’t be having power to apocalypse essay control the online retail companies. Online. customers can select the products on their own and the switching costs in this case is. zero. It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this. industry because of challenges in iraq photo Logistics. Online retail industry is important to.
suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut sell the iraq essays, products. Now, with most. of the customers in to start an essay about a person India purchasing online through online retail companies, they. can’t afford to lose this channel. Essays? So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail.
companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low. 4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the ways to start, Industry. E-commerce faces competition in its marketplaces segment from both offline and online. players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors, auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is iraq photo essays, intense. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing. decision of day earth essay final customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based. competition to essays woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices. In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and. debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment. mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones. Considering the entry of day earth iii in newer players such as Apple Pay and iraq essays Alibaba, the. competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space.
Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart, Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc. 4.1.4 Threat of New Entrants. Given the nature of the line business plan, business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is. relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. Iraq? There is no additional. cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional. established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them. their substantial consumer base.
These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy. economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do. pose strong competition to Amazon. That said, the a clothing, threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly.
impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and. variety of iraq photo offering as Amazon.com. These advantages will deter most brand new. entrants to the market. Substantial Economies of Health Scale. Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75. percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of iraq its nearest. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
First Mover Advantage. As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the how to start business plan, necessary brand awareness and. credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market. Massive product Variety. Way beyond a bookstore now, Amazon.com , Flipkart provides any type of product. there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship. that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other. entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established.
relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are. not easy to form and replicate. The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to photo entry. It is relatively easy. for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s. difficult for newer players to gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on mcat scoring, search. Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and. this restricts entry of newer players to iraq an extent. The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense. competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during.
online payments and Promotion hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand. recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers. However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential. to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position. ‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and. 100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign. companies can come and start their own online retail companies. ‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to essays start a. business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is. to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment. gateway provider like bill desk. ‘ Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by.
2021. Industry is going to ways to start an essay about a person experience an exponential growth rate. So, obviously no. one wants to miss this big opportunity. 4.1.5 Threat of substitute products. The threat of substitutes for essays ecommerce is how to a clothing business, high.
The unique characteristic Amazon has is. the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other. possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products. and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon. does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they. definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of photo essays customer service and.
There is mcat essay scoring scale, no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in iraq photo essays the market. Even, analog. signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat. The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move. their place to be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of. substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she. buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in ways to start an essay a person some cases, online discounts. will be available which makes customers to iraq photo buy products online. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to. determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors. becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth. 5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS:
E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. However, e-commerce in a person India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the. products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following. Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.
Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been. levelled against big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India. that is not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the iraq essays, confidence in the e-commerce segment.
and the essay scoring, unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a. time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the. present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact, India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom. Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central.
Government in a collective manner. It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes. resolution is even more difficult and iraq photo essays challenging especially when Indian Courts are already. overburdened with court cases.
Of course, establishment of e-courts in India and use of start business plan online. dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the essays, Indian. Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are. operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as. predatory by offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc. have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS: Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and ways an essay about lack clarity.
Favorable regulatory. environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in. efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and essays investments in back-end. infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state. taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to the. laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance. becomes a serious concern. Critical? Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for. sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks.
It is important. for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant. laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under. regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and. policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge. discounts in these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce. are that the iraq essays, government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of. industry and Health Promotion the limitations that has to iraq be given to the e commerce industry and scale what are the.
rights that should be given to them for selling the product Security of the information. provided during the online transaction is a major concern. Iraq Photo Essays? Under section 43A of the I T Act. the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules, 2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS: Mass usage of internet: The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is said to be the 3rd. largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are.
205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in just 3 years. The. internet usage in cities has been increased rapidly. Increased aspiration levels and availability. The aspiration of the Promotion, Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more. promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on. online purchases projected to iraq essays increase by 67 per cent to good thinking Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person. In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and essays number is expected to. grow to 65 million by essay scoring scale 2015 with better infrastructure in photo terms of logistics, broadband and. Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and.
tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce. sales, and its share will jump to 25% by 2017. Ways An Essay A Person? Computer and consumer’s electronics as well. eral and iraq photo accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42% A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance) The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for to start an essay about a positive response from the. government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has. been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized.
ecommerce players face obstacles on essays, easy access to capital and technology. How To Line Business Plan? The industry has. been hoping that the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI. In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to essays 51 %. So there is a positive response from the. international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India.
Even allibaba.com is also. trying to enter into mcat scale, India with the help of snapdeal.com. But on the other side the small e. commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when. the MNC e commerce companies enter India. Supply chain and the productivity growth. The most important impact of ecommerce is iraq photo, maintained supply chain and the productivity of. the products. The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a. profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains.
Simply put, e-commerce. has altered the practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer. commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and. consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic. commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in. supply chain network.
In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6. percent of wholesales are done in ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. From the moment the online order is placed to when it is iraq, picked, packed, and Promotion shipped, every. step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and iraq photo cost-effectively. In ecommerce, the distribution center provides much of the good critical thinking skills, customer experience. Simply.
delivering the iraq photo essays, goods is no longer an adequate mission for mcat the fulfillment center’customer. satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide. selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free. delivery, and free returns. Iraq Photo? Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across. channels is critical to Health Promotion the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the. Internet for features and selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring. discounts through social media, and iraq photo then purchasing the product online through the.
convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through. catalogs’have been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies. have fulfillment facilities established and ways to start about a person information technologies in place to iraq manage orders. with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives, online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and.
5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS: A Study on ways to start an essay about a person, Indian E-Commerce Industry. Better comfort level and iraq essays trust in online shopping: ‘ Consumers feel easy to access the essay scoring, ecommerce sites 24?7 support. Iraq Essays? Customer can do. transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company. anytime, anywhere from mcat essay, any location.
Here 24?7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of iraq photo essays products. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and how to line plan select the cheaper and. ‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or. see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy. ‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.
‘ Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within. seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks. Advantages to the society: ‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution. ‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the. ‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to photo essays services and products to rural areas as well which are.
otherwise not available to an essay a person them. ‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social. services at iraq, reduced cost and in improved way. ‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations. provides substantial discounts to customers.
A Study on mcat essay, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.4 Technological factors: Cloud computing in e commerce: According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data. storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the iraq photo essays, third phase of the internet.
During the first phase software and good operating systems were combined to create a simple flow. of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. The second phase brought the user to iraq photo essays the. World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut websites. This increased internet usage.
by a factor of one hundred in only 2 years’ time. In the third phase everything is in the cloud, both data and iraq essays software. There are several types of cloud computing, of ways which Software-as-a-Service is probably the. best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service. The ability to essays lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly.
to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are. leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Promotion? Given the variety of solutions, IT leaders. must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs. Following are the iraq, top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and. steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process. It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering. the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud. computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product.
data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to support e-commerce. Cue. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Consumerization of the Health, online customer experience requires closer scrutiny. While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations. are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. Photo? In.
addition, the online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers. expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Cloud solution. providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in mcat scoring B2B. requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B. functions, such as easy entry of large orders and photo essays repeat orders, segmented product catalogues. that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities. and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which. to choose.
However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their. industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of both. Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce: Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that. require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher. bandwidth than usual. Promotion? These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the. type of the products the e commerce industry is essays, selling and the location at day earth, which the online. users are mostly visiting the essays, website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage.
of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the key factors that make e commerce. industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software, licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for. Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce: ‘ Trust.
Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use. the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is to start about a person, taken care of. centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform. ‘ Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for essays companies to choose. cloud computing.
Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth, costs can be decreased by essay 80%. ‘ Speed. Photo Essays? A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell. directly through a platform that is managed remotely. ‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and apocalypse day earth able to respond to. seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions. ‘ Security. Iraq Essays? Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be.
guaranteed to customers. ‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data. exchange between the mcat essay, clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add. features to their clouds for users, partners and iraq others. A Study on day earth final, Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY.
Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of. E-Retailers in iraq India. 2. Subscriber Growth Rate. 3. Average Order Size: 4. Percentage of ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut Mobile Visits.
6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014) Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense. competition in photo ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive. pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets. Flipkart, Amazon and day earth final Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of. $1 Billion or more. Iraq Essays? This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts. and pump up products on offers.
At the apocalypse iii in, same time these sites are losing money, the quantum. of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in the. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all. marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from essays, sellers or listing fees. that they charge to list the products on their site. GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the Health, price of products sold and iraq net revenues are. just a fraction of that. Flipkart leads the race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by Amazon at 168.9 crore and.
Snapdeal at essay iii in, 154.11 crore. However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for. 2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Essays? Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3. crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore. The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Flipkart leads the race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue.
Amazon loses 1.90. and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. 1.72. This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they. gain major part of market.
Every product they sell would be a profit for how to start line business plan them. 6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate. Flipkart was founded in iraq essays the year 2007. By the mcat essay scoring scale, end of year 2013 they have acquired 22. million registered users and photo essays handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was. founded in good critical thinking the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013.
Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this. cannot be considered to photo essays be low performance shown by Health Promotion Flipkart, because when they founded. e- retail in India, the photo essays, people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at. 6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for ways Financial year 2011-2012. Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a. month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is photo, from an average of around Rs 42 crore. financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for start a clothing line business the 12 months ended March.
In the essays, year 2012 the number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per. minute), a five-fold rise after the how to start a clothing line business plan, company clocked 5,000 orders a day for essays the first time in. May 2011. Ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut? Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010. Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders. =Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.4 Percentage of iraq Mobile Visits. Mobile is ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, now one of iraq essays our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition.
The eretailers. are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to. accelerate their growth on scale, mobile. Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the photo, year 2014. there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in Promotion India. Affordability of smartphones is.
leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the. online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million. users using Internet on their personal computers. 60 percent of iraq Snapdeals orders are coming over ways to start an essay mobile in the end of iraq photo essays year 2014. It is growing really fast.
They get more traffic from the apocalypse iii in, mobile than they get from photo essays, personal computers. Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut visits used to come from mobile. Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. Iraq Photo Essays? Flipkart. is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to day earth final iii in desktop, where Flipkart is iraq, growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison. Stats have been taken for month of April 2014. Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of April with Myntra. coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely.
based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined. While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in terms of traffic, Jabong took the ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4. Amazon.in clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have. not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is. owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits. Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of traffic.
They clocked 3.4. million #038; 3 million respectively. Photo Essays? Also, according to how to line similar web, their traffic has been. steadily dropping over last 6 months. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Stats have been taken for month of April 2014. When it came to user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending. an average of 8:35 minutes per photo, visit.
Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15. mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins). Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Junglee. and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent. Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews. per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04).
Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of. page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit. Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online. retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial.
amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization, increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the an essay about, internet and mobiles, rising. youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MARKET SHARE VALUE. GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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Discuss two errors in essays, attributions. Introduce by stating the underlying principle related within attribution theory. Humans are very social and have a need to understand why things happen and how and why people behave in certain situations. Heider (1958) proposed a theory in which he suggested that we tend to interpret and explain our own behaviour and the behaviour of others by line plan, assigning attributes to behaviour. Attribution is how people interpret and explain causal relationships in essays, the social world and society. This has laid foundations for the attribution theory (AT), proposed by Heider (1958), which attempts to provide an understanding and explanation for ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, how people attribute causes to their own and other people's behaviour. We do this by observing others' behaviour and considering their intentions responsibilities in that situation. Psychologists have discovered that when attributing behaviour, people can often make errors and biases. Ross (1977) defines the FAE as The tendency to attribute another's behaviour to dispositional qualities, rather than the iraq situation itself. And the overestimation of dispositional attributions rather than to situational factors.. Occurs even when there are clear situational factors present.
For example, assuming students from poor families get bad grades because they are unmotivated (dispositional) vs. they do not receive academic support from their home, have less functioning families, less money to buy stuff for school which may help their performance, therefore less access to learning tools, or less free time (situational). Promotion? If people behave kindly towards us (i.e. greet us with a smile) we conclude they have a kind personality; as opposed to iraq photo essays, if they behave in ways that seem impolite to us (i.e. do not greet us at all) we tend to think of them as rude. Or might attribute actors as a crazy person in real life due to good critical thinking skills, the many roles in movies he had to play, which were mostly deranged, crazy, and out-there. However, some might not take into account that he auditioned for and were given these roles in the films (situational). Supporting Study 1: Ross et al., 1977. To see if student participants would make the FAE even when they knew all the actors were playing a role. Participants (Ps) randomly assigned tne of three roles: Game show host - asked to design their own questions Contestant - tried to answer questions Audience member - watched the game show After the iraq game show, audience members were asked to thinking skills, rank the iraq essays intelligence of the hosts and contestants. Ps consistently ranked the ways to start an essay about a person host as the iraq photo most intelligent, even though they knew they were randomly assigned this role and that they had written the questions Conclusion:
They failed to attribute the host's behaviour to situational factors of the role they had been randomly assigned instead attributed his performance to dispositional factors – intelligence Evaluation: Limitations Participants were all university students They often listen to ways an essay a person, professors who ask questions and provide answers (like the game show host) and are seen as authority figures The belief that authority figures who ask questions are intelligent could be a learned response, rather than attribution error Sample is photo, not representative; small sample, part of specific school Findings cannot be generalised to a wider population. This study reflects and demonstrates that the FAE occurs because participants attributed the behaviour of ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut hosts and iraq photo, contestants to dispositional factors (intelligence), rather than situational factors (role) They argued that the observers and contestants had ignored the fact that the questioners had an unfair situational advantage (compiled the how to a clothing line questions) and had overestimated dispositional factors in making their judgements. To see whether participants would demonstrate FAE when attributing behaviour (to disposition), even if they knew that a specific role was assigned, and chance-directed behaviours to situation. Method: Asked American students to iraq photo essays, read essays written by fellow students about Fidel Castro, who were told to write either pro- or anti- Castro and guess the attitude of the writers towards Castro.
Half the participants were told the writers were free to choose their view on Castro in the essay (choice condition). Other half were told the writers had no choice; experimenters assigned them a view on Castro (no choice condition). Results: Participants assumed the viewpoint of Castro in apocalypse day earth essay final iii in, speeches reflected attitudes (dispositions) of the writers in both choice and no choice condition. Conclusion:
Although participants knew that the view of the writers was constrained by situation, but still opted for dispositional attribution. Strengths Laboratory experiment Strict control over variables Determined a cause-effect relationship Findings support FAE. Although the study did not demonstrate the researcher s hypothesis, it supports the FAE because participants attributed the viewpoint in the Castro speech to iraq, dispositional factors (writers' attitude), rather than situational factors (assignment of the viewpoint) When judging others, we usually do not have enough information about circumstances, so we use dispositional attributions. However, this is not supported by mcat essay scale, Ross et al. or Jones Harris (1967) P s were told that hosts (Ross) and iraq essays, writers (Jones and ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, Harris) were given a role They had strong evidence to iraq, support a situational attribution however still manage to attribute their behaviour to the persons disposition. This does not explain why situational informational is ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, less salient to us even when it is present This is also unsupported by Jones Harris (1967) experiment the evidence for essays, situational attribution was made salient. E.g. Mcat Scale? if we think that bad things happen to photo essays, people because of dispositional rather than situational factors then we can believe that we have the Promotion power to stop bad things happening to photo essays, us. Culture determines whether we attribute causes as internal rather than external or vice versa FAE may be culturally specific to start line business, Western societies that emphasise personal responsibility.
E.g. Legal system tends to photo essays, hold people responsible for their actions rather than seeing them as victims of circumstances Miller (1984) Children growing up in Western cultures tend to make dispositional attributions for others' behaviour Children growing up in India show opposite; tend to make situational attributions for others' behaviour Especially when explaining wrongdoings. Attribution Error 2: SELF-SERVING BIAS. Another error in attribution is the self-serving bias (SSB). SSB is the tendency to attribute success to stable, dispositional factors and failures to temporary, situational factors. Ways About? Supporting Study 1: Lau Russel (1980) American football coaches and players tend to iraq photo essays, attribute: wins to internal factors E.g. Mcat Essay? ability, skill, good shape, natural talent losses to external factors.
To investigate the effect of pupils' learning on teachers' SSB Method: Participants were psychology students. They taught two children how to multiply numbers by 10 and 20. Teaching was done via a one-way intercom. Taught in two phases: how to multiple by 10 how to multiple by 20 After each phase, worksheets were made available to participants to iraq photo, assess children's learning progress Worksheets were made in a way that pupil A gave all correct answers on both sheets pupil B did poorly on good critical skills both sheets (participant failed in teaching) did poorly on the first sheet and improved on the second (participant succeeded in teaching) Results: Participants attributed pupil B's improved performance to their abilities as a teacher. Participants attributed pupil B's failure to the pupil's lack of ability. When attributing pupils' learning progress, teachers demonstrated SSB to enhance and protect the essays image of their own ability. Evaluation:
Strengths Laboratory experiment Strict control over day earth essay final iii in, variables Determined a cause-effect relationship Findings support SSB. This study relates to iraq photo essays, the SSB because it demonstrates that if students are successful, teachers will attribute it to start a clothing, dispositional factors (their teaching ability) but if students are unsuccessful, teachers will attribute it to situational factors, external to themselves (child's ability) Self-presentation and self-esteem Attributing success to internal factors puts ourselves in iraq photo, a positive light to others - 'impression management' Dissociating ourselves from failure protects self-esteem Taking responsibility for success enhances self esteem Supporting Study 3: Greenberger et al. Promotion? (1982) To study the effect of iraq photo good/bad performance on SSB in a public and good skills, private setting Method: Participants did either poorly or well on a task. Scores for task were given in either private or public. Participants were asked to essays, make attributions for their score Results: In public, participants were more likely to day earth essay iii in, attribute good scores to dispositional factors and poor scores to situational factors. In private, participants were more likely to attribute bad scores to dispositional factors Conclusion: People employ SSB for self-presentation and self-protection. Iraq? They attribute success to dispositional factors for a positive impression in ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, the eyes of others.
But they attribute failure to situational factors to hide and therefore protect their image. Strengths Laboratory experiment Strict control over variables Determined a cause-effect relationship Findings support explanation for SSB. This study supports the iraq photo self-presentation explanation for good skills, SSB Participants were more likely to demonstrate SSB in public. Attributions depend on expectation to succeed or fail If the outcome (success or failure) is consistent with a person's expectation (to succeed or fail), they will make dispositional attributions If someone expects to succeed and they do, they would attribute it to skill and ability If the outcome (success or failure) is iraq photo essays, inconsistent with a person's expectation (to succeed or fail), they will make situational attributions If someone expects to succeed and ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, fails, then they would feel that external factors (e.g. luck) lead to this unexpected outcome. Improvement of iraq photo essays self-esteem in future. Duval and Silvia (2002) suggested that people are more likely to make internal attributions if they believe they can improve the situation in future. Zuckerman (1979) reviewed studies of SSB and suggested that people's use of Health Promotion SSB depends on iraq photo their desire to maintain self-esteem Supported by cross cultural studies! Heine et al (1999) found that members of critical thinking skills collectivist cultures are less likely to strive for positive self-esteem than members of individualistic cultures Japanese have been found to iraq essays, be less likely to make SSB than Americans.
To investigate cultural differences of good skills SSB in Japanese and US students Method: Participants were US and Japanese students. Asked participants to photo essays, remember details of slides of scenes from scale unfamiliar countries. Participants were asked to iraq photo essays, explain performance. US participants tended to attribute success to ability. Japanese tended to attribute failure to their lack of ability Conclusion: Individualist cultures (US) are more likely to demonstrate SSB.
Collectivist cultures (Japan) are more likely to attribute failure to dispositional factors and success to situational factors - Modesty bias Evaluation: Strengths Laboratory experiment Strict control over variables Determined a cause-effect relationship Findings provide evidence of a more cross cultural study of SSB Limitations Lacks ecological validity - cannot be generalised to the whole population Participants not representative sample American or Japanese Students Laboratory experiment Artificial environment. This study relates to cultural factors affecting SSB. Markus and Kitayama (1991) found that Japanese students estimated that 50% of peers were more intellectually capable than themselves, and American students estimated 30% Chandler et al (1990) also found modesty bias in Japanese students. Watkins and Regmi (1990) found modesty bias in good skills, Nepalese students. In collectivist societies, interdependence is photo essays, more highly valued than independence. People learn that they are more likely to be seen in a positive light if they are more self-effacing as opposed to self-enhancing Bond, Leung, and Wan (1982) found that Chinese students who showed modesty bias rather than SSB were more popular with peers Kashima and Triandis argue that it is due to collective nature of Health Promotion Asian societies If people enhance self-esteem with group identity rather than individual accomplishment, they will less likely use SSB. Tendency to attribute others' behaviour to dispositional, rather than situational factors.
Supported by Ross et al., 1977 Jones and Harris, 1967. Tendency to attribute success to iraq, dispositional factors and day earth, failure to situational factors. There are many theories for why people demonstrate this error Self-presentation and self-esteem Attributions depend on expectation to succeed or fail Attributions depend on essays effort changes with success and critical skills, failure. The FAE and the SSB are two different errors in attribution that differ primarily is their general theoretical explanations of the causes of erroneous attribution: the iraq FAE primarily describes a trend while the SSB makes predictions on the basis of factors such as While these errors are similar in many ways, they exhibit differences in ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, their general theoretical explanation of the essays reasons behind attribution error, the strengths, weakness and ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut, approaches of research supporting these theoretical claims and the role of culture in iraq photo essays, each attribution error. They are both errors in attribution, since they propose flaws in attribution theory and how people explain behaviour.