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Army loyalty essays

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asian name on resume Get via App Store Read this post in our app! How can I prevent discrimination due to my name? Firstly, I was born and bred in California. Army Loyalty Essays. I consider myself American and I'm fluent in English and speak in an american accent. Unfortunately (well actually I don't feel unfortunate about it other than this case), my parents are Chinese and essays bean trees kingsolver I have a Chinese name (surname and given name). I'm trying to move to China to become an English teacher and been sending resumes across and it's been very difficult. Largely I get ignored. However, some of my friends who have white names, well they can't seem to get enough offers. We have very similar resumes all having gone to the same college and done the same TESOL qualification. This leads me to believe that it's the name that's putting people off.

It kind of makes sense. Who would you want to be teaching you English? Mr. Smith or Mr. Loyalty Essays. Wang? So yeah I don't know what else to do?

I've actually started listing the languages I know on my resume like this. Mandarin is actually not required for the job and Health Promotion I'm actually fluent at it. But it's just there so I can highlight the fact I'm fluent in English. But no, doesn't seem to help. Army Loyalty Essays. It's gotten to the point I feel like maybe I should change my name, at least on my resume, and then after I get a phone interview, I can mention that my name is bibliography not my formal name. Essays. Somehow that just feels a tad degrading doing that. What else could I do? I wouldn't say fluent. I'd say native English speaker.

And I'd say it in the first line of the resume. Something like: Objective: To obtain a job teaching English in China where I can leverage my native English speaking skills. Similarly, make sure it is boo radley prominent on the cover letter if you have one. The reason I say this is that fluent tends to loyalty be used as a word to bean trees kingsolver describe someone who learned English and obtained fluency. Loyalty. I don't like the boo radley, idea of changing your name for the resume. It decreases credibility when you do get the interview. Others gave you general answers. Loyalty Essays. I am going to Health answer the specific part of your question.

I live in Taiwan. My answer is going to disappoint you. However, it's better to learn the cruel truth now than later. The same thing happens in Taiwan. Many Europeans who do not speak fluent Engilish can easily get an English teaching job in Taiwan while an ABC (American Born Chinese) (you're by definition an ABC) cannot get any of army loyalty those jobs. The reason is, those students and their parents do believe that those whites speak English while Chineses do not. Period. It is the perception problem rather than your ability to annotated bibliography teach English. I don't know how to make you feel better.

I think you need to accept this fact as early as possible so that you won't waste any more time looking for English teaching job in China. I believe the situation will get better when people realize that you would do a better English teaching job than your counter parts do because you speak Chinese. However, it won't change overnight. I think it will happen in the next decade. Use your other skills (such as programming) to get into the job market in army essays, China first. Then find a teaching position as the second job. Essays Trees. This is army essays not impossible. Still very hard. Promotion. Run your own English school. Loyalty. Start from being an English tutor there.

Expand the Health Promotion, business to larger customer base . Both alternatives are long shots. However, you can start to loyalty do them now instead of waiting for calls from China in the next 5 years. Essays. Private language schools sell the army essays, image of English as much (if not more) than they sell actual English education. As a Chinese-looking person, you would likely make a poor salesman of the English image , and don't have a snowball's chance of thesis getting hired. However, there are other routes you may be able to take to teach in China if you'd like. There are four main types of essays English Teaching jobs in Southeast Asia: Private Language Schools Private International Schools Private Universities Government-run Organizations. Private Language Schools. Duncan. These are by far the most common. There are many different types of these schools, from cram schools ( juku in Japan, hagwon in Korea, buxiban in China), to conversational schools to everything in between.

Generally speaking, native speakers are hired to teach English conversation. These schools are 100% for-profit, and sell the army loyalty essays, image of English as much as they sell actual language training. Many use deceptive billing practices, complicated contracts, and high-pressure sales to make money without providing much in the way of service (see Nova, among others). Define Bibliography. Many are shady and do not provide their employees with the loyalty essays, wages or benefits promised, and sometimes don't pay their employees at all. Point is, a lot of these places are fraud wrapped in pretty wrapping. This works because many customers are just as interested in the feeling of writing love English as they are in actually learning the language. As a result, a lot of loyalty essays these companies will make more money hiring a non-native English speaker who fits the image than they will with an extraordinary teacher who doesn't. And the image of essays on the bean English is Caucasian in Southeast Asia. For these companies, no amount of changing your name will help. You are not the product they are looking for.

You are not going to help them sucker students in and milk them for all they're worth. Sorry. Note: There are plenty of good schools out there I'm sure, who actually focus on loyalty teaching English. They are also the minority. China Korea Japan when it comes to 'legitimacy' of English teaching jobs, and bean trees by barbara kingsolver the major Japanese chains are going bankrupt and/or contracting because of a drop in demand. Not saying that Japan is better than Korea or China, just that from an English teaching perspective, the general consensus from people who have taught in multiple countries is army essays that the working conditions follow that hierarchy. Private International Schools.

Most private international schools are popular with expats and thesis are located in more urban places. They are also usually swimming with applicants. There may be exceptions, but for loyalty the most part these schools will not care too much about your ethnicity as long as you are a qualified and experienced teacher of the subject(s) they are hiring for. Qualifications depend on the country and creative school. Since you are talking about teaching English and army loyalty essays sending out many applications, I am guessing this category doesn't apply to poems essay gcse you (if you are a qualified teacher, however, I would suggest giving this a try). You can also get hired by universities if you have the necessary qualifications (usually a Masters in Language Education or something similar).

However, this path is also fraught with all sorts of loyalty danger. At least in Japan, foreign teachers are almost always put on thesis contracts, and will not receive tenure at a Japanese university. While the pay is good in army loyalty, the meantime, the nature of Japanese employment law means that they are reluctant to hire someone they can't get rid of in the future, and annotated due to the nature of university (students are only there a few years), there aren't so many consequences to essays rotating professors in boo radley essays, and out to minimize long-term risk to the school. This may be different in China and army loyalty Korea, but my guess is that you aren't applying for university jobs. The Japanese government hires foreigners to teach on the JET Programme each year. You are assigned as an boo radley essays, assistant language teacher in a public school, but due to education laws are always going to be an army, assistant. Bibliography. There may be similar programs in army loyalty, Korea or China, but if so I have never heard of them. At any rate, at least for the JET Programme there doesn't seem to be a bias against people of a j Japanese descent (there are plenty of 2nd and 3rd generation Japanese, many of whom know the language). If there is a Chinese version, this may be a good bet to have a chance, but I wouldn't hold your breath.

Add a section to your resume called Cultural Experience . In this section you can point out your lifelong experience with American culture and American English. It would probably include this (adapted from your question): I was born in California and consider myself American. Essays. I have native fluency in English and speak with an American accent. You could also add information about other boots-on-the-ground knowledge you have of US culture that would be relevant in the context of compare poems essay teaching English. This is also where you can put that summer you spent in France or Argentina, or the culinary training you did, or whatnot. I would put this section towards the army essays, top of the resume, and refer to it in a cover letter also. Often HR/recruiting gets so many applications that they sort out a large percentage in a very fast first pass. In this case they might just take quick glance at some criteria, like obvious strange formatting, spelling mistakes, names, missing degrees, etc. If they get a lot of application from annotated bibliography mostly native underqualified Chinese (I don't know the job situation there, but it's possible) they might indeed just sort out army loyalty essays, everyone with a chinese name. Creative. Please note, that I am not saying every native is underqualified, but if a lot of army loyalty essays people search for a decent job you get lot of applications where the compare, applicant does not fit the position. So, I am not certain that the answer from Quibblesome quite deserves it downvotes.

I don't think the loyalty essays, answer by Kate will help, they might just toss your resume into the garbage bin before ever getting to a section like this. Bean Trees By Barbara Kingsolver. Even with the answer from Jeanne I am not all sure they will actually read this. But I also don't think the essays, minor deceit proposed by Quibblesome is a good idea. Instead, I would just add an define bibliography, additional page title Before reading my resume and explain your situation there precisely and most importantly in a very concise way. Don't hesitate to use a somewhat larger font than usually, but not too large. I would use very simple formatting for army loyalty that page. Put this page at the very start of essay gcse your application, even before the cover letter. Loyalty Essays. Make sure that it's the boo radley essays, first page they read.

The correct way to do this may depend on loyalty essays the form of the application. I have seen people do this with their age or certain disabilities and it often works. I know its sneaky and it might not be the best advice but if you're really having difficulty with the application process then forge your name at the top. Then in creative writing, the final section of your CV (general interests usually) correct your name. Something like: Contrary to the cover page my name is actually: XYZ. Loyalty. Sorry for the deceit but I've been having trouble getting people to actually read my CV with a Chinese cover name. This helps you get past the discrimination yet at the same time you've still been upfront to duncan anyone that has actually taken the time out to read your CV. If someone is still unaware of your real name at the interview then it's their bad because they failed to read the whole CV.

You can then counter the negative aspect of: you lied about your name. Army Loyalty. well you obviously didn't read my CV then ;) Thereby levelling the professionalism playing field. If you've got enough places to apply to so that you might be able to experiment with some then it might be worth a shot. To be honest though a lot of this question is about Chinese culture and I'm not really qualified to by barbara kingsolver answer, neither are probably most of the army loyalty, people here. Might be worth speaking to someone immersed in the modern working culture of China to see which ideas would actually fly.

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How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Army Essays? Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and Promotion the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for loyalty, opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and define bibliography Is the loyalty, industry structurally attractive?

Then, in bibliography, addition to demonstrating an army understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at duncan, the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. Army Essays? A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and creative stories few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic.

A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the army essays, only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Bibliography? Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. Army? As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an act of stories, imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits.

Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers.

But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the army, entrepreneurial team has thought through the creative writing love, key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the army, anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of boo radley, using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in essays, any business plan. Near the back. What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on define the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on army essays the framework that follows.

It does not provide the kind of “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to boo radley, every new venture: The People. The men and loyalty essays women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for boo radley, it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity.

A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the army essays, business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by love the entrepreneur. Risk and army loyalty Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Thesis Duncan? Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no.

All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of army, project governance.

However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of a j, corporate hurdle rates. It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the army, people involved. What has the boo radley, team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in army loyalty, the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and essays on the bean trees by barbara context. Going through the process forces a kind of essays, discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both.

It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in creative stories, new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. Army Essays? That shouldn’t or needn’t be the boo radley essays, case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in loyalty essays, response to new information?

Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an define annotated bibliography organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why weren’t they?

Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the army loyalty, framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to thesis a j, identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom. The team’s members have skills and army experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Writing Stories? Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. Army Loyalty Essays? The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the thesis duncan a j, business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and essays its team.

Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is Promotion favorable with respect to both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the army loyalty essays, résumé section first. Boo Radley Essays? Not because the people part of the new venture is the army loyalty essays, most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the writing love, résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in mind. Loyalty Essays? (See the define, insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known?

Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the army essays, founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the thesis a j, past?

What is their reputation within the loyalty essays, business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and boo radley knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for loyalty, success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to compare essay, this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience.

How familiar are the loyalty essays, team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from writing love competitors to customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is run by people well known to suppliers, customers, and loyalty employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of on the trees kingsolver, a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year.

These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to understand the product that they’re talking about in army loyalty, the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the people—exhaustively.

And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the creative writing love stories, total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for loyalty, a share of a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in bibliography, a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to army loyalty essays, Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. Love? But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting.

Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of loyalty essays, professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and boo radley investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and loyalty end users. Selling a product to OEMs is complicated. The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and annotated bibliography ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area.

The information services industry, by loyalty essays contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and thesis a j First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. Army? First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the boo radley essays, world. Essays? And although it is Health often expensive to develop the army loyalty essays, service and to acquire initial customers, once up and thesis duncan a j running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of army loyalty, receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the creative writing stories, information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of army loyalty, Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to Health, shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer?

How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the army essays, product or service?

How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to Promotion, retain a customer? Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to specify how the essays, venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate.

Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the compare poems essay, company will build and launch its product or service into army loyalty the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert “The Opportunity of thesis, a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Army Loyalty? Economically viable access to thesis, customers is the key to loyalty, business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Health, Field of army essays, Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. Thesis Duncan A J? The market is army as fickle as it is Health Promotion unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the loyalty, entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an creative love stories anonymous package containing an empty can of army essays, dog food and a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to Health Promotion, predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities.

The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Army Loyalty Essays? Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Annotated? Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in which the army, costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to Health, be made in inexpensive products and services—even in loyalty essays, commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to essays, the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of army, questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product.

That’s fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the equation. The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an essays bean kingsolver opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and loyalty people? When does the business have to Promotion, pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the army loyalty essays, customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for creative writing love stories, businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the army loyalty essays, new venture is expected to come.

Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship.

Similarly, building on the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and poems essay tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on the subject of the new venture’s potential for growth and expansion. Loyalty Essays? But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. Essays By Barbara Kingsolver? One of essays, those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Few of duncan a j, these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why.

Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the army loyalty, business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to pay attention to Health Promotion, is the army, tricky business of arbitrage. Boo Radley Essays? Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in army essays, the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT. Some of the Health, industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an essays uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when.

The trick in these businesses is to use the creative stories, arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is army a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the essays on the trees, competition: Who are the army loyalty essays, new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control?

What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to writing stories, enter the business? How can the loyalty essays, new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to creative love, observe and exploit the army essays, same opportunity? Are there ways to poems, co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in army, advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by duncan a j definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the essays, opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter.

Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and boo radley essays the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about army raising capital for a private or public company. And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of Health, what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of loyalty essays, opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises.

The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for thesis duncan a j, new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of army, capital raised in the public markets. Compare Poems? (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. Essays? Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place.

Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to essay gcse, context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the essays, new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Creative? Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in army essays, which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an writing stories impact on loyalty regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it.

I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future. That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the opportunity, and define annotated bibliography the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the army loyalty, relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Health Promotion? Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process.

When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the army, opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the amount of thesis, money needed to launch the essays, new venture, time to positive cash flow, and boo radley essays the expected magnitude of the army loyalty, payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the Health Promotion, relationship between the investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and army essays often. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should.

It usually does. But to boo radley, be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in army essays, the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs. The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and the likelihood of on the trees by barbara, achieving them. Army Loyalty Essays? The following example shows investors that there is boo radley essays a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return.

The hump in loyalty, the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of annotated bibliography, cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of army loyalty essays, a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. Thesis A J? It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of army loyalty essays, a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. Health Promotion? And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty.

What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and loyalty experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of risk and Health reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the loyalty, distribution, to increase the compare, likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the likelihood and army loyalty implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk.

As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and bean trees by barbara give all the army essays, risk to thesis a j, others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of loyalty essays, people, opportunity, and annotated bibliography context.

What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by essays stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up.

That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for boo radley, the business itself.) Finally, one important area in army essays, the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process. Boo Radley? How will the investor eventually get money out army of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only creative love marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of army, exit options.

They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the poems gcse, goal is to army, land a deal. Essays On The Bean Kingsolver? That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to army loyalty essays, young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the compare poems essay, latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense.

From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms. Army Essays? New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. Writing Love? When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and army loyalty often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Annotated? Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. Army? They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. Thesis Duncan? They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. They are also familiar with the army loyalty, Byzantine ins and outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. Boo Radley Essays? This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes.

That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of loyalty essays, papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick.

But even these six simple rules miss an important point. Boo Radley Essays? A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the army loyalty essays, disposition of a lump sum. Essays? Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for army loyalty essays, funding, to bibliography, think about essays capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of poems essay, experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the army loyalty essays, new venture actually requires and in what stages.

Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. Boo Radley Essays? I consider it a prerequisite of army loyalty essays, putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance. In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the bibliography, supply of capital did not outrace the army loyalty, supply of opportunity. The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time.

A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the thesis duncan a j, entrepreneurial team, dragging it into loyalty essays oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to boo radley, fix what is army loyalty essays broken proactively and in real time. Risk is essays bean trees kingsolver inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the army essays, venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from essay identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship.

Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the army, overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Promotion? Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for army loyalty essays, sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and essays by barbara kingsolver candidly addresses the ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. Army Loyalty? In the annotated, absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable.

William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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Army essay loyalty

Women in the Military Essay Sample. The military referred to the armed forces of a sovereign entity or a nation that is basically designed and loyalty essays, authorized to use force, in contrast to diplomacy, to defend or extend the country’s integrity and territory. With the existence of different domains and specializations in warfare, the modern military now is generally divided into three branches: the army pertains which to the land forces: the navy that provides the sea power support for defense; and the Air Force which was commissioned for the air, space, and boo radley, cyberspace. In the past, the military are usually constituted of a group of “armed men” who shares a single identity based on race or tribe (e.g. Spartans for Sparta), However, with the advent of globalization marked by the rapid exchange of people across borders and the liberalization of women’s rights, a nation’s armed forces is now constituted based on essays national allegiance and has formally opened its doors to females for membership.

While the participation and contribution of women in the military have been extensively accounted throughout the Health Promotion, world in army, terms of leadership skills, combat skills, tactical skills and essays on the trees, military support, their role in the military specifically in army, combat remains debatable and insufficiently given due credit. Today, many nations are starting to expand the role available for women in the military, which provides greater opportunities for women to dole out their fair share in essay gcse, defending the nation and stand out and be more conspicuous in the military profession. History of Women in the Military. The involvement of women in the military had its roots since time immemorial. Among the earliest women fighters in ancient history included Ahhotep I in 1600 B.C. (Van Sertima, 1995), Lady Fu Hao, the first female Chinese military strategist during Shang Dynasty in 1200s B.C. (Tao, Zheng and Mow, 2004) and Deborah of Israel, who led military campaign against army the Canaanites. (Sharkansky, 1991) While most of the celebrated war heroes in ancient history are men, women had their meager share of war leaders based on thesis legendary accounts like Queen Gwendolen and Queen Cordelia of Great Britain (Kagay and Villalon, 1999) as well as Queens Zabibe and Samsi in the Arab region. (Duri and Conrad, 1987) However, perhaps the most renowned group of military women that until today is popularly portrayed in popular culture and in film is the Amazons. According to Greek historian, Herodotus, the Amazons are a group of fierce warriors that are exclusively female. They were believed to have lived in Pontus, now part of modern Turkey and loyalty, have appeared in many Greek legends like the Trojan War. Creative Stories. In Homer’s Iliad, the Amazons were described as ferocious women warriors who fought like men i.e. Antianeira. (Blok, 1995)

France is among the few nations that gave the world with the prominent women in army loyalty essays, the military such as Genevieve, who forestalled the entry of Attila in Paris in the 5th century and Joan of essay Arc, , who the French army in several key battles during France’s during the Hundred Years’ War against England between the 13th and loyalty essays, 14th centuries. Both military leaders were eventually canonized as saints by essays bean trees the Catholic Church for army their continued and devoted referral to God in essays, their war campaigns. (Duby et al, 1993) During the First World War, the extent and magnitude of the war that basically covered the whole of Europe entailed mobilizing and summoning more personnel for war purposes. Loyalty. Many women were drafted in the armed forces mainly to define bibliography serve military support roles particularly as nurses or mending the army loyalty, wounded. Nursing is perhaps the most prevalent and only opportunity for duncan a j females to be involved or at the fore front of war. However, there are also a few women who were directly involved in combat. In 1914, Maria Bochkareva, was the army loyalty, first woman to join the 25th Tomsk Reserve Battalion of the Russian Army. Boo Radley Essays. After receiving several distinctive awards for her service, she later was commissioned to form the Women’s Battalion of Death, an all-female combat unit created by the Russian Provisional Government to loyalty promote the people’s continued support to essays on the bean trees by barbara kingsolver fight the war. (De Groot and army loyalty essays, Bird, 2000) Issues of writing love Sexual Discrimination and Harassment. The entry of women in the military is often ridiculed and scoffed at. Army Loyalty Essays. The Walt Disney film, “Mulan”, depicted one of the many stories of women disguising themselves as men to join the army.

But the plot of the story is not really fictional. Because of the male domination in the military throughout history, there exists an unfounded and groundless traditional belief that the military is reserved exclusively for poems essay men; many women in history were forced to disguise themselves as men to join the army. In the First World War for instance, Dorothy Lawrence, an English reporter guised herself as a man named Denis Smith in army essays, order to become an English soldier. (Cook, 2006) In the United States, the first ever American woman soldier, Deborah Sampson, enlisted as “Robert Shurtliff” in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. During the Civil War on the other hand, Sarah Rosetta Wakeman enlisted under name “Lyons Wakeman” to serve the 153rd Regiment. Duncan. Both women are among the loyalty essays, many military soldiers in the U.S. Revolutionary and Civil War, who cut their hairs and used male aliases just so that they can join the army and essays bean, serve their country. (Smith and Greig, 2003) The exclusion of women from army loyalty, combat roles in the military is just one of the major issues that women face in the military.

The challenge of poems sexual harassment is another important matter that needs to army essays be addressed. Essays On The Bean. Sexual harassment refers to any unwelcome sexually determined behavior relating to or characterized by sexuality; “sexual orientation”; “sexual distinctions” whether directly or by implication. Many experts widen the loyalty essays, definition of sexuality to include a number of sexual elements in Promotion, organizations – which do not have to be a question of manifest sexual actions but can also be a question of the undertone in army loyalty, workplace climate, including acting and language (Calas and Smircich, 1991). The problem of sexual harassment of women in the military is prevalent. According to Dr.. Michael Lawrence of the Defense Manpower Data Center, more than fifty percent of female personnel serving in the military including the Army, Navy, Air force and Marines, have experienced some form of sexual harassment. Moreover, cases of sexual harassment in the military are often unreported because victims are reluctant to report such incidents because of fear being reprimanded considering the highly traditional culture of the military and because they lacked confidence and faith in the military’s grievance protocols and procedures. Moreover, even if a female military personnel wins a sexual harassment case, the obtainable remedies and penalties are inadequate to redress the bean trees, harm committed. In view of which, the armed forces are currently enhancing their policies, procedures and campaign to address sexual harassment in the military in general. (Sagawa and loyalty, Campbell, 1992)

Interview with Two Soldiers. It is quite disheartening and odd to discover how women per historical and documented accounts needed to compare poems essay take the arduous and intractable task of guising themselves as men just so that they can serve their country. It is even more demoralizing and poignant to learn how women who have chosen to dedicate themselves in the service of their country as part of the armed forces find enemies among their male comrades who bully and harass them on the basis of their gender. Two soldiers were interviewed by the researcher to obtain the opinion of soldiers about loyalty, women in the military in general particularly on the issue of sexual discrimination and harassment of military women. One male and one female solder was selected for the interview to compare the differing views and thesis duncan, attitudes of the two sexes. Following are the summary of their opinions. Male Soldier. The inclusion of women in the military is a welcomed trend.

In as much as a woman and man have equal rights under the law, they should also have equal responsibilities or duties to defend the law and serve the country. However, because of apparent physical differences, it would be better if women are not included as combatants. They can better serve the military in terms of attending the wounded as nurses or in devising strategies for warfare as military tacticians. The former entails nurturing to which women are naturally good at army essays because of their inherent caring and mother instinct while the latter requires mental abilities, with which women are equally endowed with men. To be a combatant requires physical and brute force which the female body is not naturally designed. Female Solider. The greater participation of women in the military should be promoted by extending the available opportunities for women in the ranks. Instead of limiting the essay gcse, role of army women in support activities as nurses, mechanics and navy crews, more military women should be encourage in combat activities as missile gunners and fighter pilots.

These combat activities do not necessarily entail brute force but skills in sharp shooting and air maneuvering, which female soldiers can handle. Male Soldier. Health. Any form of essays sexual harassment may it be in annotated, the military, in the office or in the streets should be stopped. Loyalty Essays. Sexual harassment is ultimately an boo radley essays, ethical issue because it involves the loyalty, distinction between right and wrong or good and evil. In the annotated bibliography, military, because of the male domination in terms of membership, sexual harassment is rampant and army essays, sometimes unavoidable. Men who have been in duty and have not seen a woman for months or even years tend to be earnestly looking for essays trees by barbara kingsolver a woman at least talk to them to bring them back to their senses considering the army, dehumanizing cruelty and viciousness they witnessed from war. This however does not justify or excuse them from committing any acts of sexual harassment. The issue of sexual harassment is more often vague and unclear. Acts that constitute sexual harassment are ambiguous and vary between men and women. While “gross” acts such as unsolicited physical contacts and advances; request for sexual favors, sexually nuanced verbal remarks or actions are apparently distinguishable, certain subtle acts and other harmless social interactions perpetuated by men can be alleged by a woman as an act of sexually harassment, without the man having clear and Health, pure intentions in doing so. Female Soldier . Because of the minority status of women in the military both in terms of number and in position, sexual harassment against military women is common and widespread.

Most if not all military women have experienced at least one instance of harassment while at service. Sexual harassment morally violates a person’s dignity and respect because it places them in awkward and army essays, helpless position to perform something they do not want to annotated bibliography do. In most instances, they go unreported for essays the shame, hassle and fear of retaliation by the offender especially if he is essays by barbara, a higher ranking officer. The need for an intensive training and education of the military as an organization about the issue of sexual harassment is loyalty essays, necessary especially considering that the organization was traditionally a group exclusive for men. Grievance procedures and policies should be further enhanced to protect women from harassment by amplifying the penalties for offenders. Finally, the participation and designation of women in key positions in the ranks can further help curb the problem of harassment. Summary.

Both the male and female soldier interviewees explicitly conferred on the inclusion of women in the military as a matter of duty to their country. They however differed in terms of duncan what roles women should hold in the military. The male soldier absolutely opposed the inclusion of loyalty essays women in combatant duties. The female soldier on duncan a j the other hand wanted the participation of women in combatant roles as part of extending and promoting the opportunities available for military women. Roles specifically as gunners and fighter pilots accordingly do not entail physically might or strength but skills and mental aptitudes that women can equally excel at. Other Issues. While the male soldier interviewee focused on the particular matters the researcher have used during the interview, the female soldier further raised other issues and challenges that military women faces while being at the service. Among the more common issues included are as follows: how military women should wear their hair, being a single mother while in military service, married military couples and the potential conflicts that can occur and pregnancy while at service. These issues that are exclusive for military women often boil down to army the clashes and variances with a one’s military profession and a woman’s traditional domestic or civilian roles. In the United States, while women have served in the military in as early as the American Revolution particularly for tendering and attending to the ill and wounded and for other critical support services such as cooking food and cleaning uniforms, it was only on 1942 that Congress had approved a bill that created an all female army unit called the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps.

While this initiated the more active participation of women in compare poems essay gcse, the military, the inclusion of women was only deemed to be a matter of emergency because of US entry in the Second World War. It was in 1948 that women have been formally integrated in the US Armed Forces as permanent members of the US Armed forces whether in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps or Air Force. The Women’s Armed Services Integration Act allowed women to serve as regular members of the military who are subjected to the same rules, policies and entitlements applied to all military personnel. However, Title 10, U.S.C. 6015 prohibits women to be assigned on duty on Navy vessels and Air Force aircrafts that are engaged in combat missions. In 1970, Congress repealed an act that bars women with dependent children from joining the military and the discharging of service women with children under 18 from the service. Essays. (Cook, 2006) While the congressional acts provided the legal framework and provisions that formally integrated women in the armed forces, other factors led to the expansion and participation of women in military service.

First is the liberation of women and equal rights movement for women that gained momentum and peak in the 1960’s and 70’s. These ideals initiated the gradual elimination of discrimination against boo radley essays women and essays, opens new opportunities for women which is traditionally reserved for men which included military service. Another major factor that instigated the wider and more intensive participation of women in military service is the All-Volunteer Force in 1973 during which the essays on the bean trees kingsolver, government had difficulty in recruiting and retaining sufficient qualified male in the military hence it opted to recruit women to address the shortage. (Binkin, 1993) At the moment, women constitute approximately over 15% of the US Armed Forces evenly spread in its major branches. Moreover, military women are rising to higher levels of position in the organization in lieu of their quality and committed service to the military and to their nation as a whole. While there are statutory restrictions on women in the US military, there is army loyalty essays, no law that explicitly proscribes women from serving in combat. In fact, with the nature of the modern forms of war fare such as guerrilla warfare and terrorist attacks in Iraq, military women are equally vulnerable and engaged in front line attacks and direct combat mission. (US GAO National Security and International Affairs, 1993) In modern warfare, some terrorists even use women as a tactical front line combatant in carrying out thesis, suicide bombing missions. (Zedalis, 2004) These trends only provide evidence that women can serve as effectively as their male counterparts in performing and successfully accomplishing any form of military service including as combatants.

Regardless of pursuing the objectives of gender neutrality, the participation of army loyalty essays women in the military including the abolishment of pertinent restrictions should therefore be considered for practical and strategic purposes. Throughout history, women have demonstrated and essay, proven their determination, commitment and army essays, capacity to Health serve the armed forces of their nations. Moved by their unparalleled enthusiasm, some women have in fact opted to disguise their gender so that they can join the military. Because of emergency needs during war time, governments have called and mobilized women for military service for nursing and other support service provisions. In view of the increasing recognition of women for loyalty their military achievements as well as the equality of rights, the role and participation of women gradually expanded until they were formally integrated in the military forces. In the annotated bibliography, US, there are still restrictions in the involvement of loyalty military women particularly in combat activities and missions. However in boo radley, the age of modern warfare, it is now difficult to draw the line which among the missions assigned to military women is not in the front line. Hence, the equal susceptibility or exposure of military women to danger similar to a male combatant makes these restrictions a futile or ineffectual provision. Instead, there are greater issues that military women face considering their minority status in the military organization in army essays, terms of number and position. These issues include sexual harassment which is writing love stories, prevalent, balancing work and familial obligations, and pregnancy among others.

Finally, the US plays a central role in foreign diplomacy to the present global peace that world enjoys. Fundamental to this role of our nation is its military supremacy for the protection of its own interests, containment of foreign influences or intrusion in its governance and sovereignty and protection of essays freedom, justice and peace of all nations from the perils of terrorism and other repressive and oppressive ideologies. In light of compare poems this vital role, there remains a steady need to recruit American soldiers to preserve and maintain the loyalty essays, peace and order of the world. Sexual discrimination and harassment therefore in the military should be immediately addressed so as not to impede to the bigger and nobler mission of the United States. Binkin, M. (2003). Who will fight the define, next war?: the changing face of the American military. Loyalty. Brookings Institution Press.

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De Groot, G. and Peniston-Bird, C M (2000). A soldier and a woman: sexual integration in the military. Longman Press. Duby, G., Perrot, M. Fraisse, G, and Schmitt G. (1993). Pantel A History of Women in the West: Emerging feminism from loyalty essays, Revolution to World War. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Duri, A. and Conrad, L (1987).

The historical formation of the Arab nation: a study in compare poems essay, identity and consciousness translated by Lawrence I. Conrad. Army Essays. Taylor Francis. Kagay, D.J. and Villalon. Essays On The Bean By Barbara Kingsolver. L.A. (1999). The circle of war in the Middle Ages: essays on medieval military and naval history. Boydell Brewer. Sagawa, S. and Campbell, N. Army Loyalty Essays. (1992). Women in the Military Issue Paper. Sexual Harassment of Women in the Military. National Women’s Law Center, Washington DC, October 1992. Retrieved from: http://www.nwlc.org/pdf/Military%20Harassment.pdf.

Sertima, I. (1995). Black Women in Antiquity. 2nd edition. Transaction Publishers. Smith, C. and Greig, C. Creative Writing Love. (2003). Women in pants: manly maidens, cowgirls, and other renegades. Army Loyalty Essays. H.N. Abrams. Tao, J. Zheng, B. and Mow, S.L (2004).

Holding up half the sky: Chinese women past, present, and future. Feminist Press. US GAO National Security and International Affairs (1993). Women in the Military: Deployment in the Persian Gulf War. Health. DIANE Publishing. Zedalis, D.D. (2004). Female Suicide Bombers. Army Essays. The Minerva Group, Inc.

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Army essay loyalty

100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and army, easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the duncan a j cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Essays? • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen?

• Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to essays on the trees by barbara, develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and loyalty, not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade?

What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for essays some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for army loyalty a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)?

Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and writing love, others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to army, be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate?

Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in bean by barbara kingsolver sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs?

Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last?

Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?

Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and essays, happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to love stories, sleep in boxes and other strange places?

Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and loyalty, bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the essays on the bean trees kingsolver wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in army loyalty research?

Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an duncan, advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is army loyalty essays nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to essays on the by barbara, light? Why are insects the army most successful animals on Promotion, earth? Why are microbes important to human beings?

Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently?

What has caused the loyalty unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. Poems Gcse? government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from loyalty essays, rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is a j China going to army essays, ease up on the one-child policy?

Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the thesis duncan medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the army essays French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin?

Why is English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the writing Chinese still interested in army essays religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to Health Promotion, adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is army loyalty essays different from the European system used by Promotion most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at essays Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war?

Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into creative love stories, a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to army loyalty essays, get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to trees by barbara kingsolver, the question will be the thesis of army loyalty, your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by essays kingsolver interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and essays, thesis. Bean By Barbara? Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and army loyalty essays, then answering it. To make your thesis into boo radley essays, a clear roadmap of essays, what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of gcse, your essay.

Body: Be careful to loyalty, write the essays bean by barbara kingsolver reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an army loyalty, emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the Health experience, and essays, they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on on the trees kingsolver, one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and army essays, Conclusions. by Josh Wilmoth 0. Compare Poems Gcse? 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by loyalty Virginia Kearney 37.

How to essays, Write an Analysis Response Essay. by Virginia Kearney 2. Essays? How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States.

Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. Creative? I have many more articles about essays, writing. Boo Radley Essays? Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and army loyalty essays, conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from compare poems gcse, Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to army, create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to essays on the bean kingsolver, our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on army, the following issues: 1. Thesis Duncan A J? A few similar questions on essays, the technology niche.

2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the thesis duncan a j introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Loyalty? Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and compare gcse, reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks.

Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and army, students! I always learn to compare essay gcse, much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people.

So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to army, come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for compare poems gcse over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is loyalty a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. On The? HubPages and army, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on boo radley, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Army essay loyalty

comedy genre essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Army? More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of boo radley, stressed and army, unstressed syllables. Cadence is on the trees by barbara, a major component of army essays, individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing.

Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in annotated bibliography, the middle of a poetic line. Army Loyalty Essays? Others insert extra space in this location. Creative Love? Others do not indicate the essays caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of essays, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and army loyalty essays, descenders at define annotated bibliography the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at army one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by Promotion, the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy.

CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in loyalty, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of compare essay gcse, dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to loyalty essays, those works in anthologies that have come to Promotion, be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of army, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for Health Promotion, admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the loyalty essays apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to boo radley essays, him in the past. Likewise, the army loyalty essays Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Essays On The? Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to army essays, dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the creative writing canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and loyalty essays, political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Bibliography? Examples include the divisions in loyalty essays, Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Health? Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of army, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of compare poems essay, beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in army loyalty, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for bibliography, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the loyalty essays Wampanoag tribe in duncan a j, the late seventeenth century. Army Loyalty? Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to essays, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and army essays, caritas (love) espoused in annotated, the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of loyalty, prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of compare, God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in army essays, much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to essay, dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the army loyalty essays wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to a j, curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is loyalty essays, Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and boo radley, the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is army, often called poetry or literature of the boo radley essays carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to army, Make Much of annotated bibliography, Time.

Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the loyalty word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of compare, they , and their is the possessive case of army essays, they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of Health Promotion, particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Army Loyalty Essays? Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by thesis, specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.

Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to essays, a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Boo Radley Essays? misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from army essays combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . On The Bean By Barbara? The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to army, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the creative stories possible results. Essays? It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the Health 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of army, a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the bean speaker in loyalty essays, these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from creative writing stories stacking one impossibility on top of army loyalty essays, another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of duncan, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for army loyalty essays, a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the compare gcse catachresis might evoke the idea of the army essays cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of boo radley, evocative, almost nonsensical language is the loyalty essays heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Health Promotion Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by army, asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into a j, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into army essays, a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is on the by barbara, all about blind mouths. Army? Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the thesis cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the army proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by annotated bibliography, taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the essays senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on boo radley essays, around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the essays eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and creative love, inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for essays, originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for on the bean kingsolver, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the other hand, in army essays, trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the Health first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of army loyalty, poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of gcse, a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from army loyalty a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Poems? If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the loyalty essays poet would devise long lists of Health Promotion, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and army, mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of annotated bibliography, giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in army essays, section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of thesis duncan a j, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and army loyalty essays, unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the thesis duncan a j king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and loyalty essays, advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on writing love stories, a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the army more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of on the bean by barbara, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the loyalty play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the compare poems gcse normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to army, be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the writing stories word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. Loyalty? When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of poems, singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to army loyalty, the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the thesis duncan a j poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in army essays, their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on essays trees kingsolver, the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and essays, making sure the boo radley catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about army essays, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and define annotated, anxiety. Army Essays? According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of on the trees, any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an loyalty essays, action that is serious, complete, and Health Promotion, of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of army essays, Charles I of England (ruled c. Bibliography? 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.

CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to army, in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and creative stories, who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Army Loyalty? The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and duncan, Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of army loyalty, love and boo radley essays, sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for army essays, a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R.

Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Thesis? Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and army essays, Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the Health nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the army purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is writing love stories, being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in essays, place and essays, unable to army, view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to boo radley essays, mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the loyalty imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the creative writing cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Loyalty Essays? Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is define annotated bibliography, a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the essays cave as the material or physical world, while the thesis duncan a j shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. Army Essays? S. Lewis coopts this idea in Promotion, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of loyalty essays, heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the thesis inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in essays, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the define annotated bibliography ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is loyalty, really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. Annotated? It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and army loyalty, Charlotte Guest's translation of essays, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at essays Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of define annotated bibliography, Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Loyalty? Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the compare gcse Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of army, extraordinary Irish talent in love, the late nineteenth and army loyalty essays, twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in duncan a j, an occupational position in the Roman government. After the army fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Gcse? These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of loyalty essays, unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and bibliography, the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the army loyalty political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of essays by barbara kingsolver, alteration in his early works to loyalty, conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the define centaur (a hybrid of army loyalty, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and essays, literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Essays? Unable to Health, find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in essays, turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Boo Radley Essays? The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality.

Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Army Loyalty Essays? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the annotated bibliography turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the army loyalty body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of thesis a j, rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at army loyalty essays the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and a j, tritagonists that heroes would encounter on loyalty essays, their quests. Among the annotated Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to loyalty essays, be before the fall, or the compare perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of army loyalty, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Health Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and essays, objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and essays, capability between these two extremes. Army Essays? The Chain of kingsolver, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in loyalty essays, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and writing love stories, philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the army loyalty Chain were thought to correspond to each other. Poems Essay? (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in essays, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and kingsolver, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of essays, Roland is by far the define annotated most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in essays, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and essays, change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is loyalty, typically called the protagonist ; the character against Health Promotion whom the essays protagonist struggles or contends (if there is essays, one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of essays, protagonist, a baritone the creative role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an essays, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the essays on the bean kingsolver character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Loyalty? For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the Promotion sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Army Loyalty? Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to compare poems essay gcse, imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an army, older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Duncan A J? Cheke would double vowels to army loyalty, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.

Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the define bibliography life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is loyalty, often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Essays By Barbara Kingsolver? Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and essays, social behavior for the aristocracy in essays, the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only army loyalty, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of on the trees kingsolver, becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the essays father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the love stories brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.

Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and army loyalty, feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to bean trees, a surge of loyalty, historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. A J? Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the essays King . Compare Poems Essay Gcse? In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in loyalty, mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to essay gcse, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of army essays, a play in classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the creative love chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in army essays, any type of narrative literature that serves the Promotion same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the army essays main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by Health Promotion, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the army loyalty significance of the events within the play.

This group contrasts with the love stories actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. Army Loyalty Essays? For instance, Time comes on stage in Health Promotion, The Winter's Tale to explain the essays passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in essays, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and loyalty, Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of poems gcse, Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).

In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to loyalty, refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of Promotion, christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in essays, a cruciform pattern; the duncan lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of army loyalty essays, Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Promotion, Judah to loyalty, be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in essays bean by barbara, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of army loyalty essays, Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in on the bean, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in army loyalty, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. Boo Radley Essays? It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to army essays, interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of creative stories, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.

In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is essays, one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the compare poems gcse Kings of Britain , a source for loyalty, much Arthurian legend. In the define annotated bibliography Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for army loyalty essays, plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of a j, . Essays? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the define myth that all change is beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and army loyalty essays, the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of boo radley, spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in loyalty essays, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of creative love, large columned temples in essays, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the stories Furies and Nemesis, and army, (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the essays surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of army, Aesclepius.

It became common in Greek to speak of the essays Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the essays church and receive sentence. By the on the trees kingsolver fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for army, the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of boo radley, four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to loyalty, children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of define bibliography, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an army loyalty essays, ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the creative speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of essays, reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the boo radley essays reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Essays? They commonly wrote in a j, oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55).

Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and loyalty, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the creative stories word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the army loyalty essays word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in compare poems essay, Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Army? The Golden Age of writing love, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to army loyalty, be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Poems Gcse? The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from army loyalty a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works.

For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the annotated bibliography periods of literary history in essays, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and thesis a j, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the army essays building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is compare poems, known as an independent clause . Loyalty Essays? If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Bibliography? For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Army Loyalty? For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about gcse, a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.

The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of loyalty, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and a j, bad literature. Army? Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and thesis duncan, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to army essays, hyperbolic lengths, such as the bean trees by barbara kingsolver trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and army, dove , moon and June , trees and Health, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in loyalty essays, which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on boo radley, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Loyalty Essays? It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and gcse, crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process.

For instance, the word auto (as in army loyalty, auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of Health, literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of army loyalty, every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Define Annotated? Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and army essays, number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and essays, traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at essays the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in thesis duncan a j, a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Loyalty? An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in love stories, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in loyalty, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by writing stories, an author. For instance, in J. R. Army Essays? R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the essays closure to the saga comes from the army essays departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an creative writing stories, act which apparently causes magic to fade. Army Essays? Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to bibliography, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the loyalty essays tale. Compare Essay? See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the army essays audience's sense of closure. Poems Essay? Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to army loyalty essays, gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on duncan, the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and army loyalty, artificial in comparison with the writing love stories complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at army essays court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an Health Promotion, uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to loyalty, lay an define annotated bibliography, egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Loyalty? The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Promotion, Cockney, and army essays, recent dialect shift that appears to Promotion, be spreading across the army essays island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.

COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Essays? For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the army essays speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of gcse, one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to army, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in annotated bibliography, sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for army, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. Thesis Duncan? The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and army loyalty essays, uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for on the bean trees, these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in loyalty essays, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and define bibliography, historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Loyalty? The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by compare essay gcse, linking the strange word to army essays, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.

Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in essays, terms of their meaning, the army essays words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to annotated, a collective group of individuals or individual items. Loyalty? What makes them tricky in by barbara, grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Army Loyalty? Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure.

For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to boo radley, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and loyalty essays, recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of boo radley essays, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Army? Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Thesis A J? See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the loyalty essays phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. A J? (Compare with cliché , jargon and army, slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Creative? American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in army loyalty essays, the American colonies before the American Revolution against define annotated bibliography the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Army? This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and Health, continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and loyalty, Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in essays, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of army loyalty essays, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On The Trees? On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences.

The term is often applied in academic discussion of army loyalty, literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of on the by barbara, George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about army essays, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of annotated, drama during the Dionysia festivals of army essays, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to bibliography, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in loyalty, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Boo Radley? See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Loyalty? A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for by barbara, Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of essays, stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the Promotion blame for essays, such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on poems gcse, it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and army, Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by duncan, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and army essays, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of define bibliography, these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Army Loyalty? Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place.

For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by define annotated bibliography, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the loyalty essays dozens of writing love, such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of essays, a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in creative writing, the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in army, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and on the bean kingsolver, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the army essays center of the earth's gravity, at essays which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at army Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93).

COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Define Annotated? Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and army loyalty, other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in Promotion, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Army Loyalty Essays? The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the essays on the bean trees by barbara kingsolver plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in army loyalty, foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. Stories? In the end, the army couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of writing love stories, Windsor , and army loyalty, Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into essays on the bean trees kingsolver, English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in army, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is boo radley essays, most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the army loyalty essays syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for Health, an eponym--a common word that is loyalty, derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Compare Poems Essay? The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to army essays, kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Promotion, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and army loyalty, birth of a hero. Examples include the Health Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Essays? Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for define annotated, (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the loyalty visitation of essay, a god like Lug to army essays, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is define bibliography, found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of army essays, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in on the trees kingsolver, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and army loyalty essays, closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and define, medieval European legends in loyalty essays, which the beast is composed of the body-parts of on the bean by barbara kingsolver, various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and essays, a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an thesis, avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Loyalty Essays? Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and creative writing love stories, ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of army loyalty essays, dimidiation , in writing love stories, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in army loyalty, spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from gcse two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.

Thousands of army loyalty essays, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at Promotion least his good character). If he was unable to loyalty, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the essay defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the army essays beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept.

It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the Health Promotion most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in loyalty essays, a well, for essays on the bean trees kingsolver, instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Loyalty? Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Essay Gcse? For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is loyalty, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Boo Radley Essays? A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Loyalty? In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to boo radley, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of loyalty, text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on essays bean by barbara, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Loyalty Essays? Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by annotated bibliography, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Loyalty Essays? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by compare essay, combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Army Essays? For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the boo radley Quarto and loyalty essays, First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the writing love stories protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the essays Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in define bibliography, Alaska) and army loyalty, Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of creative writing stories, narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively.

Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and army, the machinations of Health Promotion, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is army loyalty, cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of essays bean trees by barbara kingsolver, Odes ), the army loyalty Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Boo Radley? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against army loyalty essays a legitimate authority (thus we speak about compare poems essay gcse, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.

Much of poetry involves the army poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. On The By Barbara Kingsolver? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of loyalty essays, consonants is marked by changes in creative writing love stories, the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of army, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and thesis a j, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Army Loyalty Essays? To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Boo Radley Essays? Users of loyalty essays, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at Health the present moment. Although the army loyalty writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.

COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the Health town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in essays, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of essays, human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for loyalty, more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of on the bean trees by barbara kingsolver, a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of loyalty, a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . Define Annotated? In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and army, difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the creative writing stories early twentieth-century, for loyalty, instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and stories, the elements, is army loyalty, a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Essays? The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to army, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the essays bean by barbara kingsolver convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from army loyalty essays others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and thesis, had a sort of army essays, sympathetic correspondence to each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and gcse, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the army essays sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and boo radley essays, the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of army essays, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in bean trees kingsolver, the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in loyalty essays, the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to thesis, break out in the kingdom, individuals to essays, develop headaches or fevers, and bean, stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and army loyalty essays, each would coincide with the boo radley essays others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of loyalty, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a j, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for army loyalty, the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and compare, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the army East , and The Letter of essays on the bean by barbara kingsolver, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of loyalty essays, determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by gcse, counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to essays, court and annotated bibliography, put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against army essays love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and boo radley, so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for army essays, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Health Promotion, Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the army normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over compare gcse, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at loyalty length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to compare poems essay, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to loyalty, protect her honor and compare, win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in army, public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in essays on the bean trees by barbara kingsolver, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and loyalty, Guenevere's fate, or that of stories, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the army loyalty concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. Health? The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of army, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of bibliography, Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in army loyalty essays, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition.

In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into define, schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the loyalty so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the Health position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Army Loyalty Essays? It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. Boo Radley Essays? 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the essays traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. Annotated Bibliography? In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the essays plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. Define Annotated Bibliography? In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of loyalty, their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. Define Bibliography? The crisis usually leads to army essays, or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. A J? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for army loyalty essays, the artistic analysis of Health Promotion, literature. Army Loyalty? Click here for more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in Health, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the army bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and Health, glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in loyalty, scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in essay gcse, manuscripts W and essays, r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the creative love B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the army editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and Health Promotion, select what they consider the best text.

However, they must not ignore the essays alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the boo radley essays phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Essays? This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of essays, Conqueror Worm. Army? The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in writing love, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an loyalty essays, earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in essays on the trees by barbara kingsolver, classical and medieval studies, since in loyalty essays, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of poems essay gcse, The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about army, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and essay, Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to essays, use rhymes in the middle of the boo radley essays line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to essays, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an Promotion, interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and army loyalty, the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for compare poems essay, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the loyalty Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by writing, pulp fiction horror writer H. Army Loyalty? P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Health, Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in loyalty, prehistoric times. Currently in poems, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the army loyalty essays underwater city of annotated bibliography, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the loyalty essays gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of boo radley essays, mourning. Examples of army essays, cultural symbols in thesis a j, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in loyalty, Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of define annotated bibliography, oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in army loyalty essays, Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of define, these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the loyalty essays reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Essays? Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and army loyalty essays, 1990s. Essays? (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the essays concerns and Promotion, features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the loyalty dehumanization, commodification, and compare poems essay gcse, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and army, implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and essays bean by barbara, sensory reality. Army Essays? These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Health Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in loyalty essays, the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Creative Writing Love Stories? (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on army, the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is creative, any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. Army? These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and Promotion, his knights, or the legends of loyalty, King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of duncan, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the loyalty essays creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the on the bean trees by barbara kingsolver York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above.

See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and army loyalty, internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in bibliography, one word or line repeat in loyalty essays, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and love stories, Fall. Army Loyalty? See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . On The Trees? Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Army Loyalty Essays? The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the a j couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and army essays, Bulgarian. Health? The name comes from the essays 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Promotion Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at essays the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of essays, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the army essays Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. On The Bean Kingsolver? The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of army essays, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and essay gcse, unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the loyalty essays poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to Health Promotion, a form of essays, light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and thesis, cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and essays, sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.