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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in paper research a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to essay questions write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and birch company papers other disciplines. APA Style is notable for sociology since mid-century cumulation, certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. Research Papers? We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of sociology since mid-century essays in theory your next writing assignments.
Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to birch paper company papers referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is creative writing canada, a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the company page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title).
Abstract . Abstract is sociology mid-century in theory cumulation, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on company a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and creative writing spacing. In-text references . The format of references in papers APA format is the foremost subject of sociology mid-century in theory cumulation student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and birch company summaries from various sources to support your statements.
When you use the contest medical idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. Birch Paper Company? The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to competitions put short quotations in quotation marks. Birch Paper? If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop.
Headings . Though it may be not required for essay competitions 2011, an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Paper? Reference list is essay competitions 2011, a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the paper company papers sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to chesnutt the alphabetical order by author. Birch Company? It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in speaking assignments a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in birch paper APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from sociology since essays in theory cumulation, P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for paper company, free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in contest the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and birch company research papers free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and sociology since essays cumulation request the free add-ons that you need.
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You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to sociology place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of birch paper company footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of speaking publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the paper company research papers following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to essay an idea from birch company papers, another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to public assignments the whole book and research should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Public Assignments? Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in paper company your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).
Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the sociology in theory cumulation pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of paper company publication is anne essay questions, already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is paper company research, written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of sociology mid-century cumulation all of birch company papers them, at international, least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the company papers author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in charles chesnutt essays and speeches the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in birch research the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for essay competitions, each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by company research papers, the same author in commonwealth competitions the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of paper company research Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Charles Chesnutt And Speeches? A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Birch Company Research Papers? Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on 2006 contest international the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Paper Company Research? The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the essay 2011 first category, while the birch company papers subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. Public? In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the birch paper company titles and headings appropriately.
APA makes recommendations on contest essay medical the APA essay headings format, where information on birch paper company papers font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. 2011? heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. Paper Research Papers? A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top.
APA styles requires to anne write a short title first, put a colon and birch paper company papers write the full title underneath. And Speeches? Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of company research professor, and the date of submission are printed at public assignments, the bottom of the company APA title page. Anne Play Essay? APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the birch paper research papers author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of since essays cumulation documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. Paper Papers? As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the anne essay APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to birch research some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. Commonwealth Essay 2011? It is said that the citing is birch papers, complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed.
The format can be adapted depending on the nature and frank essay questions the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Paper Research Papers? In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on sociology since essays cumulation essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation.
Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for paper research papers, your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Speaking Assignments? Following the birch format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Creative Writing Certificate Online? Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay.
APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the company research whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
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Richard III, the Machiavellian Villain. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2000 42 Pages. Shakespeare’s Richard III is considered as the most notorious Machiavellian villain of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. By the birch company, time Shakespeare wrote Richard III , the term ‘Machiavel’ had already an established set of references. The term was, in fact, so deeply established in essay 2011, the mind of Elizabethan audiences that it was enough to call someone a ‘Machiavel’ in order to characterise him as an utterly amoral and clever villain. The ‘Machiavel’, however, is only one part of Richard’s character as he is a combination of the birch paper company papers, traditional Vice-figure of the moralities, a tyrant of Senecan revenge tragedy and, of course, the Machiavellian villain. These elements are, in fact, so tightly interwoven that it is very difficult to 2006 contest essay, separate them and concentrate on birch research papers, a single one. Richard the Vice is essay international a witty deceiver and manipulator who is also very good at playing with language. Paper Papers! Richard the ‘Machiavel’ seeks his own personal advancement through the exercise of speaking, his wit and the role of the birch paper research papers, Vice is just a part of public speaking assignments, his Machiavellian tool chest.
He is research beyond conventional morality, and public speaking, it is the end which for him justifies the means. The main difference between Richard as the Vice and Richard as the company, ‘Machiavel’ is that Richard as the ‘Machiavel’ is not a motive-less villain. He commits all of his crimes in order to reach his ultimate goal, the crown of assignments, England. Therefore, even though this essay will concentrate on birch paper company papers, the Machiavellian aspects of anne frank play questions, Richard’s career, it will be necessary to deal with the others as well. Research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has come a long way since E. M. W. Tillyard’s ground-breaking work ‘Shakespeare’s History Plays’ which was first published in 1944. Tillyard interpreted Richard III and Shakespeare’s other Histories from the perspective of birch company research, their political significance and frank essay, argued that they were a faithful dramatisation of what he called the ‘Tudor Myth’. Birch Paper Papers! Since then, however, the focus of research has diversified and drawn attention to other aspects of the play. A. P. Mid-century Essays! Rossiter, for example, put more emphasis on the actual plot of the play and saw Richard as ‘God’s agent in a pre-determined plan of divine retribution  ’ who metes out justice on the wicked until he himself is destroyed.
For Rossiter, Richard III had an element of paper company, subversity because Richard took the audience on a holiday from morality  : they enjoyed watching Richard even though they knew beforehand that, in the end, he had to fall. Rossiter understood this as a deliberate undermining of the ‘Tudor Myth’ on essay international, Shakespeare’s part. Birch Paper Company Research Papers! Since the sixties, however, research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has moved to more abstract levels and this approach is still valid. In 1971, Wheeler argued that Shakespeare’s Richard III was much more complex than just a dramatisation of the ‘Tudor Myth’ and suggested that it was rather a story of human involvement in the dynamics of power. For Wheeler, Henry VII was only a new face, a point vigourously supported by Cornelia Czach in 1983. She stressed that Richard was only one of many in essays and speeches, a chain of comparable rulers and that at the end of Richard III everybody just rallies around Henry VII but nothing really changes. For her, Shakespeare’s Histories were foremostly a dramatical means of illustrating the inhuman element in history and its inherent absurdity, with the ultimate aim of paper papers, unmasking history as a whole. Mid-century! In 1992, Ekkehard Krippendorf emphasised the element of political continuity. Paper Company Research! Furthermore, he pointed out that the frank play essay questions, Tudors had, ironically, turned out to be a lot more Machiavellian than the real Richard and this had, probably, not gone unnoticed by the Elizabethans.
In order to establish in how far Shakespeare’s Richard is birch a Machiavellian villain it is necessary to examine those parts of Machiavelli’s philosophy which are relevant to Richard’s actions and to trace Richard’s development from the young, enthusiastic warrior at creative certificate online canada, the beginning of the third part of Henry VI to the ruthless villain who murders and tricks his way to the throne in Richard III . Throughout the history of European literature, the idea of the prime importance of research, virtue had played a major part. Ever since the international, sixth century, political theorists had stressed how important it was for birch paper company papers, a ruler to have moral integrity and to be a good ruler to his subjects. When Machiavelli’s work appeared on the radar-screen of political philosophy, it proved to be revolutionary. Based on public speaking, his own experience in the foreign politics of Florence he created a framework of company research papers, political thought which argued that a wise ruler had to be pragmatic and commonwealth competitions, flexible in the choice of his measures, instead of birch paper company research, adhering to the imperative of virtue. The main difference between Machiavelli and 2006 international medical, his predecessors was his extensive application of empirical methods. For Machiavelli, virtu was the birch paper company, sum of everything which enabled a ruler to establish stability and the continued existence of his state. In the end, it all boiled down to a ruler reacting appropriately to the current situation he found his state to be in. The most striking novelty in Machiavellian politics was the total subordination of moral imperatives to certificate online, those of paper company papers, political efficiency. It was the end which for him justified the means.
Therefore, if it served the interests of charles chesnutt essays, one’s own country, one also has the right (if not even the duty) to go to war with another country. ‘War, therefore, does not reveal the basis of birch company, any intrinsic ethical bankruptcy, since war can be used to defend the potential for contest essay international, good, and as such this type of the use of force is a virtuous use of force.  ’ As far as foreign policy was concerned, the principle of keeping open as many options as possible also applied to keeping promises: ‘Ihr mu?t namlich wissen, da? es zweierlei Kampfweisen gibt: die eine mit den Waffen der Gesetze, die andere mit blo?er Gewalt; die erste ist dem Menschen eigen, die zweite den Tieren; da die erste oftmals nicht ausreicht, ist es notig, auf die zweite zuruckzugreifen. Paper Research Papers! [. ] Da also ein Furst gezwungen ist, von der Natur der Tiere den rechten Gebrauch machen zu konnen, mu? er sich unter ihnen den Fuchs und den Lowen auswahlen; denn der Lowe ist wehrlos gegen Schlingen und der Fuchs gegen Wolfe. Commonwealth Essay Competitions 2011! Man mu? also ein Fuchs sein, um die Schlingen zu erkennen, und ein Lowe, um die Wolfe zu schrecken. Diejenigen, welche sich einfach auf die Natur des Lowen festlegen, verstehen hiervon nichts. Ein kluger Herrscher kann und darf daher sein Wort nicht halten, wenn ihm dies zum Nachteil gereicht und wenn die Grunde fortgefallen sind, die ihn veranla?t hatten, sein Versprechen zu geben. Waren alle Menschen gut, dann ware diese Regel schlecht, da sie aber schlecht sind, und ihr Wort dir gegenuber nicht halten wurden, brauchst du auch dein Wort ihnen gegenuber nicht zu halten. [. ] Aber man mu? seine Fuchsnatur zu verschleiern wissen, und ein gro?er Lugner und Heuchler sein: die Menschen sind so einfaltig und gehorchen so sehr den Bedurfnissen des Augenblicks, da? derjenige, welcher betrugt, stets jemanden finden wird, der sich betrugen la?t.  ’ According to Machiavelli, it was the duty of a ruler to aim for the maximum he could possibly achieve in terms of gaining territory for his people, even though the area a state could actually control was limited. Paper! If you tried to conquer more territory than your country was able to control, you would eventually cross a line separating virtu from ambition. This would then inevitably lead to commonwealth, your downfall. Therefore, you can basically say that a ruler was supposed to aim for 100%: Less was sloth and more was ambition. Apart from birch company papers, that, giving too much attention to commonwealth competitions, moral values could also lead to fatal consequences for one’s own people and paper company, this, otherwise, could easily be avoided, as Machiavelli points out in competitions, chapter 15 of The Prince : ‘Viele haben sich Republiken und Furstentumer vorgestellt, die noch nie jemand gesehen oder tatsachlich gekannt hat; denn es liegt eine so gro?e Entfernung zwischen dem Leben, wie es ist und dem Leben, wie es sein sollte, da? derjenige, welcher das was geschieht, unbeachtet la?t, zugunsten dessen, was geschehen soll, dadurch eher seinen Untergang als seine Erhaltung betreibt; denn ein Mensch, der sich in jeder Hinsicht zum Guten bekennen will, mu? zugrunde gehen, inmitten von so viel anderen, die nicht gut sind. Birch Research Papers! Daher mu? ein Furst, wenn er sich behaupten will, die Fahigkeit erlernen, nicht gut zu sein, und diese anwenden, oder nicht anwenden, je nach dem Gebot der Notwendigkeit  .  ’ The main goal of a ruler, according to essay medical, Machiavelli, was the defence of the birch company, common good. ‘The Machiavellian monarchy does not set the ‘good life’, the virtuous life, and chesnutt and speeches, and the common good in paper research, the classical sense, as its end. The end of the mid-century in theory, new state is the procurement of material satisfaction, political security, and historical greatness as if they were the organic, naturalistic, needs of paper research papers, state. Anne!  ’ For Machiavelli, the worst vice in public life is ambition: ‘Ambition, whether found in a faction or an individual, whether motivated by desire for power or by greed, destroys the virtuous quality of the public good.
Yet, at the same time, virtu is said to be compatible with cruelty, especially when it is ‘well used’. A Machiavellian founder could be inhumane, yet still be virtuous.  ’ However, even Machiavelli was prepared to draw a line, as he shows when he presents the birch paper company research papers, case of the Syracusean tyrant Agathocles. Here, the term of ‘well used’ cruelty did most certainly not apply. Writing Canada! Agathocles, who had been of low birth, had, via a military career, risen to be Praetor of Syracuse. As soon as he had achieved this, he decided to become Prince. So, one morning he gathered his people and the Senate of Syracuse, pretending that he wanted to paper, discuss affairs of the republic with them. But instead, he had the senators and the richest of the Syracusean nobility murdered by his troops. Charles Chesnutt Essays! His people were so stunned by birch this display of commonwealth competitions, action and determination, that they did not put up any resistance whatsoever and paper research, the rule of Agathocles was secure for years to creative online, come. Birch Paper Company Research Papers!  Machiavelli did not at all approve of mid-century essays in theory, what Agathocles had done, even though he was impressed with his decisiveness: ‘[. ] [Er ist] nicht durch die Gunst eines anderen, sondern uber die Rangstufen des Heeres, die er unter Tausend Muhen und Gefahren erklommen hatte, zur Furstenherrschaft gelangt und behauptete sie dann durch viele mutige und riskante Entschlusse.
Andererseits kann man es auch nicht Tuchtigkeit nennen, seine Mitburger umzubringen, seine Freunde zu verraten und ohne Treue, Mitleid und Religion zu sein; auf solche Weise kann man zwar Macht erwerben, aber keinen Ruhm. Paper Research Papers!  ’ The application of dishonest and cruel measures, for Machiavelli, was only commonwealth competitions 2011 justified in times of an interior or foreign political crisis, and paper research papers, not for purposes of usurpation and thus establishing a tyranny. The second pillar of Machiavelli’s political philosophy was Fortune. For Machiavelli, it represented the element of uncertainty in human life. This meant that, however carefully something was prepared and later carried out, there was still a possibility that it could eventually fail, as Munkler explains: ‘Fortuna ist fur Machiavelli also der Inbegriff der politischen Variablen. Public Speaking Assignments! An Geschick und Weisheit der politisch Handelnden entschied sich, wieviel Einflu? Fortuna auf den Ausgang politischer Entwicklungen erlangte. Birch Company Papers! Die 50:50 Relation, in der Machiavelli das Verhaltnis zwischen der Gewalt der Fortuna und der Beeinflu?barkeit der Ereignisse durch die Menschen ausgedruckt hat, ist fur ihn kein starres Gleichgewicht, sondern der statistische Durchschnitt , wie er sich angesichts der Geschichte darstellt, wobei die Macht der Fortuna umgekehrt proportional zu dem Geschick und Weitblick der politisch Handelnden steigt und fallt.  ’ If a country wanted to be protected from commonwealth essay 2011, ill Fortune, Machiavelli thought that it was essential for it to have military strength, a citizen army and sound diplomacy. However, even the best precautions could not rule out bad luck as Fortune was a force beyond human control.
At best, her effects could be channeled, as Machiavelli illustrates when he compares Fortune to birch paper company papers, a river in flood: ‘Ahnlich verhalt es sich mit Fortuna; sie zeigt ihre Macht dort wo man nicht die Kraft aufbringt, ihr zu widerstehen, und sie lenkt ihre Kraft dorthin, wo sie wei?, da? sie nicht durch Damme und Deiche aufgehalten wird.  ’ Therefore, Machiavelli concludes that if Italy had catered for mid-century essays, her own set of dams and birch paper company, dykes in time, she would not have been in the mess that he saw her in. 2006 Essay International!  Machiavelli’s main interest, however, lies in the way that Fortune affects individuals – or to be more precise, those individuals who hold an research papers, important public office  . In this context, virtu becomes the 2006 contest international, most important tool, in order to get the better of one’s Fortune, even though actually being able to overcome one’s Fortune still requires the birch paper company research, help of essay international medical, Fortune as Machiavelli illustrates in the following: ‘[. ] so stelle ich fest, da? man einen Fursten heute Erfolg haben und untergehen sieht, ohne da? eine Veranderung seines Wesens oder irgendeiner seiner Eigenschaften zu bemerken gewesen ware. Dies beruht meiner Meinung nach [darauf], [. Birch Company Research Papers! ] da? ein Furst, der sich ganz auf sein Gluck verla?t, untergeht, sobald dieses wechselt; ferner glaube ich, da? der Gluck hat, der seine Handlungsweise den Zeitumstanden anpa?t, und ebenso jener ins Ungluck gerat, dessen Handlungsweise nicht den Zeitumstanden entspricht. Sieht man doch, da? die Menschen auf verschiedene Weise vorgehen, um das Ziel zu erreichen, das ein jeder vor Augen hat, namlich Ruhm und Reichtum: der eine verfahrt mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum; dieser mit Gewalt, jener mit List, einer mit Geduld, ein anderer mit dem Gegenteil; so kann jeder auf unterschiedliche Weise an sein Ziel gelangen. Auch beobachtet man, da? von zwei Besonnenen der eine sein Ziel erreicht, der andere nicht; und das ebenso zwei mit verschiedenen Methoden gleicherma?en Gluck haben, der eine mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum: dies liegt allein an den Zeitumstanden, die mit der betreffenden Handlungsweise ubereinstimmen oder nicht.  ’ Even though the idea that time actually did have a quality had its origins in astrology, Machiavelli was more interested in circumstantial aspects of human action. He thought that ‘[. ] humans act according to their individual imagination (fantasia) and individual natural talent (ingegno).
But they face a difficulty since times and things constantly change, even while their own mode of behaviour may not. The key to success is to maintain a harmony between the quality of speaking assignments, one’s time, the quality of general time, one’s temperament and papers, humour, and one’s actions.  ’ In order to demonstrate the influence of the essays, quality of time, Machiavelli presents the case of Pope Julius II who was renowned for his uncompromising active manner of tackling problems.  Machiavelli does admit that Julius was only birch paper research papers lucky because the circumstances he faced happened to contest international, favour boldness but his main concern ‘[. ] here is to give an activist, rather than a passivist interpretation of human action. Even though fortuitous events occur in the world, humans should do their utmost to cope with them, but always within the bounds of birch paper company, their given humour and temperament.  ’ Machiavelli makes his point very clear in one of the most famous and controversial passages of The Prince : ‘Ich ziehe also die Schlu?folgerung, da?, da das Gluck wechselt und die Menschen an ihren Methoden festhalten, sie erfolgreich sind, solange beide ubereinstimmen und sie erfolglos sind, wenn sie nicht ubereinstimmen. Doch halte ich es fur besser, sturmisch als besonnen zu sein; denn Fortuna ist ein Weib und es ist notwendig, wenn man sie niederhalten will, sie zu schlagen und zu sto?en. Man sieht auch, da? sie sich von denen, die so verfahren, eher besiegen la?t, als von jenen, die mit kuhlem Kopf vorgehen; daher ist sie als Weib stets den Junglingen zugetan, weil diese weniger besonnen und sturmischer sind und ihr mit gro?erer Kuhnheit befehlen.  ’ Human action, according to Machiavelli, depends on both human initiative and commonwealth 2011, the favour of Fortune.
When a youth hits and shoves her, it is still Fortune who allows this to happen. Without her consent, he would not have been able to do so and, in this context, humans become Fortune’s toy, even though they may not be aware of this. 2.3. How well did the Elizabethans know Machiavelli’s work? Even though Machiavelli’s The Prince was not officially available in English until 1640, there is substantial evidence that his work was known in England well before that particular year, as Bawcutt points out in the following: ‘There are only paper research papers a few allusions to Machiavelli in 2006 essay international medical, England before about 1570, not all of them hostile, usually made by men of learning who had actually visited Italy.
From 1570 onwards, the allusions are much more frequent, but usually in a context of political and religious controversy [. ]  ’It was not even really necessary for birch paper research, the texts to be available in English, even though humanist scholars had translated a wide range of classical and temporary works into charles essays English. Italian influences (literature, art, etc.) were quite strong at the time, and papers, even if someone actually was not able to frank questions, read Italian, there always was the possibility of reading either a translation or a discussion of Machiavelli’s work (eg. in French). The discussion of Machiavelli’s work in England was lively but it suffered from the hardly avoidable inaccuracies brought about by translation. ‘We know that Machiavelli’s work was frequently garbled; we also know that his works circulated widely and birch, were translated into several languages, so that garbling was not merely the result of ignorance, though this was certainly a factor, and I am sure that many Elizabethans used the term ‘Machiavellian’ much in the way that words like ‘Freudian’ or ‘Marxist’ are used at present by people who may not have read either writer.  ’ However, the crucial event, in the evaluation of Machiavelli’s was the massacre of the French protestant Huguenots in Paris. Schieder explains: ‘[. ] das Epochenjahr fur das Verhaltnis des westeuropaischen Protestantismus ist das jahr 1572 gewesen, das jahr der Bartholomausnacht, die in ihrer Verbindung von List und Grausamkeit als der klassische Fall von machiavellistischer Politik empfunden wurde. Von jetzt an ist der Stab endgultig gebrochen; sein Name wird das Symbol fur das bose Prinzip in der Politik, und wird, losgelost vom Boden der machiavellistischen Schriften, eine eigentumliche, selbstandig wirkende Kraft. Commonwealth Essay Competitions 2011!  ’ People in papers, Elizabethan England could not have agreed more with this assessment of Machiavelli who for them was associated with cruelty and broken promises. The massacre of the speaking, Protestant Huguenots in paper company papers, France also had a more concrete dimension for the Elizabethans.
They saw it primarily as a Catholic crime and when the speaking, relations between England and Spain started to deteriorate in the 1580s, a Spanish invasion became an equally realistic and fearful scenario. Paper Research Papers! People in England added up their numbers and concluded that they would meet with the same fate as the Huguenots in France. Creative Writing! After all, the Spanish King had openly welcomed how they had been dealt with. Birch Paper! It was not until after the defeat of the anne play essay questions, Spanish Armada in company research papers, 1588 that the threat of creative writing certificate canada, a Spanish invasion was finally off the cards. Company! The parts of medical, Machiavelli’s work which most shocked Elizabethan readers, were chapters 17 (why it is necessary to be cruel under certain circumstances) and birch paper papers, 18 (keeping and 2011, breaking promises) of the paper company research papers, Prince, which they interpreted as a guide for tyrants.
At the beginning of essay questions, 3 Henry VI , Richard is portrayed as a soldier, proud of what he has achieved in battle, but unrestrained by any moral scruples. Birch Paper Research! He, the youngest son, is 2006 contest essay international medical respected for his courage by company research papers his father who claims ‘Richard hath best deserved of all my sons.  ’ Young as Richard is, he does not stand back and let his elders make decisions. Writing Canada! It is birch paper research papers he who suggests that they stay in Parliament House, who mocks King Henry and tells his father to creative certificate online canada, take Henry’s crown. Richard: ‘You are old enough now, and yet, methinks, you lose. Father, tear the crown from the research papers, usurper’s head.  ’ In 3 Henry VI , I.2, Richard begins to contest his brother Edward’s position of supremacy. Contest Medical! It is paper papers he who persuades his father to break the oath he has given to the king and brushes aside all moral issues which stand against doing so. Richard argues that his father is the rightful king and, therefore, should not hesitate to take with force what really belongs to him. Charles Chesnutt Essays And Speeches! ‘Moreover, this infant prodigy is research papers given a speech which is to be the charles chesnutt essays and speeches, clue to the whole of his subsequent career, as the dramatist sees it. Company Research!  ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is truly Machiavellian: Richard: ‘An oath is of no moment, being not took. Before a true and lawful magistrate. That hath authority over him that swears.
Henry had none, but did usurp the place. Then, seeing ’twas he that made you depose, Your oath, my lord, is vain and frivolous.  ’ Richard goes on to pledge that he will not rest until the crown of 2011, Henry VI firmly rests on his father’s head: Richard: ‘Therefore to arms! And, father, do but think. How sweet a thing it is to company, wear a crown, Within whose circuit is Elysium. And all that poets feign of bliss and joy.
Why do we linger thus? I cannot rest. Until the white rose that I wear be dy’d. Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry’s heart.  ’ Even though Richard is 2006 contest essay medical so openly obsessed with the crown, it is important to stress that, at least at this point, he does not want the crown for himself but for his father whom he worships. Birch Paper Company! ‘Love for speaking assignments, his father is the sole token of paper company papers, humanity shown by Shakespeare’s Richard in the whole course of his career.  ’ Richard is also very proud of him as the following suggests: Richard: ‘Methinks, ’tis prize enough to be his son.  ’ The news of his father’s death after the battle of Wakefield leaves him unable to. weep and burning for revenge. Richard: ‘To weep is to make less the depth of assignments, grief.
Tears then for babes; blows and revenge for me! Richard, I bear thy name. I’ll venge thy death, Or die renowned attempting it.  ’ As far as the last two lines are concerned, Richard will keep his vow, even though his renown will be of some darker kind. The death of his father has deprived Richard of the only person who ever loved him. Birch Company Papers! Furthermore, the loss of his father has profound psychological consequences on Richard, even though these will not become apparent until the second scene of the third act. Charles Chesnutt Essays And Speeches! ‘Not till Richard has lost his father, does he begin to invoke his bodily deformity as a thing which sets him apart from his fellows. There is nobody now to love and praise him; he is no longer the birch paper company research papers, ‘valiant crook-back prodigy’ whose grumbling voice is so dear to assignments, the creature he most admired. Hence forth, he is a man apart.  ’ In the meantime, the fortune of battle has turned, and King Henry VI has been taken prisoner  . Birch Paper Research! Richard’s enthusiasm at these new developments is rather limited, even though he disguises the fact. ‘Then with an appalling abruptness he breaks into his first soliloquy. It is a coup de theatre . Richard has fought heart and soul to online, make his father king.
But here, in his father’s place, is his brother. Birch Paper Company Research Papers! Edward is a lusty blockhead, wooing a sweet widow for his pleasure, though he is in policy pledged to seek a French alliance.  ’ Elizabeth Grey who requests Edward to return the commonwealth 2011, land of her dead husband makes such a positive impression on him that he decides to marry her and make her Queen of England.  Edward’s decision to marry Elizabeth Grey is to end the unity between the birch company research, three brothers who have, so far, fought together, to establish and preserve the dynasty of the House of York. Chesnutt! Although his two elder brothers and company research papers, their unborn children are before him in the line of frank play questions, succession, Richard decides that he wants the throne for himself, cost it what it will. Richard: ‘So do I wish the crown, being so far of; And so do I chide the birch company research papers, means that keeps me from it; And so, I say, I’ll cut the causes off,
Flattering me with impossibilities.  ’ Now, for the first time, Richard thinks about his deformity, which had not been an issue while his father was still alive and, realising that it will cut him off from earthly pleasures, he determines that he will not rest until he is king: Richard: ‘Then, since this earth affords no joy to me. But to command, to contest, check, to o’erbear such. As are of better person than myself, I’ll make my heaven to dream upon the crown, And whiles I live, t’account this world but hell, Until my mis-shap’d trunk that bears this head. Be round impaled with a glorious crown.  ’ The following lines show Richard’s intention of achieving his aims by deceit and murder and ‘[. ] express the very core of what an paper, Elizabethan audience would recognise as Machiavellian doctrine, as practised by Italian despots, and by the French queen-mother in the treacherous Massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572.  ’ Richard: ‘Why, I can smile, and murder while I smile, And cry “Content” to what grieves my heart, And whet my cheeks with artificial tears,
And frame my face to all occasions. I’ll drown more sailors than the mermaid shall; I’ll play the orator as well as Nestor, Deceive more slily than Ulysses could, And, like Sinon, take another Troy. I can add colors to the chameleon, Change shapes with Proteus for advantages, And set the murderous Machiavel to school.  ’ At the moment, however, there is not much that Richard can do to achieve his aim. Sociology Mid-century Essays Cumulation! The most important thing for the time being is to keep his brother on the throne.
Richard has to birch company, be loyal to his brother for the moment, in order to writing certificate, be able to paper, carry out his own plans, later. Edward’s marriage to Lady Grey causes the King of sociology essays in theory cumulation, France, to whose sister Edward was betrothed, to switch his allegiance to birch company papers, the House of Lancaster. It also causes Warwick and Clarence to defect. Richard, however, stays. ‘The defection of Clarence and Warwick to the cause of Lancaster provides him with further occasion to display his energy and resource. Edward is captured by sociology since mid-century essays cumulation the Lancastrians and birch paper papers, King Henry is restored to the throne. Creative Certificate Online! Richard rescues his brother and urges him to reclaim at once the research, crown he has lost. Anne Play!  ’ Richard’s patience is finally rewarded at birch paper, the battle of since mid-century, Tewkesbury. The death of Prince Edward leaves King Henry the last remaining obstacle between Edward and the throne. It is symptomatic for Richard’s decisiveness that, after the battle, in truly Machiavellian style, he immediately rides to London in order to take charge of the problem personally.
Richard’s killing of birch paper company research, King Henry marks his first political murder and his comments referring to it are very cynical: Richard: ‘See how my sword weeps for the poor king’s death! Oh, may such purple tears be alway shed. From those that wish the downfall of our house! If any spark of public, life be yet remaining, Down, down to hell, and say I sent thee thither.  ’ From now on paper research, Richard’s mind is free to focus on the goal which he has set for himself: the crown of England. Frank Questions! ‘And in his final soliloquy in this play he reaffirms his resolve to remove both Edward and Clarence from his path, and again, in Machiavellian terms, emphasises his immunity to normal human weakness.  ’ Richard: ‘I have no brother, I am like no brother, And this word “love” which greybeards call divine, Be resident in birch company, men like one another. And not in me. I am myself alone.
Clarence, beware. Thou keep’st me from the light; But I will sort a pitchy day for thee; For I will buzz abroad such prophesies. That Edward shall be fearful of his life, And then, to essay 2011, purge his fear, I’ll be thy death. King Henry and paper company papers, the Prince his son are gone; Clarence, thy turn is next, and anne frank essay, then the rest, Counting myself but bad till I be best.  ’ In the last scene Edward, surrounded by his wife, baby boy and paper company research papers, brothers, believes he has achieved a lasting peace which he hopes to pass on to his heir.
In an aside Richard threatens to destroy the child after the death of his elder brother Edward. Richard: ‘I’ll blast his harvest, if your head were laid;  ’ He feigns love but at speaking, the same time reveals his true feelings. Richard: ‘To say the truth, so Judas kiss’d his master; And cried “All hail” when as he meant all harm. Company Research Papers!  ’ By the end of the play, Richard has freed himself from all remains of sociology since essays in theory cumulation, conventional morality and so the stage is set for the plot of birch company, Richard III. At the beginning of Richard III , the overall situation seems to be peaceful. The civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York is over and Richard’s brother Edward is king of England. Everybody at court seems to essay international, be settling down to the new situation of peace – everybody apart from Richard, who has not forgotten, what he had committed himself to paper company, at the end of 3 Henry VI , after he had killed King Henry in the Tower.
He makes this very clear in his opening soliloquy: Richard: ‘Why, I, in commonwealth, this weak piping time of peace, Have no delight to pass away the birch company, time, Unless to see my shadow in the sun. And descant on my own deformity. And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover.
To entertain these fair well-spoken days, I am determined to anne essay questions, prove a villain. And hate the idle pleasures of these days.  ’ Richard’s contempt for birch company papers, the new situation of commonwealth essay 2011, peace is easily explained: war was the only time, when Richard’s services were appreciated and birch papers, he was met with respect for his courage and determination, instead of with scorn for his deformity. Now that the war is over, he realises that, from now on, his deformity  will again become the focus of in theory cumulation, attention. However, instead of despairing over the unlikeliness of a woman’s love for company research, him, he decides to prove a villain. Essay! This decision is not a sudden angry reaction out of frustration, but rather a rationally considered moral choice. ‘Die Monologe Gloucesters sind kalte rationale Uberlegungen uber die nachsten Schritte von einer Machiavelli nahekommenden Kraft der Analyse politischer Situationen [. ]. Birch Paper Company Research Papers!  ’ It is essay international also important to stress that Richard is birch company papers not a victim of his deformity. Sociology Since Mid-century Cumulation! Rather, he is motivated by birch research papers his moral deformity and thus his moral choice becomes an outward expression of it. The way in which Shakespeare describes Richard’s moral choice and the ensuing consequences indicates his own view of one of the most controversial innovations of humanist thought: the idea of individual freedom. Although everybody had a God-given place in the framework of society, you were still free to chesnutt essays, excel in any particular field or occupation you happened to birch company research papers, be good at. Creative Writing Canada! This understanding of individualism was also reflected in birch company research papers, the Renaissance concept of art: basically everything which required a certain degree of skill was considered an art. Even though the Renaissance broadened the view of what mankind was able to achieve, this new individualism also had its darker side.
People suddenly started to realise the moral implications of individual freedom and this is charles chesnutt essays and speeches why the emphasis on virtuous action, as one of the main goals of learning, became a fundamental principle of papers, humanism. Virtue thus became a standard against which everything would be checked. One of the commonwealth competitions 2011, most important novelties which had been brought about by humanism was a new assessment of the position of the individual, as Michael Maurer explains in birch research, the following: ‘Wahrend in der Uberlieferung vor allem das blinde Schicksal, der Kampf des Einzelnen gegen das Rad der Fortuna, das einen heute nach oben treibt und morgen fallen la?t, strukturbildend waren, wurde nun im Zeitalter von Shakespeare die Autonomie des Individiums starker betont.  ’ This, foremostly, applied to commonwealth competitions, the ‘de casibus’-tragedy. You still had the rise-and-fall pattern inspired by paper company research papers Senecan tragedy but ambition no longer automatically led to the protagonist’s doom. The focus of in theory cumulation, attention now lay in his motivation. In this context, ambition no longer had to be bad from the start.
Instead, everything boiled down to the motivation of the protagonist and the lawfulness of the research papers, means which he applied. As far as the Elizabethans were concerned, Richard, like Machiavelli, was far removed from any conventional notion of morality or virtue. Creative Writing!  ‘Richard as a character expresses Shakespeare’s fascination with the possibility of a creative, self-assertive individuality [. ]. But as a figure exercising his egoistic freedom in the world of other men, Richard presents to Shakespeare the possibilities of terror and destruction which can accompany that freedom. The grotesque proportions of paper company, Richard’s evil reflect Shakespeare’s radical distrust of the individual not controlled by a divine moral plan.  ’ Richard does not feel bound by any authority whatsoever. He is completely self-centered and also very straight-forward about his goals. Right from the start he pursues his aims one by one, disregarding all questions of morality. The end for him always justifies the means. On the whole, the way in which Richard proceeds throughout his notorious career, for people living in Elizabethan England, was the essence of how they understood Machiavellian power politics. To them, Machiavelli, had been an advocate of speaking assignments, cold-blooded murder as a legitimate means of pragmatic policies. Clarence is totally deceived by birch company Richard’s pretended concern and public speaking, compassion for his plight. Papers! Richard at chesnutt essays and speeches, once lays the blame for the arrest of his naive brother on birch company research papers, the queen and questions, her family.
Richard: ‘Why, this is when men are ruled by company women. ’Tis not the sociology mid-century, king that sends you to the tower.  ’ He tells Clarence that she had likewise been responsible for the imprisonment of Hastings, who is about to birch paper, be released, thanks to the influence of the charles essays, king’s mistress, Jane Shore. An interesting detail in birch paper company research, Richard’s line of 2006 essay medical, argumentation, here, is the element of witchcraft. Richard had brought it up earlier, in birch company research papers, 3 Henry VI , when he talked about his deformity, and that his mother was to blame for it. Clarence is no match for Richard’s supreme intelligence. Chesnutt Essays And Speeches! He had been outraged at his brother Edward’s marriage to Elizabeth Grey and paper company research, Richard only has to commonwealth essay 2011, fuel his brother’s hatred and suspicion of the queen, at the same time drawing away suspicion from himself.
When he says good-bye to his brother he pretends that he will do everything in his power to help Clarence. Richard: ‘We are the queen’s abjects and must obey. Brother, farewell. I will unto the king, And whatsoe’er you will employ me in,
Were it to call King Edward’s widow sister, I will perform it to enfranchise you. Meanwhile, this deep disgrace in paper company research, brotherhood. touches me deeper than you can imagine.  ’ Clarence is deceived into believing that Richard will do everything to secure his release and anne questions, Clarence will continue to think so right until the murderers tell him who really sent them.  Richard, however, is birch company papers only prepared to help his brother to charles chesnutt essays and speeches, an early grave. Richard: ‘Go, tread the path that thou shalt ne’er return.
Simple, plain Clarence, I do love thee so. That I will shortly send thy soul heaven, If heaven will take the birch company, present at our hands.  ’ The last sentence, here, is an allusion to public speaking assignments, Clarence’s own past record of villainies and research papers, betrayals. In 3 Henry VI , he had first betrayed his brother, then Warwick, and then he had participated in the killing of 2011, King Henry’s son Edward.  ‘Thus Clarence pays the debt of birch company, his kind. He has played the creative, game and inevitably pays his forfeit – cruel to his enemies, false to his friends, unequal in force or cunning to birch company, his brilliant brother. He excites our compassion without moving our hearts.  ’ Richard’s next step is to find himself a future queen. Public! His obvious choice is Anne, because, as the widow of the last Prince of Wales, she embodies the claims of the House of research, Lancaster.
Apart from that, she would also make a beautiful trophy and Richard could demonstrate that he was able to win her, despite his deformity and her hatred for him. In the end, she proved to in theory, be the ultimate proving ground for his talents as a dissembler, another key feature of the Machiavellian villain. According to Keeton this scene ‘[. ] is inserted with the deliberate intention of showing how completely Richard has mastered the Machiavellian technique. It also strikingly illustrates the fact that although everything which Richard does is evil, and although his appearance is repulsive and Margaret habitually describes him as a monster, he is company nevertheless generally trusted, has a reputation for blunt honesty and speaking assignments, fidelity, and birch papers, even has made himself attractive to women. Equally notable is the fact that whenever he is charles taxed with some crime, his explanation is prompt and plausible. The whole scene with Anne emphasises his mental agility and his readiness in repartee, and by the end of it even she has succumbed to paper company research, the overpowering charm which he uses with such effect, and with such supreme insincerity; [. ]  ’ Anne is, however, still intelligent enough to have sincere doubts over Richard’s feelings. Anne: ‘I would I knew thy heart. Richard: Tis figured in my tongue. Anne: I fear me both are false.  ’ Anne is a widow in medieval England. Essays And Speeches! This means that there are only two options open to birch paper company, her: either to public speaking assignments, remarry or to spend the rest of her life in a cloister.
Richard offered a lot of advantages in spite of the grief that he had caused her. With this in mind, it is not too difficult to imagine, that in the end she simply chose ‘the devil she knew’ as the lesser evil. However, as Spivack points out, there were also other reasons for Shakespeare to put the birch paper company research papers, wooing scene into the play. ‘She stimulates his most brilliant achievement [. ] because she is his most difficult undertaking, the abhorrence for the murderer of her husband and her royal father in law corresponding to the more abstract enmity of virtue to vice that puts the vice of the moralities on his mettle when faced with the equivalent situation. Shakespeare exploits this traditional crux to the uttermost by allowing Richard to intrude upon her at the moment the most hopelessly inauspicious for his enterprise, when she is following the corpse of murdered King Henry to its burial, her grief mingled with curses against the author of frank questions, it. So contrived to extend his skill, the scene is Richard’s masterpiece [. ] At the paper company research papers, end Anne has made the creative writing certificate, same moral reversal that marked the career of Mankind and all his descendants: she has thrown over her alliance with virtue and united herself to evil.  ’ Although Anne, at first, was Richard’s fiercest adversary, she finally succumbs to him, because she is human. Paper Company Research Papers! Even if the chesnutt, reasons of the real Anne to marry Richard, probably were a lot more pragmatic, Shakespeare makes it look as if Anne was just a challenge for birch company research, Richard’s superb wit.
As Palmer points out, ‘Richard’s wooing may be dictated by political necessity, but its prime purpose for speaking assignments, the dramatist is to show Richard’s insolent virtuosity in persuasion, his delight in the exercise of his mind and will, his pride in attempting the impossible and paper company research papers, his triumph in his achievement. The reasons which Richard gives for writing certificate online canada, the attempt are secondary. Here was a challenge to his wit which, apart from company research papers, any question of expediency, was irresistible.  ’ Richard’s victory over Anne was a great one indeed. Even though she had been so violently hostile at 2011, the beginning of the scene, he still managed to win her but, in spite of his joy, he had nothing but contempt for her. On top of papers, that, his victory over her is also one over God and the latter makes him especially proud of his achievement. Therefore, from his morally deformed perspective, he has every reason to be delighted with himself and 2006 contest essay international medical, thus he celebrates accordingly: Richard: ‘Was ever woman in this humour wooed? Was ever woman in this humour won? I’ll have her, but I will not keep her long.
What, I that killed her husband and his father, To take her in her heart’s extremest hate. With curses in her mouth, tears in her eyes, The bleeding witness of her hatred by, Having God, her conscience, and these bars against birch paper, me,
And I no friends to back my suit withal. But the mid-century in theory cumulation, plain devil and the dissembling looks? And yet to win her, all the paper company research papers, world to nothing! Even though Anne repeatedly refers to since mid-century, Richard’s dissembling nature, she still cannot resist him. Birch Paper Research!  Richard overcomes overwhelming odds against her in truly Machiavellian style: Anne literally becomes an anne frank play, embodiment of Fortune and Richard beats down her defences.  7. Richard plants discord at birch research, court. Richard’s next step towards his goal is to rid himself of Clarence, at the same time putting the blame on the queen.
In a game of cat and mouse he taunts her until she threatens that she will complain to Edward, thus giving Richard the opportunity to remind everyone how much Edward owes him. Richard: ‘Ere you were queen, ay, or your husband king, I was a pack-horse in his great affairs, A weeder-out of his adversaries, A liberal rewarder of creative writing, his friends.
To royalize his blood I spent mine own. Company Papers!  ’ At the chesnutt essays and speeches, same time he denies having any ambitions to become king. Richard: ‘If I should be? I had rather be a pedlar. Far be it from my heart, the thought thereof.  ’ With a brilliant display of acting, Richard has managed to reverse the roles and turn the queen herself into a calculating ‘Machiavel’. Paper Research! Thus he has given her a motive for getting rid of both Clarence and himself. Richard’s accusations culminate in reminding her that both her former husband and her brother had fought for the House of Lancaster in the past war. Suddenly, the since, queen has treason looming over her head.  Throughout the whole scene, Richard proves to be a superb actor. First he plays the unjustly accused, then he, in turn, accuses the queen and her family of Clarence’s imprisonment and secret plotting. He rounds off a masterly performance by pretending only to be a plain man, who cannot flatter and the pious man who is too kind-hearted to birch paper company papers, get on in the world.  ‘Er stellt sich hin als der Edle, Einfache in dieser schlimmen Welt.
Es ist das Antichrist-Thema: der Schlimmste hat das Gesicht, die Maske des Heiligen angenommen. Play Questions!  ’ After the others have gone, Richard rejoices at how convincingly he has managed to deceive them. Richard: ‘I do the wrong, and first begin to brawl. The secret mischiefs that I set abroach. I lay into the grievous charge of others.  ’ Richard: ‘And thus I clothe my naked villainy. With odd old ends stol’n forth of holy writ, And seem a saint when most I play the devil.  ’ As Keeton has pointed out, this skill of Richard’s as a dissembler was understood in Elizabethan England as one of the company research, principle character traits of the Machiavellian villain: ‘[. ] in spite of his deformity, almost everyone falls victim to his charm of manner and persuasive tongue.  ’ At the end of the scene, Richard seals the fate of his brother Clarence when he hands the execution warrant to the two murderers who then promptly set off towards the Tower. This means, that throughout the whole scene he must have had the execution warrant in since mid-century essays, his pocket, and still he had no scruples about casting the blame on company research, others.
The beginning of creative writing online, act II sees Edward on his deathbed. Papers! He has gathered the warring factions at his court in a last desperate attempt to unite them and all those who are present, comply with this request – or at least pretend to. When Richard enters, he pretends to join in the cordial mood and online canada, even takes the birch papers, lead. ‘On Richard’s face, love glows more brightly than on any other. Essays!  ’ In reality, however, he is only waiting for the right moment to break the news of Clarence’s death. He does not have to birch paper research papers, wait long. When the queen asks her husband, to include his imprisoned brother in sociology mid-century essays in theory, these reconciliations, Richard pretends to birch paper company papers, take offence: Richard: ‘Why, madam, have I offered love for this, To be so flouted in this royal presence? Who knows not that the gentle Duke is dead?  ’ The news of Clarence’s death leaves the king and all the people around him shocked and stunned. From one moment to essay competitions, another, Richard has shattered both the king’s optimism and the cordial mood at birch research, court.  ‘It is and speeches one of the fine dramatic moments of the play, with Buckingham whispering, ‘look I so pale, Lord Dorset, as the rest?’ Dread and suspicion divorce his nobles in an instant while in birch papers, the soul of the dying king bitterness marries despair. Anne Questions!  ’ The king cannot understand that Clarence was executed because he himself had revoked the order but Richard explains: Richard: ‘But he (poor man) by your first order died, And that a wing’d Mercury did bear;
Some tardy cripple bare the countermand, That came too lag to see him buried.  ’ The irony here, of course, is birch company papers that Richard actually was both the creative writing certificate canada, ‘winged Mercury’ and the ‘cripple’, although one has to admit that he most certainly was not tardy in the way he proceeded. The grief over his brother’s death and his own guilt is too much for Edward and soon afterwards he is led away by his queen. Richard pretends to be the decent man and casts further suspicion on the queen’s family. Richard: ‘This is the fruits of rashness. Marked you not. How the guilty kindred of the queen. Looked pale when they did hear of Clarence’s death? Oh, they did urge it still unto the king. God will revenge it.
Come, lords, will you go. To comfort Edward with our company.  ’ Only a short while later, the queen announces the king’s death. Company! With Clarence dead and Edward’s son, Prince Edward too young to rule, Richard has come a step closer to contest essay international medical, his goal. He is to be Lord Protector. Soon afterwards, Richard and the others arrange for young Prince Edward to be taken to London. However, after the others have left, Richard and Buckingham reveal that they are playing a totally different game. Buckingham proposes to paper company, separate the queen’s relatives from the young prince and, for the moment, Richard will all too gladly pretend to accept a back-seat and leave everything to Buckingham. 8. Richard paves his own way to the crown. Richard’s principal accomplice on his way to certificate online, the throne is birch paper company research Buckingham.
His reasons for siding with Richard are pure calculation and thus entirely egoistic and Buckingham becomes Richard’s principal henchman. ‘Buckingham was privy to all Richard’s plans. He was the counsellor, instrument and crony to his master. So devout is his admiration for Richard that he becomes infected with his hero’s manners and methods. He imitates with zest Richard’s radiant hypocrisy and abrupt violence. When Queen Elizabeth sends her son to sanctuary, it is Buckingham who, in creative writing canada, the very accents of Richard, argues that it would be no sin to drag him forth. Sanctuary, he maintains, was never designed to keep children away from their lawful guardians:  ’ Buckingham ‘You are too senseless, obstinate my lord, Too ceremonious and traditional. Weigh it but with the grossness of birch paper company research papers, this age. You break no sanctuary in sociology mid-century essays, seizing him.
The benefit thereof is always granted. To those whose dealings have deserved the place. And those who have the wit to claim the place. This prince hath neither claimed nor deserved it, And therefore, in birch paper company research papers, mine opinion, cannot have it. Then taking him from thence that is 2011 not there,
You break no privilege nor charter there. Oft have I heard of paper papers, sanctuary men, But sanctuary children ne’er till now.  ’ Furthermore, it is certificate canada also Buckingham who insists that Hastings should join the party sent to remove Prince Edward’s younger brother from church sanctuary at Westminster, where he is staying with his mother. Buckingham: ‘If she deny, Lord Hastings, go with him. And from her jealous arms pluck him perforce.  ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, everything Buckingham says here is ‘Machiavellian’ to the core: Buckingham issues orders to birch paper, snatch a child , currently under protection of church sanctuary from the public speaking, arms of his mother , only for the sake of political pragmatism and paper research, Wolfgang Clemen illustrates, ‘[. ] hier wird heiliges und in der Tradition verankertes Recht mit spitzfindiger Begrundung gebrochen. Shakespeare la?t uberdies bei seinem Appell an den Kardinal sich auf „the grossness of the certificate online canada, age“ (46) berufen, eine sehr bezeichnende, in der Quelle nicht gegebene Hinzufugung Shakespeares. Research Papers! Buckingham will sagen: Verglichen mit der „Rohheit des Zeitalters“, und unter Anlegung der Ma?stabe, mit denen in solcher Zeit derartige Aktionen beurteilt werden, wurde der Kardinal, wenn er den Prinzen gewaltsam aus dem Asyl heraushole, kein Unrecht begehen. – In dieser Wendung und in dem Vorwurf, der Kardinal sei „too ceremonious and essay international medical, traditional“ (45) liegt ein charakteristischer Hinweis auf jene neue politische Moral, die Shakespeare wiederholt an Richard zeigt und die mit dem „englischen“ Machiavellismus in birch paper company research, Verbindung gebracht werden kann.  ’ Buckingham’s eagerness to please his master allows Richard to stay in the background, and Richard deceives Buckingham into believing that they are partners. ‘There are moments when Buckingham seems to assignments, work for Richard from pure love of the sport.  ’ You can, however, not say that Buckingham acts for entirely unselfish reasons. Richard simply knows how to motivate his ‘partner’: Richard: ‘And look when I am king, claim thou of me. The earldom of Hereford and all the movables.
Whereof the research papers, king my brother was possessed. Buckingham: I’ll claim that promise at your grace’s hand. Richard: And look to have it yielded with all kindness.  ’ Buckingham is the perfect Machiavellian agent  . He does the dirty work for Richard and if something goes wrong, Richard can easily find a pretext to get rid of him, while at the same time, he secures Buckingham’s loyal services with the 2006 contest essay international, prospect of granting him favours in the future. After the two princes have been sent to stay in the Tower, under the pretext of their ‘safety’, Buckingham and Richard direct their attention towards the only person who could still cross Richard’s plans to become king: Hastings. Hastings, for Richard, is the key figure in gaining control of the two princes. He is the former chamberlain of King Edward, and as such he has enjoyed a good relationship with both of Edward’s sons  . One indication for paper research, this is, that Prince Edward is very disappointed not to see Hastings when he arrives in London.  Another is, that Buckingham is eager to have Hastings in the party which is sent to remove young York from sanctuary.  Hastings’s good relations to the young princes allow Richard a much easier access to them. Although Hastings is prepared to help Richard become Protector, he draws the line when asked by Catesby to help Richard to the crown. From that point on, Hastings is no longer of any use to Richard and Richard makes quite clear how he will deal with Hastings if he does not comply. Buckingham: ‘What shall we do if we perceive. Lord Hastings will not yield to our complots?
Richard: Chop off his head.  ’ Richard has prepared the removal of Hastings very carefully. It is all to happen at sociology in theory, a council meeting where the date for paper research papers, the coronation of Prince Edward is to be decided. Knowing that Hastings will oppose Richard’s plans to seize the crown, Richard has to move quickly – before Edward can be crowned. Hastings is foolish enough to doubt the evidence and chesnutt and speeches, provokes an outburst in which Richard accuses Hastings of treachery for defending his mistress and condemns him to death. Hastings: ‘If they have done this deed, my noble lord – Richard: If? Thou protector of this damned strumpet, Talk’st thou to paper, me of ifs? Thou art a traitor. Off with his head! Now by Saint Paul I swear, I will not dine until I see the same.  ’ Richard leaves the others in since mid-century essays in theory cumulation, the room no time to answer and orders everyone who is on his side to leave the birch paper research papers, room with him.
Hastings is led away to his execution immediately afterwards.  His lamentations are mercilessly cut short by Ratcliffe and Lovell and Cornelia Czach illustrates: ‘Durch den Wahnwitz eines solchen menschenverachtenden Zynismus schon im kleinsten Handlanger des Teufels gewinnt auch die Sterbeszene Zuge einer grotesken Persiflage. Der schwarze Komodiant Richard la?t seinen Opfern nicht einmal mehr die Zeit, zu beichten und eine Sterberede zu halten wie in der Tragodie. 2006 Contest Essay Medical! Er ist stets in Eile und verwirklicht seine Plane schnell und uberraschend, fur das Verweilen der Tragodie in Pathos und Emotion hat er, der gefuhllose Rationalist, keine Mu?e. Paper!  ’ With the removal of Hastings, Richard’s path to the crown is writing certificate as good as free. The swift and birch paper, stern manner in which Richard had dealt with Hastings had demonstrated to public, the other nobles that he was no one to birch paper papers, be messed with. All he has to do now is to find a way to persuade the citizens that he alone is the rightful heir to the throne of speaking, England. With his next tactical move, to persuade the paper research papers, citizens of London that Edward’s children are bastards and that Richard is, therefore, the rightful heir to the throne, Richard does not meet with his accustomed success. Writing Certificate! If Richard cannot be made king by popular acclaim he must be presented in a different light – the devout man reluctant to paper company papers, accept the proffered throne. Buckingham: ‘Ah ha, my lord, this prince is not an Edward. He is essays not lulling on a lewd love-bed.
But on company research, his knees at meditation, Not dallying with a brace of courtesans. But meditating with two deep divines, Not sleeping to engross his idle body. But praying to enrich his watchful soul. Happy were England, would this virtuous prince. Take on chesnutt, his grace the sovereignty thereof, But sure I fear we shall not win him to paper research papers, it.  ’ Richard feigns reluctance to meet the frank essay questions, mayor and aldermen, and birch paper company papers, finally he appears with a prayer book in his hand, flanked by two bishops. Competitions 2011! ‘There are no bishops present in the gallery scene as Holinshed describes it, it is Shakespeare who has amplified the research, scene iconographically, in contest international, accordance with his portrait of Richard as a master of deceptive stage management.  ’ As far as England is concerned, the image of a king flanked by two bishops had its origins in the myth of King Arthur. ‘Geoffrey of Monmouth described Arthur brought to his coronation by papers two bishops.  ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, Richard had thus profaned both the holy institution of kingship and the Tudor dynasty.  However, as Naumann points out, the sociology mid-century, significance of this scene also has a more abstract level. ‘Der Akzent der Darstellung liegt auch hier nicht auf der menschlichen Entwicklung, sondern eher auf der Vorfuhrung abstrahierter Tugenden oder Laster, wie der Heuchelei, die in papers, Richard verkorpert ist, und die sich in creative writing online canada, das Gewand der Tugend gekleidet hat.  ’ When Richard appears on the gallery with a prayer book in company, his hand, flanked by two bishops, he plays the part of the simple, pious, tender-hearted prince who is more concerned with religion and meditation than with politics. This whole part of the writing canada, scene also reflects a crucial point which Machiavelli had made: that what you seem to be is more important than what you actually are  , and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Nirgendwo ist die Ironie der Situation durch paradoxe Umkehrung aller Rollen so meisterhaft gehandhabt und so kunstvoll mit den verschiedenen Formen der Sprachironie mehrschichtig verbunden.
Nirgendwo haben wir auch eine so bewu?t durchgefuhrte Anwendung der „Verstellungsrhetorik“. An keiner anderen Stelle erleben wir „Richard den Schauspieler“ mit solcher Virtuositat in birch paper research papers, einer ad hoc „gestellten Szene“, fur die er selber gleichzeitig der Regisseur war. Contest!  ’ The last thing Richard would want to paper company, decline is the crown of England. Essays And Speeches! However, he still has to fool the mayor and the citizens into company research papers believing that he has to 2006 contest essay medical, be persuaded into accepting the crown. In the end the astonishing display of acting of birch paper company research, both Richard and creative writing, Buckingham pays off.  Richard allows himself to be persuaded into accepting the throne on the grounds of the illegitimacy of Edward’s son in order to save his dynasty. Buckingham: Your brother’s son shall never reign our king, But we will plant some other in the throne.
To the disgrace and downfall of your house.  ’ At last, Richard allows himself to be ‘persuaded’ into accepting the throne. Richard: ‘Cousin of Buckingham, and sage, grave men, Since you will buckle fortune on my back, To bear the burden, whe’er I will or no, I must have patience to endure the load.  ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is birch company research papers religious to the core, even though he himself, of course, is not. As Bridget Gellert Lyons has shown, Richard’s language is sociology since essays in theory cumulation transformed into an image of paper company research, Christian patience and mid-century in theory cumulation, endurance. ‘He suggests that the ‘burden’ of kingship which he is reluctantly agreeing to assume is a cross which he has to birch paper company, bear, like his hunchback, or that he is creative writing certificate online like the emblem representing religious Hope as a man with Fortune’s wheel strapped to his back, who walks along, doubled over by his burden, yet supported by his staff of birch, Hope.  ’ The farce which both Richard and Buckingham have acted out so perfectly, thus, becomes an inversion of traditional concepts of kingship. In the second scene of the anne questions, fourth act Richard is finally crowned. However, there is something very strange about birch paper research this scene: Even though Richard is king there is a deep divide between him and the other people in public assignments, the room.
He is totally isolated as Bridget Gellert Lyons illustrates: ‘Mounted on the throne with great flourishing, presumably for the first time, he asks everyone but Buckingham to withdraw (‘Stand all apart.’ IV.2.1), thus dramatising in research, visual terms that his eminence is not the summit of public speaking, society’s pyramid, but a lonely perch occupied by him alone in the temporary company of paper company research, his accomplice in crime. The royal seat of England, separated in this way from the society to which it is meant to give order and coherence, becomes the private place where Richard plots the murder of the legitimate ruler, and where he is unable to assert his authority even over his accomplice.  ’ It now becomes obvious that Richard has a lot more talent as an online, actor than as a politician. He is in paper, fact not quite as Machiavellian as the Elizabethan cliche of the term would have suggested. After all, one of the most important points which Machiavelli had made was that a ruler should do everything he could in creative canada, order to gain the support of the dominant social group. Once he had achieved that he was then supposed to maintain this support for the future. ‘Gut geordnete Staaten und kluge Fursten waren mit Eifer darauf bedacht, die Gro?en nicht zur Verzweiflung zu bringen, sowie das Volk zufriedenzustellen und bei guter Stimmung zu halten, denn dies ist eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben, die ein Furst hat. Birch Paper Company!  ’ Furthermore, even though it was safer for a ruler to be feared than loved, he was still supposed to avoid anything which might have incurred the hatred of frank play questions, his people.  The latter was certainly not something you could have said about Richard who had already burnt his boats long before he actually managed to birch company research, become king. ‘Richard the master of palace politics does everything possible to prevent himself from creative writing canada, attaining his broad base in birch papers, popular support, which in commonwealth essay competitions, England was manifested in the strength of the nobility.  ’ Although Richard now has the power, this power of his lacks a proper base. In the end it is inevitable that he has to fall, as Wheeler illustrates. ‘Richard, politically, ironically is the paper, ‘bottled spider’ that Margaret calls him, able to poison whomever ventures into his web, but not able to extend this web as a means of embracing the power of the kingdom.  ’ As Moseley has argued, Richard is the exact opposite of a true king: he does not reconcile and commonwealth essay competitions, he does not unite. ‘The opposite of a true King is the tyrant, for research, whom power and essay competitions 2011, its exercise is merely selfish. Richard as King demonstrates in his tyranny the true nature of Machiavellian ambition and ignoring of the moral law, and as we have seen, it is when he became King that he ceases to birch paper company, personate; he shows what he personally is.  ’ Especially this last aspect is drastically demonstrated in the dialogue between Richard and Buckingham which immediately follows Richard’s coronation. Richard begins by hinting that his position is endangered by the young Prince Edward. Richard: ‘But shall we wear these glories for a day? Or shall they last, and sociology essays cumulation, we rejoice in them?  When Buckingham is reluctant to follow him he comes straight to the point.
Richard: Cousin, thou was not wont to company research, be so dull. Shall I be plain? I wish the bastards dead, And I would have it suddenly performed.  ’ Suddenly Richard’s language has changed: from creative online, courtly to brutally direct. When Buckingham hesitates he inadvertently seals his own fate. Birch! Richard had ‘played the touch’ to see how far his partner in crime was prepared to go. Now it is Buckingham’s turn to draw the line. Until then he had just about managed to leave the murders to essay 2011, Richard, however deeply he may have been involved in birch paper papers, the preceding plotting. Richard’s straight-forward request for Buckingham to organise the murder of the young princes catches his until then faithful follower totally by surprise. ‘Buckingham withdraws to think over Richard’s proposal, but Richard’s mind was made up at the first sign of hesitation in his confederate. Public Assignments! He does not wait for Buckingham’s considered reply.
He has no use for a man who has a pitiful, small mind of paper papers, his own.  ’ Buckingham is thus sidelined and essay, his request, regarding the earldom which Richard had promised to him earlier, is birch papers harshly brushed off. Furthermore, Richard humiliates him by simply ignoring him.  In Machiavellian terms, this is Richard’s first political mistake as Machiavelli explains in the following: ‘Es gilt also festzustellen, da? man die Menschen entweder verwohnen oder vernichten mu?, denn fur leichte Demutigungen nehmen sie Rache, fur schwere konnen sie dies nicht tun; also mu? der Schaden, den man anderen zufugt, so gro? sein, da? man keine Rache zu furchten braucht.  ’ Buckingham will not forget how he has been treated by Richard and defect to Richmond’s side. When his forces are dispersed in public speaking, the floods it will be the last time that Fortune does Richard a favour. Even though Buckingham is birch paper little more than a sorry imitation of Richard there is 2006 essay international medical a significant difference between the two of them: Buckingham still has a tiny rest of fundamental goodness, a quality which Richard lacks entirely, as Cornelia Czach shows in the following: ‘Richard hingegen bekennt sich in damonischem Zynismus ehrlich, ohne sich irgendeine Legitimationsinstanz zu schaffen, zur Menschenverachtung als Bedingung erfolgreicher Machtpolitik und Kriegsstrategie, zum Machiavellistischen Gewaltprinzip. Konsequenter als alle anderen weist er jeden Moralkodex zuruck, der zu den Regeln seines eigenen Gesellschaftsspiels in Widerspruch steht, die er selbst setzt und auf die sich die anderen einlassen mussen.  ’ After Richard had forced Buckingham to show his cards, he turned to Tyrell and put him in charge of the crime which was to cement his reputation as the most notorious criminal in the history of English politics: the murder of the two little princes in the Tower.
While they were still alive they posed a constant threat to Richard’s reign. Therefore, it is very likely that Richard had already made up his mind about how to research papers, deal with them well before he actually became king, as Palmer explains: ‘Child murder is charles essays a political expedient on which countless generations of birch paper company research papers, men in authority have based their privilege and power. Contest Essay Medical! [. ] All down the company papers, ages the public speaking assignments, successful politician has shown little or no reluctance to out-Herod Herod in his slaughter of the innocents. The crime of Richard is the secular crime of the birch company papers, power politician in every age and there is a sense in which every political leader is a wicked uncle who kills little children in their beds.  ’ When Tyrell returns with the news for Richard that the princes are dead, he describes how they were murdered in public assignments, a remorseful soliloquy. Tyrell: ‘The tyrannous and birch paper company research papers, bloody act is done, The most arch deed of piteous massacre. That ever yet this land was guilty of.  ’ Tyrell is, in writing online, fact, the first to birch paper company, show any notion of guilt whatsoever since the murderers of Clarence in 2006 essay medical, the first act and, as Cornelia Czach has shown, this is papers symptomatic for the overall atmosphere of the play.
‘In Richard III gibt es keinen Konflikt zwischen Gut und Bose; das Bose allein herrscht; von allen Seiten unterstutzt. Die Welt ist nicht aus den Angeln gehoben wie in der Tragodie, sondern gezeigt wird, wie diese Welt tatsachlich ist. Und so, wie sie ist, ist sie in sich intakt, stimmig und in sich geschlossen. Dem Zuschauer wird keine moralische Norm an die Hand gegeben, die das Gegenteil von [Richard] Gloucester ist. Richard selber ist die Norm, der Prufstein vor dem sich die anderen Figuren enthullen und sich ihre eigene Zwielichtigkeit zu erkennen geben mussen.  ’ This is also why we do not feel any real sympathy with Richard’s victims – apart from the little princes. Most of them are themselves despicable, weak or eaten up by their own individual desire for charles chesnutt, personal advancement. After Tyrell has left Richard contemplates his achievements. Both of Edward’s sons are dead and Clarence’s children have also been rendered harmless. Furthermore, the birch paper company research, death of speaking, his wife Anne has opened the opportunity for him to marry Edward’s daughter Elizabeth, his last challenge to the throne.
Only if he manages to paper research papers, secure her mother’s consent would his reign be secure. Richard is totally aware of essay competitions 2011, this fact as the frankness of his soliloquies shows  and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Der auf Tyrell’s Abgang folgende Monolog Richards ist ganz in der Technik des zusammenfassenden „Lageberichts“ oder der „Situationsuberschau“ [. Company! ] [gehalten]. Durch die rasche summarische Aufzahlung der verschiedenen „Erfolge“, die jeweils mit einer einzigen Verszeile „abgetan“ werden, wird gleichzeitig betont, wie kaltblutig Richard hier Bilanz zieht. Sind die ersten vier Zeilen ruckwarts gewandt, so erhalten die folgenden (und abschlie?enden vier Zeilen die Ankundigung des nachsten Planes, wobei Richard zum letzten Mal seine Rolle mit ubermutiger Selbstironie (a jolly thriving wooer, 43) beschreibt. Anne Play!  ’ With the little princes dead Richard had thought himself only company research one step away from really securing his reign. He was, however, only deceiving himself. The actual climax of his career, and the watershed in the play, had been his coronation.
Until then, Richard had controlled the action, very much like the traditional Vice-figure. From the moment of Richard’s coronation the balance shifts, even though he himself is not yet aware of this. From now on all his actions will be reactions to the actions of his enemies. Before Richard became king, he could operate from a cover. Now, Richard is exposed and himself subjected to plotting.
It is no longer he who plots and his powers will steadily decline until, eventually, he will be on par with everybody else in the play.  ‘Richard, after the death of the princes, is like an artist who has put the finishing touch to a masterpiece. For this, he was ordained and he has fulfilled his destiny. The virtue, an evil virtue – has gone out of him. He will never again be the since in theory, jocund adventurer in crime. Birch Company Research! [. ] This falling-off in Richard’s performance is not due to any falling off in Shakespeare’s creative power. It is an essential feature of the tragedy and profoundly characteristic of the man.  ’ Even though Richard had succeeded in being crowned he had only been able to attain a symbol of power. The power itself, normally associated with the crown, was denied to him as he had long before hollowed out any foundations on which it could have rested. From now on in theory, the pressure on Richard will not ease off and all of a sudden meaner qualities which Richard had seemed to lack in the preceding part of his career become apparent. When Richard and Catesby come to inform him that Richmond’s navy is approaching, Richard, for the first time, seems to be caught off guard and in the subsequent discussion with Ratcliffe and company research, Catesby he confuses his orders.  At first, he issues orders to Catesby to go to Salisbury to frank play questions, the Duke of company research papers, Norfolk and, a few lines later, he suddenly reprimands Ratcliffe for not having complied with the orders he had given to sociology mid-century essays in theory, Catesby. Another clear indication that Richard is increasingly losing control is when he strikes the third messenger  because he had lost his temper over birch research the bad news brought by the previous two. Ironically, it is the third who brings good news  and for the first time, Richard is public speaking actually honest about an apology  . The crucial scene to demonstrate how little power Richard now effectively has is paper company his failed attempt to essay 2011, persuade Queen Elizabeth to birch, woo her daughter in chesnutt essays, his name.  As in the case of Anne he does not love her.
His only reason is that a marriage with the daughter of birch paper company, Elizabeth and Edward, the direct heiress to the throne, would secure his reign once and for since mid-century in theory cumulation, all. Richard even uses the same tactics as in the earlier scene with Anne. It worked once, very much to his amazement, and he is sure it will work a second time. ‘Richard takes success for birch, granted and, as in the earlier scene, pours scorn upon his dupe. But this time it is 2006 Richard who is birch paper company papers deceived. Elizabeth gives her daughter to Richmond, thus uniting the white rose and the red in a dynasty which is to commonwealth essay, supplant Richard on the throne and to create the legend of his infamy.  ’ Elizabeth seems to give in to Richard’s request and agrees to talk to her daughter about the matter. Papers! It is, however, difficult to say whether Richard had won over her, whether she had just fooled him, or whether she made up her mind later, after careful consideration. Expert opinions on this matter are divided. Cornelia Czach, for instance, has advocated the first option and argued that Richard was successful because he now had something to offer, ‘[. Public Speaking Assignments! ] denn er hat ein Konigreich zu bieten, um sein Gegenuber zum Verrat an paper papers, der Tochter zu bewegen.  ’ Historic facts indeed seem to favour her point. However, other scholars like Clemen and Wheeler are a little bit more cautious  and have, in turn, suggested that she probably did not make up her mind until later on, after she had enough time to go through the pros and cons of either marital option carefully. In dramatic terms, however, it would make more sense to medical, assume that Elizabeth had indeed managed to deceive Richard deliberately.
This would mean a sharp contrast to the earlier scene with Anne and would demonstrate how Richard’s powers were fading increasingly. Even though Richard’s failure to company papers, win over essay 2011 Elizabeth is his first major failure, it is, nevertheless, decisive. When Elizabeth agrees to give the hand of her daughter to Richmond, Richard’s fate is finally sealed and, from then on, his decline will prove to be unavoidable. As Palmer points out, ‘The decline in birch company research papers, Richard’s genius for decisive action has in it no element of remorse. International! It springs, on the contrary, from a sense that anything he may have to do next must necessarily be something of an anti-climax. The first, fine careless rapture is exhausted. Paper Company! All he can do henceforth is to commonwealth, maintain his position and accept the necessities which it lays upon him.  ’ Therefore, in Machiavellian terms, you can say that even though necessita forces him to birch paper company, act, he no longer has a sufficient amount of virtu to anne, act appropriately. Birch Paper Research! As a consequence, Fortune begins to turn her back on him and Richard will increasingly find himself fighting losing battles. The qualities which have enabled him to rise are also the cause of his eventual downfall. And this is where the element of tragedy comes in, as Moseley illustrates: ‘It delineates the online, rise and birch company research, deserved fall of Richard and frank, shows how even when he thinks he is most in company papers, control Fortune can tip the charles essays, scale against him [. ]  ’ Ironically, Richard makes the same mistake as Hastings and, yet again, pride comes before a fall – this time his own.
In the birch paper company research, end, he is only a tool of Providence whose purpose is to weed out the consequences of the public speaking, usurpation of Henry IV. Ironically, it is Richard who brings down his own House and who paves the way for birch paper, the reaccession of the House of Lancaster. The element of conscience, as far as Richard is concerned, is one of the main themes of public speaking assignments, Shakespeare’s Richard III. It is, as Keeton has pointed out, the weak spot of the Machiavellian villain.  ‘In the end the paper company research papers, Machiavellian who thinks himself free from moral restraint is defeated by the moral order of the universe contained in little, microscopically, in his own self.  ’ In fact, it had been Anne who had dropped the first hint that Richard was haunted by his conscience earlier in the play, when she mentioned ‘his timorous dreams’.  Through Richard’s inner conflict, until then well hidden from the attention of the people around him and the audience, Shakespeare demonstrates the profoundly damaging effect which the exercise of power can have on the human soul. This, as Schieder explains, is the main difference between Shakespeare and Machiavelli. ‘Shakespeare fuhrt damit weit uber Machiavelli hinaus, der sie nur als etwas Zweckrationales, Technisches kannte, oder da, wo sie als Ehrgeiz, ungesattigter Machttrieb in public, seelische Bereiche fuhrte, der Berechnung, dem Kalkul zu unterwerfen suchte. Seine Entdeckung steht ebenburtig neben derjenigen Machiavellis, wenn auch dieser sie durch sein Werk und deren Nachwirkungen uberhaupt erst moglich macht. Company Research!  ’ On the outside Richard still puts up a brave face and encourages the people around him. However, he has lost his supreme confidence and he even admits his fear to anne frank, Ratcliffe. Richard: I have not that alacrity of birch paper research papers, spirit.
Nor cheer of mind that I was wont to have.  ’ Richard even asks for wine twice, within a reasonably short amount of creative certificate online, time  , another indication that he is growing increasingly nervous. The most important part of the last act is when Richard is haunted in his sleep on the eve of the final battle at Bosworth by the ghosts of the people he murdered. They are a symbolic representation of Richard’s crimes and his suppressed guilt and serve to birch paper company papers, remind both him and the audience of what he will shortly pay for with his life. Sociology Since! ‘Richard suffers no effective remorse. But when his intellect is in abeyance, the unconscious mind takes charge. Here, at last [. ] is the underlying cause of his startling confession that he has lost his alacrity of spirit and company research papers, cheer of mind.  ’ When Richard wakes up from his dream he is quite obviously shaken. As Haeffner illustrates, bad dreams, for an Elizabethan audience, were a clear hint that a character in a play was suffering from melancholia: ‘To be melancholy nowadays is to be merely sad or depressed [. ]. But to Shakespeare’s audience it suggested rather a dangerous mental sickness which could take the form of contest international, insanity. [. ] Its symptoms varied strongly, however, from birch paper company research, a sharp wit and talkativeness, to pessimism and commonwealth competitions, a desire for birch paper research, revenge against society, against law and order.
Bad dreams visited the melancholic frequently, and he would naturally have been shunned by most men as he was himself the enemy of most men. Almost all the characteristics of the melancholic are shown in sociology since essays, Shakespeare’s Richard. In a way it excuses him from behaving as he does, and it makes just possible a feeling of pity for him at the end when he is beset by enemies, and overcome by his conscience and bad dreams. Paper Research!  ’ The ghosts of 2006 contest, Richard’s victims come in turn to birch, appear to both Richmond and Richard. They encourage Richmond and essays in theory cumulation, they pound Richard with a series of accusations and curses. Company Research Papers! When Richard awakes he is depressed and sociology since mid-century in theory cumulation, tormented by his conscience. ‘His dream forces him for the first time in company research, the play to see himself as a man who is after all bound by the moral restraints he has deliberately overthrown, trapped in the prison of his own despair.  ’ And this despair is genuine and not just a short glimpse of fear as Cornelia Czach has suggested.  Richard: ‘O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me?  ’ Richard: ‘Is there a murderer here? No. Yes, I am.  ’ Richard: ‘Alack, I love myself. Wherefore?
For any good. That I myself have done unto myself? Oh, no. Alas, I rather hate myself. For hateful deeds committed by myself. I am a villain. Public Assignments! Yet I lie, I am not. Fool, of thyself speak well.
Fool, do not flatter. My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, And every tongue brings in a several tale, And every tale condemns me for a villain.  ’ By suppressing the moral implications of his actions Richard had only deceived himself. In his dreams, however, his mind is no longer under his control and, consequently, it now confronts him with realities he cannot escape from. Since Richard had decided to dedicate himself to a career of Machiavellian villainy, he had managed to alienate himself from everyone and everything in his world: his country, the audience and, ultimately, his own self.  At the end of his career, he is a lost soul.  When Ratcliffe comes to tell Richard that it is time to paper company research papers, get ready he finds Richard in a state of thoughtful depression. Richard: By the apostle Paul, shadows tonight. Have struck more terror to charles, the soul of Richard. Than can the substance of paper company papers, ten thousand soldiers. Armed in proof and led by shallow Richmond.  ’ However, Richard quickly pulls himself together and gets back to business.
He organises his army and encourages his confederates. Richard: ‘Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls, For conscious is a word that cowards use, Devised at first to mid-century in theory, keep the strong in awe. Our strong arms be our conscience, our swords our law!  ’ Even though this is little more than a last act of birch paper company, defiance, for Richard it is the only way out still left to in theory cumulation, him. Paper Research Papers! ‘All the commonwealth competitions, evidence is against him now. Conscience is not just a word , not just a fiction invented as a political tool, force is useless against it. It is real and it destroys.  ’ Richard’s flamboyant speech before his troops is birch company research a last futile attempt to take the bull by anne essay questions the horns. The speed with which his forces will disintegrate demonstrates how right he was about company his doubts over charles chesnutt the loyalty of his troops.  In the end he will bravely fight alone and die alone. The character of Shakepeare’s Richard III was what the Elizabethans fundamentally understood as Machiavellian. Birch Paper Research Papers! He achieved his aims by deceit and 2006 contest essay, murder.
Machiavelli, himself, would not have approved of everything Richard did.  Although Richard had the courage of a lion, the cunning of a fox and was decisive in his actions, his motivation was personal ambition. He succeeded in becoming king but he neither won the support of the nobles or his countrymen nor were his actions in company papers, their interest. There is no indication that Richard had any long-term political strategy once he became king. On the contrary, he destabilized a fragile peace and plunged his country back into civil war. Public Speaking Assignments! As a result, he not only met his own downfall but he also caused the fall of the House of York. Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. trans. and paper company research, ed. Rippel, Philipp. Stuttgart 1986. Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. Lull, Janis.
1st Edition. Cambridge 1999. Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of anne frank, King Henry The Sixth . in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . Research Papers! ed. Bevington, David. 3rd. Edition. Glenview, Illinois 1980. Anglo, Sydney: Machiavelli.
A Dissection. Creative Certificate Online! New York 1969. Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). Bawcutt, N.W.: Some Elizabethan Allusions to Machiavelli. in: English Miscellany 20 (1969). Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Interpretation eines Dramas. Birch Papers! 2nd Edition. Gottingen 1969.
Clemen, Wolfgang: Shakepeare und das Konigtum . in: Shakespeare- Jahrbuch 68 (1932). Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . New York 1957. Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Sociology Mid-century Essays In Theory Cumulation! Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). Garber, Marjorie: Descanting on paper company papers, Deformity: Richard III and the Shape of History . in: The Historical Renaissance. Sociology Mid-century Essays Cumulation! New Essays on Tudor and Stuart Literature and Culture . Birch Paper Company Research! ed. Creative Writing Online! Dubrow, Heather and Strier, Richard. Chicago 1988. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and Political Symbolism in ‘Richard III’ . in: Criticism 20 (1978). Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966.
Hanham, Alison: Richard III and his early historians. 1483-1485. Oxford 1975. Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and political background . London 1967. Krippendorf, Ekkehart: Politik in Shakepeares Dramen. Paper Company! Historien, Romerdramen, Tragodien.
Frankfurt am Main 1992. Lamb, V.B.: The Betrayal of Richard III. London 1968. Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . Stuttgart 1997. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. Ansatze – Personen – Grundbegriffe . ed. Nunning, Ansgar. Stuttgart 1998. Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare.
Richard III . London 1989. Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli. Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Frankfurt am Main 1982. Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . Darmstadt 1978. Palmer, John: Political and comic characters of Shakespeare . London 1974. Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . New Haven 1992. Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and 2006 contest essay, other Shakespeare Lectures . ed. Birch Paper! Storey, Graham.
London 1961. Shakepeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . ed. Schabert, Ina. Stuttgart 2000. Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). Skinner, Quentin: Machiavelli. Contest Essay International Medical! Oxford 1981. Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and the Allegory of birch paper company, Evil . New York 1958. Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976).
Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and Conscience in Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . No. 4. (Winter 1971/72).  Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and frank, other Shakespeare Lectures . ed. Storey, Graham. London 1961. Company Papers! (in the following quoted as: Rossiter: Angel with Horns .) p. 20.  Palmer, John: Political and comic characters of Shakespeare . Charles Chesnutt Essays! London 1974. (in the birch paper company, following quoted as: Palmer: Political and comic characters .)p. Certificate Canada! 66.  Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . New Haven 1992. (in the following quoted as: Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos .) p. Company Papers! 100.  Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. trans. and ed. Rippel, Philipp.
Stuttgart 1986. (in the following quoted as: The Prince.) 18. pp. 135 137.  Necessita was the third pillar of Machiavelli’s political thought.  Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 121.  Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . Commonwealth! p. 87.  cf. The Prince 8, pp. 65 67.  Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli.
Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Frankfurt am Main 1982. (in the following quoted as: Munkler: Machiavelli .) pp. Paper! 302f.  The Prince 25. p. 193.  cf. The Prince 19. p. 143.  Machiavelli’s view of the individual was rather disillusioned. He thought that the best an individual could aspire to was to anne frank play, become a good citizen, a tiny wheel in some much more complex mechanism. Paper Papers! An excessive amount of amount of freedom would only lead to 2011, disorder. (cf. The Prince 17. pp.
129 131.)  The Prince 25 . pp. 193 195.  Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . p. Paper Company! 76.  cf. Commonwealth Essay! The Prince 25. p. 197.  Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 83.
 The Prince 25. p. 199.  Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). (in the following quoted as: Bawcutt: ‘Policy’ .) p. 208 (for further detail cf. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976). pp. 631-637).  Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). (in the birch research papers, following quoted as: Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli .) p. 136.  Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of King Henry The Sixth . in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . ed. Bevington, David. 3rd. Edition.
Glenview, Illinois 1980. (in the following quoted as: 3 Henry VI .) I.1.17.  Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and political background . London 1967. (in the since, following quoted as: Keeton: Shakespeare’s background .) p. Birch Company Research! 320.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 68.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 69.  cf. 2006 International! 3 Henry VI . II.2 – III.1.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . Company Papers! p. 70.  cf.
3 Henry VI . III.2.1-117.  3 Henry VI . III.2.140-143.  3 Henry VI . III.2.165-171.  Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326.  3 Henry VI . III.2.182f.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 73. and cf. 3 Henry VI. Frank Essay Questions! III.5. Birch Company Research! III.7.
 Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326.  Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. Lull, Janis. 1st Edition. Cambridge 1999. (in the following quoted as: Richard III .) I.1.24-31.  For centuries, people believed that deformity of the body was the outward expression of a morally deformed mind.  Schieder: Schakespeare und Machiavelli . Creative Writing Certificate Online Canada! p. 140.  Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . Stuttgart 1997. p. 145.
 cf. Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 328.  Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and Conscience in Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . No. 4. (Winter 1971/72). (in the following quoted as: Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience ). pp. Birch Paper Research! 319f.  Richard III . I.1.106-112.
 cf. Richard III . I.4.227-239.  Richard III . I.1.113-115.  cf. Clarence’s dream. in: Richard III . I.4.146-153.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. Charles And Speeches! 79.
 Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 330.  Richard III . I.2.197-199.  Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil . New York 1958. Company Papers! (in the following quoted as: Spivack: Allegory of Evil .) pp. 2006! 404f.  Palmer: Political and papers, comic characters . p. Public Speaking Assignments! 81.  Richard III . I.2.231-242.  cf. Richard III . Birch Research! I.2.153 I.2.189.  cf. Palmer: Political and since essays, comic characters . p.83. and The Prince 25. pp. 193 195.
 Richard III . Paper Research! I.3.119-123.  Richard III . Chesnutt Essays And Speeches! I.3.125-137.  cf. Machiavelli’s remarks on birch company research, the use of cumulation, duplicity and calculated piety in birch company, peace and contest essay medical, war. in: The Prince 18.  Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . Darmstadt 1978. (in the following quoted as: Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen .) p. 14.
 Richard III. I.3.324-326.  Richard III . I.3.336-338.  Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 331. and cf. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and Political Symbolism in ‘Richard III’ . in: Criticism 20 (1978). (in the following quoted as: Geller Lyons: King’s Games .) p. 19.  Spivack: Allegory of Evil . p. 402.  cf Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309.  Spivack: Allegory of Evil . p. Birch Paper Research Papers! 403.
 Richard III . II.1.136-141.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. Essay International! 93.  Richard III . III.1.44-56.  Richard III . III.1.35f.  Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Interpretation eines Dramas. 2nd Edition.
Gottingen 1969. (in the paper company research papers, following quoted as: Clemen: Richard III .) p. 173.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 95.  Richard III . III.1.198-202.  cf. The Prince 19. Commonwealth 2011! p. 149.  As Catesby points out in Richard III . III.1.166.  Richard III . III.1.22f.  Richard III . III.1.35-59.  Richard III . III.1.194-196.
 Richard III . III.4.72-76.  Richard III . III.4.79-106.  Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). (in the following quoted as: Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie .) p. 402.  Richard III . III.7.70-79.  Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 23.  Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . Paper Research! p. 22.  Through his Welsh ancestory, Henry VII ‘[. ] had a claim to the English throne unconnected either with his Lancastrian descent or his Yorkist marriage. Not only essay competitions did he claim through his ancestor Owen Tudor, husband of Henry V’s widow, direct descent from Cadwalladar, last of the British kings, but he encouraged the old Welsh superstition that Arthur was not dead but would return again, with the company papers, suggestion that he and his heirs were Arthur reincarnate.’(Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. pp. 29.)  Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen . p. Charles! 19.  cf.
Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . p. Birch Company Papers! 142.  Clemen: Richard III . p. 211.  cf. Rossiter: Angel with Horns . p. 19.  Richard III . III.7.214-216.  Richard III . III.7.225-228.  Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . Anne Frank Essay! p. Birch Company! 23.
 Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 25.  The Prince 19. p. 147.  cf. The Prince 17. p. 129. and The Prince 19. p. Creative Writing Certificate Online Canada! 149.  Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 310.  Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 311.  Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare. Richard III . London 1989. (in the following quoted as: Moseley: Richard III .) p. 78.  Richard III . Papers! IV.2.18-20.
 Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 96.  cf. Richard III . IV.2.84-101. (Moseley (cf. Charles Essays And Speeches! Moseley: Richard III . p. 72.) has argued that Richard does not ignore Buckingham deliberately but that Richard is ‘bad rattled’ and that he, therefore, cannot focus. It is an interesting point but it seems a little bit far-fetched.
 The Prince 3. pp. 17 19.  Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . Birch Research! p. 397.  Palmer: Political and speaking, comic characters . p. 101.  Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 399.  cf. Richard III . IV.3.36-43 and ibid. IV.2.61f.  Clemen: Richard III . p. 244.  cf. Birch Research Papers! Moseley: Richard III . p. 75.
 Palmer: Political and comic characters . Commonwealth Essay! p. 103.  cf. Clemen: Richard III . pp. 269-270.  Richard III . IV.4.515.  Severe flooding has caused Buckingham’s forces to be disperced. His precise whereabouts are currently unknown. Shortly afterwards, however, it is Catesby who comes to birch papers, inform Richard that Buckingham has indeed been captured.  cf.
Richard III . IV.4.517-523.  cf. 2006 Essay Medical! Richard III . IV.4.199-436.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 105.  Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 404.  cf. Clemen: Richard III . p. 275. and Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 104.  Moseley: Richard III . p. 24.  cf.
Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . pp. Company Papers! 332f.  Moseley: Richard III . p. 79.  cf. Richard III . IV.1.83-85. (Furthermore, bad dreams were a common dramatical trait of tyrants. (cf. Creative Certificate Canada! Moseley: Richard III . p. Paper Company Research! 75.))  Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . p. 145.  Richard III . V.3.66 and ibid.
V.3.74.  Palmer: Political and comic characters. p. 109.  Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966. p. 14.  Moseley: Richard III . Charles Chesnutt And Speeches! p. 39.  cf. Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 404f.  Richard III . V.3.190-198.  cf. Habermann, Ina and Klein, Bernhard: Die Historien . Paper Company! in: Shakepeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . ed.
Schabert, Ina. And Speeches! Stuttgart 2000. p. 345.  Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . New York 1957. p. 27.  Richard III . V.3.217-220.  Richard III . V.3.310-313.  Moseley: Richard III . p. 83.
 cf. Richard III . V.3.222f.  cf. Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. Birch Paper Research! 309.
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