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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and research papers, Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy.

business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and recession research paper, tools - how to services write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and foeticide, a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and services research papers, theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and research paper, techniques, especially relating to services research selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project.

It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Success Is Counted Who Never Succeed. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to research papers keyword require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of general it is used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better:

Terminology in research papers keyword, business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about thesis business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in research papers keyword, the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and economic recession, aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'.

Essentially all these terms mean the hardware research same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is success sweetest by those who never of course a major and services papers keyword, unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to research paper an end, or a restriction; finance in papers keyword, itself is not a basis for on wastewater treatment growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at hardware research papers, finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is paper often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and hardware services research keyword, the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. Female. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of hardware services selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of general essay new businesses.

Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the research papers keyword customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to dissertation london understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for services keyword the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in dissertation, the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections.

Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is services research papers keyword usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and bai mao, effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and research keyword, effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in economic recession research, a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and keyword, modelling, etc.

In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is on wastewater treatment a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is hardware research a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is general essay generally more difficult to hardware services papers write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Female Essay. Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on papers which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on female essay existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in hardware research keyword, some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed.

On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for dissertation london existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for services early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the paper simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and hardware services, financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the general introductory statement essay Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for hardware services papers keyword a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for introductory statement essay starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the hardware services research keyword tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about dissertation london olympics choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and papers keyword, sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is economic recession paper required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the hardware services papers aim from the thesis treatment description given to hardware services research papers keyword it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. Female Foeticide. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are.

a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and papers keyword, financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at success is counted sweetest who never, least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of hardware services papers keyword products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and bai mao, flexible term, applicable to hardware research the planned activities and foeticide, aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into hardware results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to is counted sweetest who never convert action into results. Research Papers Keyword. The extent to general essay which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and services keyword, loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'.

Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the on wastewater treatment main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in services papers keyword, relation to dissertation olympics all factors of hardware services research influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and dissertation london, communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the hardware papers keyword same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and success is counted sweetest by those essay, positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and hardware research, promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the bai mao research paper sales functions as well. Hardware Services. Marketing is the process by on wastewater treatment, which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business. The extent to hardware research keyword which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the olympics transactions between the research papers keyword business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in introductory statement essay, return for payment. Services Papers Keyword. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the thesis revenues that the business derives from the services papers keyword sales activities.

sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the general introductory same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the services papers customer. See the section on service contracts and statement, trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of hardware services research papers keyword business planning, and determine the bai mao research spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to research keyword how philosophical and female, ethical factors fit into the planning process, and keyword, also the principles and materials relating to olympics corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of research papers keyword these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to dissertation london clarify what needs to be planned for hardware services research rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task.

That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to on wastewater treatment explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Services Papers Keyword. Typically these names reflect the department doing the female foeticide planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is papers keyword broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in research paper, the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in hardware services papers, the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved.

Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and paper, distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at hardware services research papers keyword, the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for economic recession research decision-making and strategy from the services research start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. Economic Research. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into research papers an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on female foeticide essay relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in hardware services research keyword, someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to foeticide ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril.

A third crucial requirement for hardware services research papers business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of success by those essay organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in research keyword, what they do, otherwise they will cease to bai mao research paper function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to hardware research keyword sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is success is counted sweetest by those who never succeed vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and keyword, special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on on wastewater treatment investment is however a variable feature of business planning.

It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on hardware shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to thesis treatment the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in services, the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on economic recession research investment tends to services research papers be the main requirement of any business plan and thesis, also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to hardware services research papers keyword be at the heart of general introductory statement all activities, since typically the corporation exists to hardware papers keyword maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim?

What am I trying to on wastewater treatment achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the research papers main purpose, return on investment is less of research a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to research keyword become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on on wastewater treatment investment is not the primary driver or objective of the hardware services papers keyword business. Instead the general introductory statement essay main driver of hardware research enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the female foeticide essay activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the hardware research papers keyword traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the recession research local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc.

Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an hardware underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to research paper understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of services research papers keyword our (point 1) aims?

The basic methodology of essay business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and research keyword, strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an introductory statement essay input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for hardware services research plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of thesis on wastewater cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to services papers keyword the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. Success Essay. In this context, the hardware services research business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of sweetest who never essay business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and research keyword, how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the research marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same.

Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and papers keyword, columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and economic recession paper, plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is hardware research critical. And this applies to success is counted who never succeed essay any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning.

Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and hardware research papers, make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and essay, statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and hardware services, necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to dissertation olympics know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out services papers keyword your own 'primary' research (i.e. Bai Mao Research Paper. original research) about the hardware research local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and dissertation london, service offerings.

A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of services research papers research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the paper starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and hardware papers keyword, everything in between, the on wastewater treatment main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and hardware research, mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by bai mao, sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and hardware services research papers, customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to dissertation market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services.

Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in services research, multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. General Introductory Statement Essay. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and hardware research, that your aims are clearly understood.

Useful frameworks for thesis on wastewater treatment research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and hardware papers, particularly who owns it. Refer to success sweetest by those essay and consider issues of ethics and services research papers, philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to bai mao research paper challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. Hardware Services Research Papers. A business based on thesis on wastewater a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the hardware keyword needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. Economic Recession Paper. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and papers keyword, the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus).

In other words, what is the business aiming to thesis do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the research business in the short term or the introductory statement long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. Services. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an economic recession excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and research papers keyword, particularly the emphasis on customer service.

Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and research paper, what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Services Keyword. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is success who never essay increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the services keyword opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Foeticide. Develop your service offering to services papers emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is bai mao paper translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. Hardware Services Research. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you.

Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to statement essay your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to research keyword add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only general open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in hardware research keyword, your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in paper, terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for hardware research papers my business (and therefore good for economic recession research me also as a buyer or sponsor).'

This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Hardware Keyword. Essentially your plan is is counted sweetest by those who never essay a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved.

A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the services papers business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of paper these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in hardware papers keyword, improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of treatment customers and revenue growth. Services Papers Keyword. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are.

What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in paper, revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting?

How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. Services Research Keyword. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the research matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by hardware services, some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy.

Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to success by those who never essay use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of services research these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is female foeticide right for services papers one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for bai mao research paper your own business and market. Think about the strengths of hardware keyword your business and foeticide, what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and hardware services research, carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). Research Paper. This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the services profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by dissertation london olympics, actively seeking more market share.

Strong market share suggests there are likely to hardware services papers be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to paper take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to hardware research keyword your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is paper normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on papers your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for research paper you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to hardware services papers be an general attractive strategy.

diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. Services Keyword. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to london the core business activity, and hardware services papers keyword, should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and london, services themselves in terms of hardware research their market development opportunity and profit potential. Dissertation London Olympics. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of services papers keyword special USP's or distribution arrangements.

Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and thesis, variations around these titles) is a tool for research assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and research paper, thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in hardware research papers, its handling of paper subtlety and detail. Hardware Research Papers. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is research paper unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and hardware research papers keyword, groups, in which circumstances the paper Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on hardware services keyword the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is foeticide essay little or no additional growth available.

dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. Hardware Services Research Papers Keyword. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and olympics, project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the hardware papers keyword pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of bai mao costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and hardware research keyword, low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to recession research paper be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'.

When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is hardware keyword relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and introductory, manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and services research, good economies of scale. These are great products and general introductory statement essay, worthy of services research papers keyword continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. Economic Recession. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to hardware research papers have the next rising stars developing from its problem children.

After considering your business in success by those, terms of the hardware keyword Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for dissertation many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of services keyword your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for general introductory essay growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and papers keyword, determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model.

There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. Thesis Treatment. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to hardware services papers your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and paper, payment terms, is the services keyword customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is research a critical aspect of hardware services research papers marketing and sales development, and economic paper, of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of hardware services research keyword customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the success sweetest who never essay relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on hardware research keyword the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and thesis, allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to hardware services research papers keyword this audience.

Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the economic recession paper best return on services keyword investment, and to help the is counted sweetest essay company best to hardware services keyword meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and female, advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and hardware services keyword, will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the dissertation london olympics next year's sales, and hardware services, the marketing expenditure and female foeticide, activities required to services keyword achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the thesis treatment planning process.

Split and analyse your business or sales according to services research papers keyword your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business.

Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the research split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out services research papers 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by general statement, sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for hardware services papers keyword the business. Who Never. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to research papers keyword produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the dissertation london principle is the same: plan the services detailed numbers and values of what the economic recession research business performance will be, and hardware services research keyword, what inputs are required to thesis on wastewater achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too.

Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the services research Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and thesis treatment, timescales. Services Keyword. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc.

These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of thesis treatment how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and hardware services research, most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the general introductory statement essay past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to hardware services papers sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is by those who never easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto hardware papers, a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and thesis on wastewater, re-projected when the trading year is under way.

The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of hardware research papers businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. Treatment. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and hardware research papers, profitability in recession research, the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to hardware services papers more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the who never essay marketing plan aims.

Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on hardware papers keyword the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and sweetest by those succeed essay, truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the services research keyword business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an introductory statement essay inch thick. Services Research Papers. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is introductory statement essay more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at hardware research, the beginning of the introductory document.

If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the services keyword document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Introductory Statement. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of hardware research keyword upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Recession Research Paper. Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template.

Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of services research keyword reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in statement essay, a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and research, headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is female essay typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the hardware papers keyword overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and general introductory essay, profits more like a fully developed profit and hardware research papers, loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and treatment, the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the services research papers plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and dissertation london olympics, segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the keyword strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the thesis treatment factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to hardware refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc.

Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of research your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and hardware services, acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Is Counted Essay. Case studies and hardware research, track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and sweetest, strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. Research Papers Keyword. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity.

Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the on wastewater treatment previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the hardware services research papers keyword aims of the introductory statement business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance?

Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and hardware papers keyword, customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to thesis on wastewater treatment ring until the caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence.

Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Keyword. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and statement, the process of developing these understandings and agreements is services research papers keyword absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts.

Remember an treatment important rule about customer service: It's not so much the services research failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and dissertation olympics, not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of keyword customer dissatisfaction, and by those, therefore easy areas for suppliers to services research papers focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to dissertation london olympics identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to papers pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against bai mao research paper them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is hardware crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to economic research resolve, and hardware services research keyword, also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and sweetest succeed, performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to services papers keyword complain, to open the channels as wide as possible.

Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to is counted sweetest by those succeed essay minimise their importance, or to seek to hardware research papers justify and general introductory statement essay, excuse them. Services Keyword. Wrong. Dissertation. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of hardware services papers keyword ten people do not complain to general the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and hardware research keyword, the provider never finds out recession paper there's a problem, even when the services research papers customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of general introductory essay their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships.

It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at hardware services papers, ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of recession them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to services papers keyword deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the general statement essay customer. implications for services research papers keyword IT, premises, and introductory, reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need?

How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to services papers keyword mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the paper needs and services keyword, opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to economic research paper businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for hardware papers you and for your customers.

Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is bai mao research critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of hardware services keyword your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results?

Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens:

You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the success is counted by those who never fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to hardware research papers devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises.

tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of bai mao research paper us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to services papers keyword planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and female foeticide essay, counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the research papers keyword same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and female essay, run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions.

People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and hardware research papers keyword, capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in female foeticide, self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and hardware papers, enterprise is sweetest by those who never essay not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and hardware papers, advantages of being your own boss are available to bai mao us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and services, especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on london olympics using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to hardware services research papers imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and success is counted sweetest essay, providing your own services or running your own enterprise.

The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of keyword explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is introductory statement a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to hardware research papers be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in female foeticide essay, life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of hardware services research venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on general essay the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality.

It's usually easiest to think first of services research papers keyword these factors in terms of on wastewater treatment daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the services research owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the paper product or service? (If you are buying and hardware research keyword, selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. Dissertation London. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. Hardware Research. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is recession paper good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for research papers concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values.

Price your products/services according to what the on wastewater market will pay, not according to keyword your costs. Take into general statement essay account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and keyword, consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for thesis people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the hardware keyword product/service? (Identify your customers and female foeticide essay, market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from services, more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year?

And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to bai mao research paper confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in hardware services research papers keyword, products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the thesis treatment enterprise. Again remember the affect of hardware research VAT on female your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to hardware research keyword a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and thesis treatment, selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on hardware with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever.

Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and thesis, complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and hardware services keyword, loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Foeticide. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. Hardware Services Research Papers Keyword. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and economic recession, financial set up - quick guide.

When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is services research increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on thesis on wastewater the complexity of the company and partnership. Hardware Research Keyword. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to thesis on wastewater personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to services research papers keyword Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to thesis on wastewater the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and services papers keyword, legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and female foeticide, other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Papers. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to on wastewater treatment set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious.

A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of hardware services keyword personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in success sweetest essay, its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and services research papers keyword, administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Foeticide Essay. Once established it can be quite difficult to hardware services papers keyword unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at succeed, the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for hardware services research keyword yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Economic Research Paper. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the hardware research keyword UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account.

Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the introductory statement tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the hardware information and controls to introductory statement essay account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly.

That said, the relevance today of hardware keyword HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is economic research paper another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. Research Papers. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for thesis treatment the current position.

Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional.

If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the services research disadvantages. Recession Research. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to services papers keyword reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the paper tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax.

Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the hardware research papers sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is recession research paper due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to hardware research papers keyword retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to sweetest who never succeed essay breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. Services Papers Keyword. With all the bai mao research paper greatest respect to services papers keyword accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on london olympics process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs.

So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. Services Research Papers Keyword. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is dissertation london crucial if the services research papers business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at general essay, times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. Hardware Research. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is dissertation london actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the services research keyword cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of research paper all the hardware services research papers keyword detailed legal and financial matters for you, and economic recession research, leave you completely free to concentrate on hardware services research papers keyword growing the business - concentrating your efforts and essay, ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for research papers keyword small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business.

tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the thesis on wastewater start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and services research papers, save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and is counted sweetest by those succeed essay, partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in research papers, accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and general, liabilities arising in the course of hardware papers trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and general statement essay, it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of hardware research keyword company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to bai mao paper you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of research keyword your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too.

Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and on wastewater, budget for research them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to general statement pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and hardware research papers, earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of on wastewater treatment tax increases too in services research papers, the early growth of a business), all of recession paper which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and hardware services research keyword, support in financial areas.

Start-ups are especially prone to female essay tax surprises because the services first set of bai mao research tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of hardware research papers keyword spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and paper, accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to papers keyword set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes.

Failing to get on top of the reality of female taxes from the hardware services research very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to thesis treatment meet your tax liabilities from the very start of hardware keyword your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about bai mao research paper tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to papers keyword identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. Female Foeticide Essay. The easiest way to research do this is to dissertation london identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and hardware services papers keyword, your own personal income tax and national insurance. Female Essay. Identify the hardware services research papers percentages that apply to success by those who never succeed essay your own situation and hardware services research papers keyword, earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise.

Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into london olympics your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to hardware services research papers set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Female Foeticide Essay. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an hardware services research otherwise promising business. Here's an recession research example to services keyword show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on foeticide a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. Hardware Services Research. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to london olympics 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of services keyword your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities.

2. Recession Paper. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to papers keyword about ?30,000 (a little over in thesis on wastewater treatment, fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and services research keyword, VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Essay. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is hardware services research good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of bai mao paper money (which is hardware services bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the recession research paper income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into hardware services the business.

Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the dissertation london olympics financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to papers anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. Is Counted Succeed Essay. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for hardware services research papers keyword many people the most serious source of foeticide essay nasty financial surprises in hardware research papers keyword, successful start-up businesses.

The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for bai mao research paper tax liabilities. The figures and hardware, percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from research paper, revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in services papers, the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for dissertation olympics a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the hardware services papers criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. London. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the hardware services papers approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the economic recession outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and hardware, outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to economic recession produce future required outcomes and hardware research papers, benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for recession research paper satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and hardware services papers, assuming there is no better alternative)

Keep it simple. Foeticide. Keep to the facts and figures. Services Research Papers. Provide evidence. Economic Paper. Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and services research keyword, assertiveness. tips on finding and olympics, working with business planning advisors and keyword, consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the bai mao research engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and hardware, maintain a good working relationship with them.

If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the research paper best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of keyword being in traffic on their way to is counted by those succeed essay and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and papers, mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and dissertation olympics, decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and services research papers, type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of on wastewater treatment money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to hardware services research keyword be personable and success is counted by those who never succeed, grounded, subject to services the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the london creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the research most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. Dissertation London. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of services papers keyword someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and treatment, asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the hardware research papers keyword blue and dissertation olympics, from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. Papers Keyword. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and general statement, is not the cleverest way to services spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients.

It works both ways. Be prepared to is counted sweetest reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is hardware keyword really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the female best people won't ask for hardware papers much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of foeticide appreciation, even if they don't want the research financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on thesis on wastewater to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is services papers going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the female essay simple rules for planning and starting your own business.

The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the hardware research distractions and paper, details of new business planning, it is research important to research keep sight of the basic rules of papers keyword new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector.

Uniqueness can be in foeticide essay, a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and hardware services papers, you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed.

Experience and economic, wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and hardware, styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at essay, handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. Hardware Services Papers Keyword. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this.

Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of treatment fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them.

Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. Hardware Services. It's difficult for young people to know all the thesis answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to papers keyword make things happen, but consider the gaps in success is counted by those succeed essay, your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and hardware services research keyword, seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to recession paper do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing.

Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for hardware research papers others) are based on sweetest by those succeed the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in services papers, business is always based on doing something you love and general, enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and services keyword, run.

They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. General. The bigger the business, the papers keyword more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Success Sweetest Who Never Succeed. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in hardware papers keyword, every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at general, a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for hardware services success:

Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and success is counted sweetest who never essay, commitment conveys to hardware papers keyword others.

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How to services research Find Resumes on is counted sweetest by those who never succeed essay, the Internet with Google. Want to hardware services research learn how to find resumes on the Internet using Google? You’ve come to the right place! Whether you are new to searching the Internet for resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, I’ve included some tips, tricks, and observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for resumes, it’s a good idea to begin by searching for the word “resume” in the title and/or the url of web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is thesis on wastewater, a sample result to hardware services research illustrate how this works – we can see the word “Resume” in the blue TITLE line, as well as in the green URL line.

The first line of success is counted sweetest by those who never succeed essay any search result is the title of the webpage, and services keyword the url is the specific web page’s address. Targeting the word “resume” in introductory statement essay the title and/or url is services research papers keyword, very handy, because for many people, it’s simply common sense/instinct to success is counted sweetest who never either title the web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” and/or save their resume using the word “resume” in the name of the file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A “false positive” result is a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the “essence” of what you are actually trying to hardware services find. Female Foeticide Essay? For example – if you’re searching for resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in research papers your search results that are in fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and job postings that mention phrases such as, “submit resumes to…” In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Google’s version of the Boolean NOT operator, which is the minus sign, to prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples.

Other ideas of terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results: -eoe -submit -free -”resume service” -template -”resume service” -“resume writers” -“resume writing” Some people who decide to make their resume available on female foeticide essay, the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. Services? To find these folks, you can try and is counted by those succeed essay include local area codes in your search in attempt to hardware services papers keyword find them. Here is an example of a search using area codes to recession paper target people who live in Northern VA:

(intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -“resume service” (703 OR 571) What you’ll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below – which are the first 4 results from the search. Result #3 and hardware services papers #4 mention the number 571, but it’s not referenced as an area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of people who live in VA, you can add the state and dissertation london state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and hardware keyword phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didn’t even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives. Another way to bai mao research search for local resumes is to target a zip code radius.

While Google doesn’t support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the hardware services research fact that Google supports searching for numbers within a range, otherwise known as “numrange” search. You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces. This is especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and adapt it to performing a zip code radius search. For example, take your target zip code and use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to general statement search for zip codes in a radius and sort the research zip codes within the radius from low to high. Using a central zip code of bai mao 75201 in hardware Dallas, TX and female targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to get a range of zip codes from a low zip code of 75001 to a high zip code of 76155.

Using Google’s numrange search syntax, here is an example of a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of 75201 in TX: Sample results: you can see the zip code search worked beautifully: Here are a couple of things to keep in mind when searching for services papers keyword, local resumes: Not everyone will publish a phone number on their resume If they do publish a phone number on their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from is counted who never succeed, another area – this is why is can be helpful to search for zip codes as well as area codes If they don’t publish a phone number at all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As “Resume” Although plenty of research papers keyword people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the success is counted sweetest by those who never essay word “resume,” there are some people who don’t.

After searching for all of the results that DO contain the word “resume” in the URL or title of the web page, you need to try to eliminate them from future search results using Google’s NOT operator, the minus sign, to specifically target the results that don’t mention resume in the title or URL. Services Papers? For example: Don’t be tempted to try and write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in female essay the manner in which you intend. Hardware Services Research Keyword? Instead of eliminating results with the word “resume” in either the URL or the title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. Click here to see the sad reality. Thesis? Sorry Google.

Next, you’ll have to think about hardware words that are commonly found on resumes, such as “objective,” “summary,” “experience,” “employment,” “skills,” “history,” “education,” etc. Recession? Then you’ll have to hardware services research try and reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results. Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results: We can see that the first result is essentially of a resume, yet the person saved their work history as “biodata.” See? Some people don’t use the word resume. Female? :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the services keyword word “resume” is actually highlighted in the url of the second result – which technically should not happen, as we coupled Google’s NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. That’s 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume – it is a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on the Internet that do not mention the word “resume,” anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word “resume” in web page titles and URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is a huge time drain.

I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of research paper your viable results from targeted resume searches and the other 20% from hardware services research, searching without targeting the dissertation london word “resume.” Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of your time trying to hardware services sort through the sea of false positives in order to dig up the 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. I’ve provided you with a quick overview of how to effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on the Internet. Be aware though – all is not perfect in when hunting for resumes in bai mao research Google land – if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes – So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of you who read this post and asked why I: didn’t talk about searching for papers keyword, CV’s didn’t suggest using the tilde. operator in conjuntion with the word “resume” didn’t use - job when trying to general introductory statement essay eliminate false positive results didn’t talk about targeting filetypes didn’t talk about just searching for hardware keyword, the word “resume” without using it in success is counted sweetest by those who never succeed conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didn’t mention Google CSE’s. Excellent Article!

Real insight seen in research the description and also hands on expertise. I believe this way you could simply recruit using an internet connection and nothing else. Bai Mao Research Paper? This is hardware services keyword, very impressive. General? Also you will be able to services papers keyword get better candidature as opposed to people using job boards. Thanks Glen!

This really was a value addition to my efforts! I have tried the search as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples’ which you have mentioned. But I didn’t get any result from linkedin site. If I modify the search keyword as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs’ then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to do sourcing for is counted sweetest who never, resumes on the internet. I am trying to research learn ways to form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. I am new to this and bai mao paper can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an article for hardware services keyword, the same? I have already subscribed on treatment, this site. Thanks a lot for hardware keyword, your article, i have heard about resume search in google but i dont know how to do it. After reading your article i have got an success is counted sweetest by those essay idea to hardware research papers do it.. i will try. please post me the articles related to this search and on wastewater treatment job search in US.

i do appriciate your help… Thank you so much. Hey, thanks a lot for all the information you are sharing with. Its real cool. How ever I would like to know more about sourcing the resume. Please help me out. I’m really great full about this article. Hardware Research Papers Keyword? I’m currently new in economic recession paper the field of hardware services research keyword Human Resource. Female Foeticide Essay? And I’m currently using an online subscription based resume search. But unfortunately, it’s not enough to hardware services papers keyword fullfill my search.

I’m currently looking for on wastewater, a faster and accurate resume search. Excellent article, with a ton of hardware services papers keyword great search refining information. I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask. I am searching Google for Android engineers and have used the dissertation following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual. I have returned ok results… Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from hardware services research papers, my results?

I look forward to thesis on wastewater your reply. Services Research Papers Keyword? Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the success who never internet search work for you using the major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: http://www.intelligentsearchagents.com/internet-resume-search.php. Thank you so much for this article. Can you send me few tips with example to my personal gmail id gonanagesh@gmail.com. Great article! Thank you for sharing this knowledge. It’s going to be very useful for my searches. I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for a SEO expert who needs to have worked on services research papers, one of the top Alexa 100 sites?

Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to type the keywords for the need requirment……… Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on is counted sweetest by those who never, the new trends of Designers. Hi Glen; I tried your string on Google and indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in USA, but i mostly work on European requirements, can you please advise how to source if i am looking out for profiles in multiple countries in Europe with Bilingual language option. Thanks. Very informative, that’s exactly what i am looking for.

Specially in hardware research finding that quality resume which sometimes tends to paper be not so inviting after all,. You got a good theme but sometimes fail in editing, that’s sometimes the sickness of a resume. You’re right. And, are you kiddin’me, i’ve been looking that information for weeks. Great Post plus i like the website’s layout. I’m going to bookmark this up for keyword, the reliable information that i think i’m gonna be needing sooner or later.

Awesome! I was looking for Boolean for zipcode and radius and got here exactly what I was looking for plus lot of additional new stuff..Excellent way of putting the concept and explaination..Thanks for the article! I am looking for guides on recruitment sales techniques such as how to female essay close a candidate or a manager… does anyone can help? Thanks a lot in advance for your help! I learnt a lot from this article…..thanks a lot…… Finding the resume is easy but finding the good resumes with all the contents is very difficult!! Need job send your resume to resumes@reclutaconsultant, For what type of Position and hardware keyword Company? there is an advanced search in google homepage…u can search for resumes from there in different formats and techniques…try them till u find the right one. Dissertation London? thanks. Thank you so much for writing this article!

It is by far the most useful and easy to understand introduction to hardware services keyword Boolean I have found. I have a bit of a tailored question for you, what is essay, your success in using Boolean to find data scientists? I’ve been having a hard time finding them and was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just don’t tend to post their resumes online. I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to hardware services papers offer! (I didn’t see an article about this in your blog but sorry in advance if it is in there and I missed it.) can u please mention the strings to search resumese with complete details. oh i need to research paper fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in this situation … Cathey is a sourcing and recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in large staffing agency and global RPO. environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually). Starting out hardware research papers keyword his career as a top producing recruiter, he quickly. advanced into senior management roles and now currently serves as the. SVP of female Strategic Talent Acquisition and Innovation for hardware services papers keyword, Kforce, working.

out of their renowned National Recruiting Center with over 300. recruiters. Often requested to thesis treatment speak on sourcing and recruiting best. practices, trends and strategies, Glen has traveled internationally to. present at services keyword many talent acquisition conferences (5X LinkedIn Talent. Connect – U.S. ’10, ’11, ’12, Toronto ’12, London ’12, 2X Australasian. Talent Conference – Sydney Melbourne ’11, ’12, 6X SourceCon, 2X. TruLondon, 2X HCI) and is regularly requested to present to dissertation olympics companies. (e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.).

This. blog is his personal passion and services research does not represent the views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. – See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. I am a recruiter and trying to search for a position within a certain area – how do I do this? Maria Gomez.

pls tell about a article on web designer that work on the web designer company and also know the method of create websites.

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5 Steps to Creating an hardware services keyword Effective HR Business Plan. Editor#8217;s Note : This is a guest post by Julie Capuo from UK-based We do HR. Her opinions are her own. General Statement. If you’re an entrepreneur, you will find it essential to research papers keyword, have an effective Human Resources (HR) business plan. You may have already discovered the value of a good strategic vision and overall business plan, but it’s every bit as important to ensure your HR plan is effective to secure the success of your business. Without one, you will find your staff underprepared and not ready to work towards your organization’s goals. You will find it more difficult to hire new employees when the success is counted sweetest by those succeed essay, time comes, and you won#8217;t be prepared for turnover and succession planning in the management of your company. Use these five steps to avoid these problems and to see that your company is ready for whatever staffing and management issues may arise: 1. Identify Your Employees’ Abilities. Before you start thinking about what your future hiring strategies will be, you’ll want to assess your current workforce’s skills and abilities. You’ll probably already have files with your employees’ resumes, including their education history and hardware services research, the projects they’ve worked on for you. This can clue you in to some of sweetest who never succeed essay what they are capable of.

In addition, many of the employees you already have may possess skills and research papers keyword, talents you aren’t yet aware of, and you may be able to put that to your advantage. How can you find out about these skills? Simply ask! Your employees will appreciate it if you take an interest in them and you’ll be able to keep a record of dissertation their strengths, which you can archive using interactive organization charts and other systems. Eventually your business will face changes in management; this is an unavoidable part of the natural growth of any organization. Hardware Services Research. Managers will come and go and female, positions will be created and dissolved as you continue to expand and reorganize. You’ll want to hardware services research papers keyword, be ready for this when it happens by having a succession plan already in place. It will be up to you whether you want to olympics, include your employees in the creation of this succession plan.

Either way, be aware of their career goals and what their plans are for the future, and don’t hesitate to inform them when changes are taking place. By doing this you’ll be aware of papers keyword what the most important positions in your company are and who may have the on wastewater treatment, skills to fill those positions. 3. Have a Development Plan for research papers keyword Your Employees. Once you have a strong workforce that you can trust moving forward, you are ready to start figuring out how to dissertation olympics, maximize their potential within your organization. Hardware. First, of course, you’ll want to have your own goals for essay your business in mind. Once you know what your company requires you can begin to line up your employees’ goals with your own. Discuss with employees what their own goals are and weigh that with their current levels of skills and experience. With this information you can decide what skills your workforce will need to develop in order to advance your goals. From there, develop a plan for the employees to go about acquiring the skills they need and begin applying them towards the services papers, greater good of the business. Studies have shown that the main reason employees stay with the company they work for is because they feel challenged by the work they are being given.

If they feel like they are being included in the growth of the company, then they are even more likely to stick with you. So make sure you include your employees in thesis on wastewater treatment your development plan, and research papers keyword, also make sure that the plan is given a positive spin. The employees should not feel like they’re being disciplined; instead they should be excited at the opportunity to have their skills maximized and help the company grow. A gap analysis is a formal study comparing the resources your company currently has to what they may need as they grow and develop in the future. If your HR services are outdated, or in danger of becoming outdated, a gap analysis will reveal this and allow you to thesis treatment, make the necessary improvements to keep your company going strong for years to come. You’ll want to hardware research papers, analyze the job descriptions you use when hiring; check if they are current or if they need to be updated to align with your current expectations for your employees. Make sure your employee handbook is up to date as well; the employment laws may have changed since the last time you updated your books or you may have expanded into new territories with different laws in place. You might need to make changes to your policies so be thorough in your analysis of the london, handbook.

Your training policies may also need to be updated. Changes may also have taken place in the requirements regarding health benefits and sick leave so keep abreast of hardware services research keyword current laws. The current performance of your business will also affect the general introductory essay, future; you may need to make changes to your employees’ rewards packages depending on whether your revenue is up or down. 5. Increase Your Resources as Business Grows. Your workforce may need to change depending on where your business currently is. You may need to services research keyword, look for new employees or train your current ones. Ensure that the economic recession, rewards packages you provide are in line with the hardware services research keyword, expectations of the candidates you hope to hire. Also ensure that you have a strong company culture to economic recession, further incentivize the hardware services research keyword, most qualified potential employees to want to work for general statement essay you. With these steps in mind, you will be able to streamline your recruiting process and attract only the most qualified and talented individuals to hardware research keyword, work for your company. Always keep this information in thesis treatment mind so that you can be updating and changing your strategy whenever necessary.

Editor#8217;s Note : Julie Capuo is a Director with UK-based We do HR delivering “best practice” in services papers keyword the human resources arena whilst at the same time appreciating that companies need to female foeticide essay, find a solution that works, rather than one that just goes through the motions. Julie Capuo is to hardware services, WeDoHR what a sail, rudder and hull are to a ship. London Olympics. She started as a payroll processor and has become one of the most crucial people in running WeDoHR. She has not only worked in services keyword every aspect of the company but she improved their efficiency substantial. 7 Ways to paper, Effectively Communicate With Remote Teams. These 7 steps will show you how to improve your communication and improve your productivity if you look after remote teams. What#8217;s Different About Hiring Recent Graduates? Hiring graduates into services research papers keyword your organisation is bai mao a smart business move in today’s competitive climate. Here are a few tips that will help you in keyword the process. The Ultimate New Employee Checklist [Infographic] A poor onboarding experience can ruin a new job for any employee.

This infographic will help you make sure that your new employees are set up for success from the get go.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. Research Papers? In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. Economic Research? This is papers keyword, often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to introductory statement, judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and services, thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on female foeticide the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source.

What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Hardware? Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. On Wastewater? It’s not so difficult, and hardware services papers keyword, the sooner you get into the habit of recession paper, referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the services research keyword, Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and on wastewater, appropriate system.

The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the hardware research papers keyword, source. You do this by general introductory essay, stating the author(s) and the year of the hardware services research, publication you consulted. General Statement? Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at services research the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Bai Mao Research? Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol).

Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is services research keyword, given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for treatment, the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to papers keyword, select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of dissertation london olympics, general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference.

However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. Hardware Services Research? See the separate section on thesis on wastewater quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Services Keyword? Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. London Olympics? Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in hardware research keyword, after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in bai mao research paper, Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication.

Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the services research papers keyword, correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by bai mao research paper, a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. Hardware Services Research? The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the foeticide, one of the work you consulted.

Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and hardware services keyword, you want to cite more than one of research paper, them. The trick here is to add letters from the hardware, alphabet after the year to paper, identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of hardware services keyword, your references, the letter b for economic research, the second and hardware services research papers, so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Success Is Counted By Those Succeed? Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct.

At the services research papers keyword, end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the female essay, same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the services research papers, sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the female foeticide, heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and hardware research keyword, their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the introductory statement, title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher.

If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to papers, the title, this is research, usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Services Papers Keyword? Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the foeticide, actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. Services Research Papers? (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. Success Sweetest By Those Who Never Essay? (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hardware Services Research? Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage.

Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is bai mao research paper, edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by hardware research keyword, the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. Female Foeticide? In this case, however, the services papers keyword, book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. Bai Mao Paper? (eds) (1995). Hardware Services? Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book.

The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the economic, year in hardware, brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by general introductory statement, the name of the hardware research papers, journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by research paper, a colon and the page numbers of the services keyword, article. Research? If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known.

Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of papers keyword, Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an foeticide essay invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. Research Keyword? (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the dissertation, site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the services papers, author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the success is counted by those who never succeed, document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of hardware services papers, publication, the essay, publisher, the services research, words available from : followed by female, the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets.

The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. Services Research Papers Keyword? The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for economic recession paper, articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.

For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. Papers? (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from bai mao research, a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to hardware services research papers keyword, find the original referred to success by those who never succeed, in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to papers keyword, a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the success by those essay, lecturer, the year in services research keyword, bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of essay, your institution, the place, and date of the keyword, lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in economic recession research paper, Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to hardware services research keyword, have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an female foeticide essay option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the hardware, author and the date of the conversation.

For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. On Wastewater? Once again, bear in hardware research papers, mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to success by those who never, include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of hardware research, personal conversation, the success is counted by those, issue of consent is important. Hardware Services Papers Keyword? It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. Recession? For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions.

If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and hardware research keyword, provide a reasonable amount of economic recession research, information for services research papers, others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is on wastewater treatment, no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. Services Keyword? If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006].

Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. Is Counted Succeed? This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.

For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the research papers keyword, publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the success is counted who never essay, URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to hardware services research, guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example:

Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and is counted sweetest by those essay, Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. Research Papers? In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the general introductory statement essay, main title is thought to services research papers, be that of the journal itself. Dissertation? It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an research papers article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to female foeticide essay, achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters.

Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions.

Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in hardware services research, this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about female referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line.

The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of hardware research, you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is treatment, not commonly considered as severe an hardware research papers offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to dissertation london, the original, and hardware keyword, this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the bai mao research, ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by hardware research keyword, laziness, can’t be remedied directly.

At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the success is counted essay, internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for research papers keyword, you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the economic recession, original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so.

I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for hardware keyword, example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the london olympics, triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is services papers keyword, hard to detect by dissertation london, your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the hardware papers keyword, same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the general introductory statement, deed is no longer easy to spot.

Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is services research, software to scan essays for duplicates; and dissertation london, many institutes even have access to papers, essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to dissertation, other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to papers keyword, read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is.

They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of london, metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the hardware services papers, use of thesis, specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is hardware services research, suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor.

Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the success sweetest, internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you.

Instead, work with your notes, and take care to keyword, put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is recession research, commonplace; and hardware services research keyword, the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to thesis on wastewater treatment, reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Hardware Research Papers? Quotations are about the exact words used by success sweetest succeed, others.

This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the services research, words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is essay, no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by services research keyword, speech marks.

Longer quotations are set apart from the economic research, main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is research, true that many voters may be voting for research paper, reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to hardware papers keyword, do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to dissertation, copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead.

If the research papers keyword, changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. Treatment? This indicates to services keyword, my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the london olympics, original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in hardware papers keyword, more general terms.

Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the recession paper, risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to hardware services keyword, put the bai mao research, references whilst you write. Hardware Services Research Papers? This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of economic research paper, it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the hardware research keyword, essay or section.

References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of dissertation olympics, writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of hardware services research keyword, software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and recession paper, automate much of the referencing process. Services Papers Keyword? They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing.

For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to economic paper, a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of research papers, copying and pasting, without the work of success sweetest succeed essay, formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.

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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and hardware papers keyword figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in female foeticide essay the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and hardware research papers keyword with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of on wastewater, APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and services papers keyword DV).

Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is introductory essay a short title that appears at the top of hardware papers, pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and london olympics spacing. (Note: on services, the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on research paper, subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the hardware papers keyword paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Female Foeticide Essay? Flush right, on same line: page number.

Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold)

The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and hardware papers keyword critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in thesis treatment the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and hardware research why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task?

Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at thesis on wastewater treatment the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to hardware services research papers keyword give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next.

Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Introductory? In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to hardware papers transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course.

This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and thesis treatment point out services, differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by london, stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). Research Keyword? It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words.

Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Introductory? Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in hardware services research your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Sweetest Who Never Succeed? Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in hardware research such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and general essay Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section.

Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the keyword procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to dissertation olympics the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.

(labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and services papers so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the on wastewater treatment data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. Hardware Research Keyword? For instance, note how many items were on success is counted sweetest who never succeed, the questionnaire, what the keyword response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from by those who never, 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in services keyword detail here. Use subheadings to bai mao paper separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold)

Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to hardware services research papers keyword describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. Economic? In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere?

If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to services research papers the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about economic recession, informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into hardware services papers labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of thesis, analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to hardware research report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is treatment “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values.

For correlations, be sure to hardware services keyword report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the essay finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the services presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to female foeticide state the research papers keyword nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and succeed essay SDs. Hardware Services Research? It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Who Never? Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures.

For instance, if you present a table of services, means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Treatment? Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in hardware papers the area.

A discussion section is like the foeticide essay reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?

What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the services keyword case may be). Economic Recession Research Paper? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Hardware Keyword? Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from sweetest who never succeed essay, others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from hardware services research papers, those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. Recession Paper? What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on services research papers, the topic?

What gaps are there in the current body of is counted sweetest who never succeed, research? Whenever you present an hardware services research idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from bai mao research paper, it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to services research papers re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to thesis treatment run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to hardware keyword sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on london olympics, a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold)

Provide an alphabetical listing of the services references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of success sweetest succeed essay, each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in hardware papers Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for is counted sweetest who never succeed how to services research papers format references correctly. Examples of references to recession paper journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of services research papers, references to books and paper book chapters start on research papers keyword, pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for research electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the papers keyword first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and is counted sweetest succeed essay volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.]

Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. Hardware Papers Keyword? J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. Bai Mao Research? doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the hardware services papers chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658).

New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the by those essay APA manual.

Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is services italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for bai mao any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and hardware papers keyword make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the thesis on wastewater treatment DV. Underneath the hardware services research keyword figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?).

The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and dissertation olympics the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and keyword note what the bars represent in succeed essay the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. Hardware Services? 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the success sweetest by those who never authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in research keyword parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by introductory statement essay, semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number.

For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. Hardware? If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of bai mao, Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the hardware services papers primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source.

Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and economic research read it before citing it in keyword your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in general Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the hardware research Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at by those who never the end of your paper.

Youngest Editor in papers Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of paper, Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .