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odyssey essay funny In my estimation we have experienced an epoch in photography. Here is format, a free spirit, untrammeled by tradition and theory, who has gone out and found beauty unparalleled in photography. . Roosevelt The New Essay! . . Edward Steichen, 1962. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Ernst Haas, acclaimed as one of the most celebrated and influential photographers of this century, was born in Austria in 1921. He attended medical school, but his strong artistic bent led him to the camera. Est Essay! He was without professional training, twenty six years old, when he shot into essay revolution fame with his first essay, Homecoming Prisoners of War, photographed in his native Vienna. Est Essay Format! . . Essay Revolution! . When I saw that first set of pictures, I knew I had stumbled upon a genius and I felt a chill up and format, down my spine. . . . its editor remembered decades later. With this essay Haas set a new standard for delicacy of feeling and essays, empathy in photojournalism. Its publication brought Haas two invitations: one from Robert Capa to est essay format join Magnum, the year-old cooperative of international photojournalists; the other to join the causes of schizophrenia, staff of LIFE magazine, the most prominent popularizer of photography of the era.
Haas chose Magnum, becoming the first photographer to be invited to do so by its founders, Robert Capa, Henri Cartier-Bresson, George Rodger, and est essay, David Seymour. Within two years, Haas was working in the United States. While photographing in black and white in the New Mexico desert, he experienced a great longing for color. Biological Causes Of Schizophrenia! Thus began a life-long odyssey of exploration of the uses and meaning of color in est essay, photography. Haas's frustration with the limitations of technology pushed him at every turn to be slightly ahead of his time. He was a technological pioneer with the eye of a painter and the soul of roosevelt deal essay, a poet. It has been written that before Haas there was no color photography, only colored photographs. Haas's first color essay was on New York, the city he would ultimately make his home. When the editors of LIFE magazine saw it, they gave it an unheard-of layout of 24 pages and called it Magic Images of a City. Essays on Paris and Venice followed.
Ten years later, when the Museum of Modern Art held their first color retrospective, it was the format, work of Haas they chose to feature. Though a Magnum photographer in the heyday of photojournalism, Haas was not interested in color as reportage. He was interested in the super-reality of dreams. Citing Research! To achieve this he gave commonplace objects and silhouettes new meaning. A reflection brought home the hidden depths underlying a conventional urban storefront; torn posters peeling off buildings shaped themselves into an art gallery. In his quest to produce feelings, he introduced hues and tones never before seen in printed color.
And at all times his work was informed and enlightened by a guiding intelligence capable of great and quizzical humor. Having changed color photography permanently, Haas turned his attention to est essay format the capture of movement. He learned to move with the camera, and first showed motion in an award- winning color essay on bullfighting: through his lens, a brutal art became a graceful dance. Later, investigating sports of all kinds, he captured the persuasive 5th grade, exhilaration of speed with a previously unseen clarity. Est Essay! He explained: To express dynamic motion through a static moment became for analysis of essay on criticism by alexander me limited and unsatisfactory. The basic idea was to liberate myself from this old concept and arrive at est essay, an image in which the spectator could feel the beauty of a fourth dimension, which lies much more between moments than within a moment. In music one remembers never one tone, but a melody, a theme, a movement. Essay! In dance, never a moment, but again the format, beauty of citing research papers, a movement in time and space. In 1958 an international panel of 243 eminent critics, teachers, editors, art directors and other photography professionals voted on the world's 10 Greatest Photographers for Popular Photography magazine. They were: Ansel Adams, Richard Avedon, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Ernst Haas, Philippe Halsman, Yousuf Karsh, Gjon Mili, Irving Penn, and W. Eugene Smith.
Haas later pushed the boundaries of still and motion photography even further, directing The Creation sequence (based on the book of Genesis) for John Huston's 1964 film, The Bible. Est Essay! His belief that a series of images seen together added up to more than the sum of their parts also led him to produce four monumental photographic books. The product of thirteen years of work, The Creation (1971) was the most successful color photography book of its time, selling over 350,000 copies. Commissioned for analysis on criticism the bicentennial, Haas regarded his second book, In America (1975), as a love letter to his adopted country, a love affair that had begun when he was a boy in Vienna, his imagination aflame with stories of American Indians. Format! In Germany (1976) represented a return to persuasive essays and investigation of est essay format, his European roots, and Himalayan Pilgrimage (1978) showed his increasing concern with spiritual matters. In his quest for a more visually attuned world, he created the four part television series The Art of Seeing.
He felt equally strongly about his black and white photography as about writing 5th grade, his color; each was suitable for different modes of expression. In person, Ernst was a delightful man, quick-witted and funny. He had a profound curiosity about est essay, people, coupled with graceful old-world manners. Strong, handsome and possessed of national essays, great charm, he made strangers instantly comfortable. His New York apartment was filled with a cross-cultural collection of handmade artworks and sculptural artifacts. Haas traveled throughout the world on assignments for magazines, books, movie coverage, advertising and industry. Everywhere he went, he would seek out sacred sites and rites, from the dances of American Indians, to format the Miracle(?) in Greece, to Holy Year in Rome, to the temples of Angkor Wat and Borobudur, the shrines of India, Tibet, Bhutan and Japan. In his art he often transformed throwaway objects into sacred symbols, as in the photograph with which he identified most: commonly identified as a crucifix, it was a simple pair of underpants lost in the road somewhere in California. Writing Persuasive 5th Grade! Haas said on format this subject:
Holy Underwear is the very, very typical double-eight composition. 5th Grade! It's an underwear. And this underwear was caught somewhere in the rain, somebody must have lost his pants somewhere, very profane, and est essay format, then time came and nature came and climate came, and in a certain light, you see it and it becomes a symbol for which people always have a religious feeling. . . . The gentle character of Tibetans fascinated him so much he devoted the last ten years of his life to the study of Mahayana Buddhism, a religion which he felt satisfied all the senses. Whether he was photographing people, recording disappearing cultures, or concentrating on the marvels of nature and the seasons, Ernst Haas' photography used spontaneity to mirror reality. Writing 5th Grade! In the accidental he saw the gift of life. Beginning in the 1970s he taught workshops all over the world; wildly popular with his students, he encouraged them to express their inner selves. Ernst Haas died in New York of a stroke at age sixty-five. Est Essay Format! During his life, his work was shown in citing research papers, more than thirty solo exhibitions in the United States, in format, Europe, in Japan and in South America. Almost every year of his photographic life he was awarded an honor. About the nature of poetry and photography, he wrote:
I see what I think. I see what I feel because I am what I see. If there is nothing to see and I still see it, If there is something to see and everybody sees it. —Inge Bondi, Easter, 2000. A Painter in a Hurry: The Photography of Ernst Haas. There is no formula—only man with his conscience speaking, writing and singing in essay, the new hieroglyphic language of light and time. Est Essay! — Ernst Haas. By 1950, as the scholar Jane Livingston has pointed out, a distinct New York School of photography had emerged, its members including Lisette Model, Diane Arbus, Richard Avedon, Alexey Brodovitch, Robert Frank, William Klein, Weegee, Bruce Davidson, and Helen Levitt. There's a remarkable homogeneity to the work they produced during that period. Collectively, they built on the models of Lewis Hine, Walker Evans and Henri Cartier-Bresson, with Action Painting, film noir and egypt, jazz as parallels in other media; treating the life of the streets as theater, they forged provocative, idiosyncratic ways of describing its dramas.
The late Ernst Haas (1921-1986) was one of their cohorts. Certainly he knew and interacted with them all; Vienna-born, then expatriated to Paris, he immigrated to New York in 1950, the heyday of the est essay format, school's activity, and almost immediately made that city his home and workplace. I would have become lazy in Vienna, he wrote three decades later, so I went to New York, the city which makes you work and presses everything out of you. . . . New York, a real metropolis, a world within a world, a solution within a solution, growing, decaying. Haas had attended medical school for a year as a young man in Vienna, then studied painting before turning to photography. In 1943-1944 he pursued a curriculum in photography at the Graphischen Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (he cited Henri Cartier-Bresson and Edward Weston, both of whose images he knew from books and magazines, as his early influences), taking it up as a profession after the liberation of Vienna in 1945. Causes Of Schizophrenia! That year he began working for the American Red Cross and est essay, the occupation forces. His reportage on that city's post-war traumas and the drama of returning prisoners of war, some of essay egypt, them published in Life magazine, made Haas's reputation in est essay, Europe and the U.S. (On many of those assignments, Inge Morath, subsequently to become a noted photographer herself, was his researcher and writer.) But he had sickened of analysis of essay on criticism, his homeland during the est essay, war, so he left Austria for France in 1948, relocating himself to Paris. In 1949 he accepted an invitation from Robert Capa to join the prestigious Paris-based picture agency Magnum, a photographers' cooperative founded by Capa, Cartier-Bresson, and other notable photojournalists; the agency's support enabled him to function as a free lance, a status he would maintain throughout his career. In 1951 he crossed the Atlantic to stay.
Of his adopted home, New York City, he also said, I loved its pulse. I loved the directness of its people. I loved all races living together, or at least trying. . . . There is very little that is obvious in national identity essays, this city, only format, its constant change going on day by day, forming, transforming, construction, destruction. No more acute synopsis of writing essays 5th grade, this city's magnetic pull on photographers has ever been drafted, and many of Haas's images of the city became defining representations of Manhattan at mid-century. At the time Haas arrived in New York, the city's photography community was still small enough that everyone working for the various picture magazines crossed paths constantly. (This was the heyday of the printed page, in newspapers and magazines and books, as the primary presentational space for fine photography of all kinds.) Beyond that, however, Haas and the loose coalition of his New York School peers had much in common photographically. Format! The hallmarks of the group's practice included an attraction to the rapidity and unobtrusiveness of of essay, small-camera shooting under available light; a conception of the est essay format, urban milieu as a proscenium; a fluid, spontaneous, gestural responsiveness to the constantly shifting scenario; an embrace of the blurs, graininess and slightly skewed quality that resulted from working under those assumptions; and the attentiveness to nuances of behavior and persuasive, body language in public spaces characteristic of what Alfred Kazin called a walker in the city and Walter Benjamin described as the flaneur.
Like his colleagues, Haas took to the streets with his cameras. But he was not confrontational in the manner of Weegee, Klein, Model, or Arbus, nor documentarian and socially critical in est essay format, the mode that Robert Frank moved through. Instead, more like Saul Leiter, Louis Faurer, David Vestal, and roosevelt essay, Sid Grossman, Haas was a lyric poet pursuing a photographic equivalent of est essay format, gestural drawing, utilizing such photographic effects as softness of focus, selective depth of field, and biological causes of schizophrenia essay, overexposure to telling effect. Haas at this stage of his work alternated between the twin-lens Rolleiflex with which he had learned to use in Austria (such instruments are held at belly level, and provide 2-1/4-square negatives) and est essay format, a smaller Leica, the 35-mm. camera of choice at the time. Essay Revolution! Eventually he would abandon the Rolleiflex for the Leica, which he used exclusively for the rest of his life.
When he arrived in the States, Haas worked strictly in black white, which was still the rule rather than the exception in reportage and which the members of this group all favored for their non-commercial personal work, monochrome signifying for format them (as it has come to for us) authenticity and realism. Yet while he shared in many ways his comrades' gritty, collective vision of the archetypal metropolis in the Fifties, Haas, who first experimented with Kodak color film in 1949, would be seduced gradually by of schizophrenia essay the challenge of color, and would start exploring it seriously in 1952, becoming, along with Eliot Porter and a small handful of others, one of the est essay format, earliest exponents of the creative potential of color photography. Eventually he would eschew black white almost entirely, establishing himself as a master of citing, small-camera color photography, building therein the est essay format, substantial, well-known and writing essays, influential body of work on est essay format which his reputation principally rests today. Haas once wrote, I never really wanted to be a photographer. Roosevelt! It slowly grew out of the compromise of format, a boy who desired to combine two goals -- explorer or painter. I wanted to deal travel, see and experience. What better profession could there be than the one of a photographer, almost a painter in a hurry, overwhelmed by too many constantly changing impressions? But all my inspirational influences came much more from all the arts than from photo magazines.
Due perhaps to est essay his early training in the arts, Haas hewed closely to essay many of the format, traditions of the new deal, small-camera photography of est essay, his day, which mandated, among other things, a minimum of post-exposure manipulation of the image. Color materials, in any case, allow the essay, photographer far less latitude for darkroom interpretation that black white. Yet within those parameters he experimented diversely within his medium of choice, becoming one of the first to est essay push color photography into the realm of the national, poetic. What Haas looked for, and began to find, in his last monochromatic work was what he finally realized most fully in color: a photography that was not dominated by what Richard Kirstel has called the tyranny of the subject. Est Essay! Like those members of the New York School with whom he had most in common, and like another figure whose explorations must be factored into this equation, the late Aaron Siskind, Haas had grown tired of roosevelt the new deal essay, making pictures of the world and even of making images about it; instead, he'd become desirous of making images that were simply drawn from it. The teacher and est essay format, theorist Henry Holmes Smith once wrote (in an essay on analysis of essay Siskind), The question: 'What was really there?' becomes as irrelevant as what Monet's lily pond really looked like to Mme. Monet when she rode by on her bicycle.
Haas's mature color images come to that same conclusion. What we see in his work, in short, is the format, evolution of the new deal essay, a sensibility grounded in the specificity of est essay format, reportage but drawn, even as early as a 1945 image of the walls of bombed buildings in Vienna, to the abstract. Haas mastered the formal structures and style of photojournalism, and citing research apa style, of that extension of it loosely called street photography, only to leave them behind. By the late 1950s he was eminently capable of making intelligent accounts of Montgomery Clift and Marilyn Monroe on format the set of The Misfits, one of numerous films on which he worked as still photographer. (Others include Little Big Man, Moby Dick, Hello Dolly, and West Side Story, as well as The Bible, for which he also served as a consultant.) And he could easily turn from such subjects to generate well-structured images describing the of essay on criticism by alexander, dances of Bali, or a complexly orchestrated street scene. Est Essay! But his interest lay increasingly in using film, especially color film, as a tool for transforming an object from what it is to what you want it to be. This meant that he was no longer working in the same territory as Cartier-Bresson; instead, he was positioning himself alongside Siskind, Edward Weston and Minor White, as an exponent of the metaphorical potential of the photographic image. He continued to earn his living by writing persuasive crafting substantial picture stories for major periodicals; between 1952 and 1960, in addition to his free-lance assignments for format Life magazine, Haas also produced notable essays for Esquire, Look, Holiday, and Paris-Match. In 1960 he served as president of the American Society of Magazine Photographers, of which he had been a long-time member. Citing Research Apa Style! His affiliation with Magnum continued through 1962; and, even late into his life, he served as an adviser for such traditional magazines as Stern (Germany) and est essay, Geo. But by the early 1960s he had begun to move past the requirements of commissioned reportage and illustrational work, into research apa style a realm of his own devising. I am a composer / I compose pictures, he jotted down once, and after it, I photograph fiction / as you can't find what I found.
Elsewhere he asserted, [P]hotography became a language with which I have learned to write both prose and poetry. In 1962 the Museum of Modern Art mounted a show of the cream of the format, first full decade of his color work. The show took place in the year that Edward Steichen retired as director of MoMA's Department of Photographs and John Szarkowski replaced him; the Haas exhibition was among the last of Steichen's curatorial acts, and also MoMA's first solo exhibition by a photographer working in analysis on criticism by alexander pope, color. Est Essay Format! Ironically, almost a decade and papers, a half later, in 1976, Szarkowski would shock the world of photography by championing the color work of William Eggleston, hailing Eggleston as the inventor of creative color photography. But, in much the same language as he'd subsequently use to est essay format describe Eggleston's approach, Szarkowski had previously written of roosevelt essay, Haas: The color in color photography has often seemed an irrelevant decorative screen between the viewer and the fact of the picture.
Ernst Haas has resolved this conflict by format making the causes of schizophrenia essay, color sensation itself the subject matter of his world. No photographer has worked more successfully to est essay express the sheer physical joy of seeing. Haas himself proposed that Color is joy, adding, One does not think joy. One is carried by it. He saw his shift from one material to essay egypt another as a symbolic, internal, psychological progression, a response to the outside world, with the war years, including at least five bitter post-war years, as the black white ones, or even better, the gray years. Est Essay Format! The gray times were over. As at writing 5th grade, the beginning of est essay format, a new spring, I wanted to celebrate in writing persuasive essays, color the new times, filled with new hope. Concerning the conceptual leap involved in his own transition to color, he stated, Black white as a subtraction had to be transformed into an abstraction in est essay, color.
I still respect both forms . Essay Revolution! . . But having the possibility to format express a world in color through color, I was searching for a composition in which color became much more than just a colored black white picture. As this suggests, an intensified interest in the act of visual perception had begun to infuse Haas's thinking, and found its outlet in the pictures he made, in notes and short statements, and in interviews. Though not much given to theorizing -- A color philosophy comes much closer to the truth, he suggested -- he familiarized himself with current theories of color and national, sight. I myself love to read theories without ever using them when working, he announced. And, in the same vein: I don't want to declare there are no highways of fruitful directions. In learning there are. Follow them, use them, and forget them. Don't park. Eventually, those ideas, insights, and attitudes worked their way into the lectures he began to give in his short courses at the Maine Photographic Workshops in Rockport, the Anderson Ranch Foundation in format, Aspen, Colorado, and elsewhere. In that same year, 1962, a four-part film series for National Educational Television that he wrote and hosted, The Art of citing research, Seeing, made its debut.
What Haas was after at that point is best represented by what many consider his magnum opus, the color monograph titled The Creation, published in est essay, 1971, almost a decade later -- an ambitious attempt to achieve nothing less than a retelling of the writing 5th grade, Book of Genesis's version of the birth of the world through photographic imagery, made as if imagining himself the first human, opening his eyes to the planet for the first time. The 1970s saw him continuing his investigation of the est essay, poetry of essay, light and color, while publishing books that consolidated his achievements in a more informational, subject-dominated mode. He had a chapter to himself in the second volume of Cornell Capa's germinal anthology, The Concerned Photographer (1972), and issued two monographs of his own reportage, In America (1975) and In Germany (1977). In 1979, he published Himalayan Pilgrimage, with a text by Gisela Minke. Late in life, Haas said of himself, I want to be open to est essay everything in writing essays, this world, and est essay, I am even willing to unlearn.
That possibility of self-critical unlearning he'd exemplified in his conversion from black white to color and his evolution from journalist to writing essays poet. He also wrote, Important is the end result of your work: the opus. Therefore, I want to be remembered much more by est essay format a total vision than a few perfect single pictures. He'd begun moving beyond the biological causes, single image early on, developing that total vision first in the extended form of the traditional photojournalistic picture story, then in his more experimental, impressionistic magazine layouts (such as the unprecedented 24-page Magic Images of est essay format, New York layout in Life, which appeared in two installments in biological causes, the issues of September 14 and 21, 1953), and after that in his carefully structured books and est essay format, exhibitions. In his later years Haas began exploring what was then called audiovisual form, editing his imagery into citing research long structures of projected slides accompanied by soundtracks.
I love music, he explained, and with my audiovisual presentation I can combine music and photography -- this is what I like to do best. These anticipatory experiments mark him as a pioneer of what we now call multimedia or time-based arts. Though he might never have abandoned his beloved 35-mm. camera and Kodachrome for electronic camera equipment, it seems likely that, had he lived into format the era of digital imaging, he'd have taken up the World Wide Web, the CD-ROM, and other such media as vehicles for his work, testing them for of essay on criticism their potential usefulness in his quest for that elusive new hieroglyphic language of light and time whose promise lured him on est essay format to the biological causes of schizophrenia, end of his days.
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Est spm essay format
resume pattrens A regular expression, specified as a string, must first be compiled into est essay an instance of the new deal this class. The resulting pattern can then be used to est essay create a Matcher object that can match arbitrary character sequences against egypt, the regular expression. Est Essay? All of the biological causes of schizophrenia, state involved in performing a match resides in the matcher, so many matchers can share the same pattern. A typical invocation sequence is est essay format thus. A matches method is defined by this class as a convenience for when a regular expression is citing used just once. Format? This method compiles an analysis on criticism, expression and matches an input sequence against it in a single invocation. The statement is equivalent to the three statements above, though for repeated matches it is less efficient since it does not allow the compiled pattern to be reused. Instances of this class are immutable and are safe for est essay use by multiple concurrent threads.
Instances of the of essay, Matcher class are not safe for such use. Summary of regular-expression constructs. The backslash character ( '' ) serves to introduce escaped constructs, as defined in the table above, as well as to est essay format quote characters that otherwise would be interpreted as unescaped constructs. Roosevelt The New Deal Essay? Thus the expression matches a single backslash and matches a left brace. It is an error to use a backslash prior to any alphabetic character that does not denote an escaped construct; these are reserved for future extensions to est essay format the regular-expression language.
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If UNIX_LINES mode is activated, then the only line terminators recognized are newline characters. The regular expression . matches any character except a line terminator unless the DOTALL flag is specified. By default, the regular expressions ^ and $ ignore line terminators and only match at the beginning and the end, respectively, of the roosevelt essay, entire input sequence. Est Essay? If MULTILINE mode is activated then ^ matches at writing persuasive the beginning of input and format after any line terminator except at the end of input. When in MULTILINE mode $ matches just before a line terminator or the end of the national essays, input sequence.
Capturing groups are numbered by counting their opening parentheses from left to right. In the expression ((A)(B(C))) , for example, there are four such groups: Group zero always stands for est essay the entire expression. Capturing groups are so named because, during a match, each subsequence of the input sequence that matches such a group is saved. Of Essay On Criticism? The captured subsequence may be used later in the expression, via a back reference, and may also be retrieved from the matcher once the match operation is complete. A capturing group can also be assigned a name, a named-capturing group , and then be back-referenced later by est essay format the name. Group names are composed of the following characters. The first character must be a letter . Apa Style? The uppercase letters 'A' through 'Z' ( 'u0041' through 'u005a' ), The lowercase letters 'a' through 'z' ( 'u0061' through 'u007a' ), The digits '0' through '9' ( 'u0030' through 'u0039' ), A named-capturing group is still numbered as described in Group number.
The captured input associated with a group is est essay format always the subsequence that the group most recently matched. If a group is evaluated a second time because of quantification then its previously-captured value, if any, will be retained if the second evaluation fails. Matching the string aba against the expression (a(b)?)+ , for example, leaves group two set to roosevelt the new deal essay b . All captured input is est essay discarded at the beginning of persuasive 5th grade each match. Groups beginning with (? are either pure, non-capturing groups that do not capture text and do not count towards the group total, or named-capturing group. This class is in conformance with Level 1 of Unicode Technical Standard #18: Unicode Regular Expression , plus RL2.1 Canonical Equivalents.
Unicode escape sequences such as u2014 in Java source code are processed as described in section 3.3 of The Java™ Language Specification . Est Essay? Such escape sequences are also implemented directly by roosevelt the new deal essay the regular-expression parser so that Unicode escapes can be used in expressions that are read from files or from the keyboard. Thus the format, strings u2014 and u2014 , while not equal, compile into the same pattern, which matches the character with hexadecimal value 0x2014 . A Unicode character can also be represented in a regular-expression by using its Hex notation (hexadecimal code point value) directly as described in analysis on criticism pope, construct x , for format example a supplementary character U+2011F can be specified as x , instead of of schizophrenia essay two consecutive Unicode escape sequences of the surrogate pair uD840 uDD1F . Unicode scripts, blocks, categories and binary properties are written with the p and P constructs as in Perl. p prop matches if the input has the est essay, property prop , while P prop does not match if the input has that property. Scripts, blocks, categories and essays 5th grade binary properties can be used both inside and outside of a character class. Scripts are specified either with the prefix Is , as in est essay format, IsHiragana , or by using the script keyword (or its short form sc )as in script=Hiragana or sc=Hiragana . The script names supported by Pattern are the valid script names accepted and defined by UnicodeScript.forName . Blocks are specified with the prefix In , as in roosevelt deal essay, InMongolian , or by est essay using the keyword block (or its short form blk ) as in block=Mongolian or blk=Mongolian . The block names supported by Pattern are the valid block names accepted and defined by UnicodeBlock.forName . Categories may be specified with the optional prefix Is : Both p and analysis pope p denote the format, category of Unicode letters. Same as scripts and citing apa style blocks, categories can also be specified by using the keyword general_category (or its short form gc ) as in est essay, general_category=Lu or gc=Lu . The supported categories are those of The Unicode Standard in the version specified by the Character class. The category names are those defined in the Standard, both normative and informative. Binary properties are specified with the essay egypt, prefix Is , as in IsAlphabetic . Format? The supported binary properties by egypt revolution Pattern are Alphabetic Ideographic Letter Lowercase Uppercase Titlecase Punctuation Control White_Space Digit Hex_Digit Noncharacter_Code_Point Assigned. Predefined Character classes and format POSIX character classes are in essays, conformance with the recommendation of est essay format Annex C: Compatibility Properties of Unicode Regular Expression , when UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS flag is causes essay specified. Categories that behave like the java.lang.Character boolean is methodname methods (except for the deprecated ones) are available through the same p prop syntax where the specified property has the est essay, name java methodname . The Pattern engine performs traditional NFA-based matching with ordered alternation as occurs in Perl 5.
Perl constructs not supported by biological causes essay this class: Predefined character classes (Unicode character) h A horizontal whitespace. H A non horizontal whitespace. v A vertical whitespace. V A non vertical whitespace. R Any Unicode linebreak sequence u000Du000A|[u000Au000Bu000Cu000Du0085u2028u2029] The named character construct, N name for est essay format a Unicode character by its name. The embedded comment syntax (?#comment) , and. Constructs supported by this class but not by Perl: Character-class union and intersection as described above.
Notable differences from Perl: In Perl, 1 through 9 are always interpreted as back references; a backslash-escaped number greater than 9 is treated as a back reference if at least that many subexpressions exist, otherwise it is interpreted, if possible, as an persuasive essays 5th grade, octal escape. In this class octal escapes must always begin with a zero. In this class, 1 through 9 are always interpreted as back references, and a larger number is est essay accepted as a back reference if at least that many subexpressions exist at that point in the regular expression, otherwise the parser will drop digits until the number is smaller or equal to essays the existing number of groups or it is one digit. Perl uses the est essay format, g flag to biological causes request a match that resumes where the last match left off. This functionality is provided implicitly by the Matcher class: Repeated invocations of the find method will resume where the last match left off, unless the matcher is reset. In Perl, embedded flags at the top level of an expression affect the whole expression. In this class, embedded flags always take effect at the point at which they appear, whether they are at the top level or within a group; in the latter case, flags are restored at the end of the group just as in format, Perl. Methods inherited from national, class java.lang.Object. In this mode, only the est essay format, 'n' line terminator is recognized in egypt, the behavior of . , ^ , and $ . Unix lines mode can also be enabled via the embedded flag expression (?d) . By default, case-insensitive matching assumes that only characters in the US-ASCII charset are being matched.
Unicode-aware case-insensitive matching can be enabled by specifying the UNICODE_CASE flag in est essay, conjunction with this flag. Case-insensitive matching can also be enabled via the embedded flag expression (?i) . Specifying this flag may impose a slight performance penalty. In this mode, whitespace is citing research papers apa style ignored, and embedded comments starting with # are ignored until the end of a line. Comments mode can also be enabled via the format, embedded flag expression (?x) . In multiline mode the expressions ^ and the new essay $ match just after or just before, respectively, a line terminator or the end of the input sequence. By default these expressions only match at the beginning and the end of the entire input sequence. Multiline mode can also be enabled via the embedded flag expression (?m) . When this flag is specified then the input string that specifies the pattern is treated as a sequence of literal characters. Est Essay? Metacharacters or escape sequences in the input sequence will be given no special meaning. The flags CASE_INSENSITIVE and UNICODE_CASE retain their impact on citing research papers matching when used in conjunction with this flag.
The other flags become superfluous. There is no embedded flag character for enabling literal parsing. In dotall mode, the expression . matches any character, including a line terminator. By default this expression does not match line terminators. Dotall mode can also be enabled via the est essay, embedded flag expression (?s) . (The s is by alexander pope a mnemonic for single-line mode, which is format what this is called in Perl.) When this flag is specified then case-insensitive matching, when enabled by the CASE_INSENSITIVE flag, is deal done in a manner consistent with the Unicode Standard. By default, case-insensitive matching assumes that only characters in the US-ASCII charset are being matched. Unicode-aware case folding can also be enabled via the embedded flag expression (?u) . Specifying this flag may impose a performance penalty.
When this flag is specified then two characters will be considered to match if, and only if, their full canonical decompositions match. The expression au030A , for example, will match the est essay, string u00E5 when this flag is specified. By default, matching does not take canonical equivalence into account. There is no embedded flag character for essay egypt revolution enabling canonical equivalence. Specifying this flag may impose a performance penalty. When this flag is specified then the (US-ASCII only) Predefined character classes and POSIX character classes are in conformance with Unicode Technical Standard #18: Unicode Regular Expression Annex C: Compatibility Properties . The UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS mode can also be enabled via the format, embedded flag expression (?U) . The flag implies UNICODE_CASE, that is, it enables Unicode-aware case folding. Specifying this flag may impose a performance penalty. Returns the identity, string representation of this pattern. Est Essay? This is the regular expression from which this pattern was compiled. An invocation of of schizophrenia essay this convenience method of the est essay format, form behaves in revolution, exactly the same way as the expression. If a pattern is to be used multiple times, compiling it once and est essay format reusing it will be more efficient than invoking this method each time.
The array returned by this method contains each substring of the input sequence that is terminated by another subsequence that matches this pattern or is terminated by of schizophrenia essay the end of the est essay format, input sequence. The substrings in the array are in the order in which they occur in the input. If this pattern does not match any subsequence of the input then the resulting array has just one element, namely the input sequence in writing essays, string form. The limit parameter controls the number of est essay format times the pattern is applied and therefore affects the length of the resulting array. If the limit n is essays greater than zero then the est essay format, pattern will be applied at most n - 1 times, the essay egypt, array's length will be no greater than n , and the array's last entry will contain all input beyond the last matched delimiter. Format? If n is non-positive then the pattern will be applied as many times as possible and the array can have any length. If n is zero then the essay revolution, pattern will be applied as many times as possible, the array can have any length, and trailing empty strings will be discarded.
The input boo:and:foo , for example, yields the following results with these parameters: This method works as if by invoking the two-argument split method with the given input sequence and a limit argument of zero. Est Essay Format? Trailing empty strings are therefore not included in the resulting array. The input boo:and:foo , for example, yields the following results with these expressions: This method produces a String that can be used to create a Pattern that would match the string s as if it were a literal pattern. Metacharacters or escape sequences in the input sequence will be given no special meaning. Summary: Nested | Field | Constr | Method Detail: Field | Constr | Method. For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java SE Documentation.
That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.
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Observations introductory to an historical essay upon the Knighthood
Advice for est essay, Students on Topics for papers, the New Common App Essays. College advisor Alice Kleeman joins us today in our ongoing series on the changes to the Common Application with some excellent guidance for students and how to think about the new essay prompts and an entertaining look back on some of the essays that have been favorites in her twenty years advising students. The five prompts that will appear on the “new” Common Application should allow for nearly any topic you might choose. Below are some suggestions for academic, extracurricular, and personal topics that might fit neatly into est essay a response for each prompt. Citing Research! Of course, these are just suggestions, designed to jumpstart your thinking, provide a gentle nudge if you feel stumped, and to help you decide which prompt might provide the best opportunity for you to est essay show the citing admission office who you are. Your response to any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal and one that only you could write; these examples are just to get your essay juices flowing!
Some students have a background or story that is so central to their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. Est Essay Format! If this sounds like you, then please share your story. “background,” “story,” “identity,” “incomplete without” • Have you moved from one school to another in order to pursue greater academic opportunities? • Has your pursuit of academics been influenced by your parents’ lack of citing papers apa style formal education? • Is your dedication to a particular academic area shaped by your life experiences (for example, has your interest in medicine stemmed from growing up with a sibling with chronic illness?)? • Is your identity entirely tied up in the music you’ve been composing and playing since you were five? • Has your ethnic background led you to participate deeply and format, fully in the dance, spiritual, or culinary traditions of your culture? • Do you spend your free time participating in activities through a cultural organization related to citing research apa style your family background? • Do you come from a bicultural family? Who are you today that you would not be without those different influences? • Have you grown up in a family that has been challenged by poverty, illness, or other obstacles? How has this influenced your identity? • Have your extended family’s values been transmitted to format you in a unique and particularly powerful way over the years? Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and what lessons did you learn? “incident,” “failure,” “effect on you,” “lessons learned” If you choose this prompt, after describing the “failure,” be sure to show the national positive changes that emerged from the situation! • Did you challenge yourself in an academic area that is est essay, not usually your forte, and find that it didn’t go the way you hoped it might? • Did you seek a summer internship in an academic area you thought you’d like to explore more deeply, and find that you weren’t engaged in the way you wished? • Have you submitted your writing, art, or lab results to a professional journal for publication, and received your first rejection letter? Or have you received what seemed to be negative feedback from a teacher and had to approach the subject in a new way? • Did you believe that the serious injury you experienced in your sophomore year would derail your athletic career?
Or did you fail to biological essay make the team in your sport of choice? • Did you dream of continuing your horseback riding or sailing when your family moved, but find there were no opportunities available or your parents could no longer cover the costs? • Did it seem like a great idea for you to follow in the footsteps of an est essay older sibling and biological, participate in his or her activities of choice, but then learn it didn’t work out so well for format, you? • Did you challenge yourself to a resolution, goal, or personal promise, and national, find you weren’t able to stick with it? • Did you make an effort to reach out to people you hoped would become your friends, only to find they didn’t welcome you? • Have you ever taken a close look at format, your character traits and personal qualities and hoped to make fundamental changes, but then realized those traits and qualities were inextricably tied to 5th grade who you are? Reflect on est essay a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to on criticism by alexander act? Would you make the same decision again? “challenged,” “belief or idea,” “prompted,” “same decision” • Did you decide to est essay offer a different-from-the-accepted and possibly unpopular perspective in your English or history class? Or have you ever attempted to do some ethical consciousness raising with your classmates? • Was there a school rule or policy relating to your academic path through your high school that you challenged, because you believed it did not serve you or others well? • Have you pursued an academic interest that is not generally followed by people of your gender or background? • When you learned that certain students were being bullied or excluded from an activity at your school, did you tackle the inequity? • Were you ever told by a coach or activity director that you would not be successful in egypt revolution a particular activity, yet you chose to pursue it? • Have your parents felt you couldn’t handle a new passion on top of est essay your other commitments, leading you to seek ways to manage your time so you could prove your ability to balance your busy schedule? • Have you begun to question the roosevelt the new precepts of your religious or cultural upbringing? • Are you resisting the pressure in your community to do it all—and do it all perfectly—and instead are seeking balance in est essay format your life? • Have you ever made a well-thought-out effort to convince your parents to give you more independence and freedom?
Describe a place or environment where you are perfectly content. What do you do or experience there, and why is it meaningful to you? place or environment,” “content,” “do or experience,” “meaningful” • Has a cozy corner of the local bookstore or school library become your happy place? • Have you made the chemistry lab your home away from on criticism pope, home? • Do you love spending time in a place where another language is est essay format, spoken or another culture celebrated? • Is the writing persuasive essays badminton court, robotics workshop, or practice hall for your youth orchestra the est essay place where you feel most in analysis by alexander pope your element? • Does the elementary school classroom where you perform your community service give you the greatest sense of belonging? • Do you feel your strongest sense of ownership at work, whether it’s the ice-cream parlor, hardware store, or coffee shop? • Is there a leafy tree in est essay your backyard that you gravitate to when you want to of essay by alexander read and think? • Does your family have a rickety old cabin out by the lake where you can be yourself during summer visits, or do you have a favorite hiking trail up to a bench where you can see for format, miles? • Have you tailored your bedroom to reflect your personality and suit your every need so it’s the one place where you can be the citing research apa style essential you? Discuss an format accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to roosevelt adulthood within your culture, community, or family. “accomplishment/event,” “formal/informal,” “transition to adulthood,” “culture, community, family” • Did you make your government and economics education come alive by registering to format vote on your 18 th birthday? • Have you taken a class on a college campus, and lived the revolution life of a college student during that time, or taken an est essay internship where you’ve worked as an equal with a group of adults? • Did you become a U.S. citizen and citing research papers apa style, experience studying for and taking the est essay format test, and of essay on criticism by alexander pope, the ceremony that goes along with that milestone? • Has your talent allowed you to participate at such a high level that your teammates, band-mates, or co-workers are all adults, and they treat you as such? • Has one of your activities taken you out of format your own community, so you learned to travel and cope with new situations on writing essays your own? • Did you come up with the funding for your most meaningful activity on est essay your own, so you’ve assumed a heightened level of analysis of essay on criticism adult responsibility and appreciated the activity all the more for your independence in making it happen? • Does your family rely on you for adult responsibilities such as childcare for siblings, translation, transportation, or housework? • Have you taken on financial responsibilities to help support your family? • Do you come from a single-parent family where you play a role as the man/woman of the format house, with all its attendant responsibilities? SOME OF MY FAVORITE COLLEGE ESSAYS. As I noted earlier, your response to any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal.
But sometimes it's helpful to hear about other essays that students have submitted. Causes Of Schizophrenia! Do remember, though, that the est essay format most important thing about the writing essays 5th grade essay is that it should be something only you could write! Here are some of the most memorable essays I have read in over twenty years as a college advisor. Format! You'll see that they paint a vivid and personal picture of the writer. My all-time favorite college essay was a student’s account of his work at the local hardware store, and what it meant to him to take care of people’s basic home-and-garden needs. It was simple and biological causes of schizophrenia, straightforward; I knew him well by est essay format, the time I finished reading the deal essay. A similar topic, another student’s after-school job, began, “Working in format a library today is not for biological causes essay, the faint of heart.” Really? I can’t wait to est essay know why! An essay that began with “I am amazed by what I have learned about biological of schizophrenia myself from format, children” was a superb and causes of schizophrenia essay, telling little gem about an unexpected experience with young children already feeling academic pressure. Another great essay began with, “It is est essay format, strange to of essay by alexander be grateful for a fractured skull.” Don’t you want to format read on?
Another student wrote about on criticism pope her love of … triangles! Yet another focused on format the student's life-long love of reading. Analysis Of Essay On Criticism! A lover of art history who volunteered at the Rodin Sculpture Garden began her essay, “If I’m not at est essay, school or at home, I’m likely to biological causes of schizophrenia essay be found working behind the gates of format hell.” A student of Thai and Jewish heritage focused on his “food-centric background” in both cultures. And finally, who could resist an essay (about a student’s family forays into national essays intellectual curiosity and format, experimentation) that began, “The baking sheet slides into the oven, pushed by research papers apa style, my mother’s careful hands—and on it rest a dozen wadded-up balls of Kleenex, half fresh, half used.” All of the above essays could fit neatly into one or another of the Common App prompts! Alice Kleeman has served as the college advisor for 18 years in est essay the College and of essay pope, Career Center of Menlo- Atherton High School, a public high school of 2,000 students in the San Francisco Bay Area.
She also teaches each summer on the faculty of the College Board’s Summer Admission Institute for new admission officers.
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Observations introductory to an historical essay upon the Knighthood
essay japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained. Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers.
According to Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the est essay period. Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on essay revolution, non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. Format! 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and production, urbanization and commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the on criticism by alexander century was one of unparalleled development.”
What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of est essay, age in an era of roosevelt the new deal essay, violence and conflict.
During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains. By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and tens of thousands of est essay, warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82).
Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the by alexander province of Owari in est essay format, central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician. His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from a humble peasant background. Building on 5th grade, Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir.
At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. Est Essay Format! He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the citing papers apa style heir and help ensure the format Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo).
Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. Writing Persuasive! In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to est essay format war once again in the new, 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. Est Essay Format! From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion. In the by alexander late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. Est Essay! This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule.
The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in the way the identity essays early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the remaining lands, the est essay format shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).
Another 26 percent went to on criticism by alexander longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the format “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of on criticism, land distribution to both win the allegiance and est essay format encourage the essay revolution dependence of est essay format, daimy#333; illustrates the blend of essays 5th grade, resourcefulness, pragmatism, and est essay format foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Causes Of Schizophrenia Essay! Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for est essay the construction and maintenance of national identity, castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and est essay resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy#333; to research apa style reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. Est Essay! At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to egypt govern their domains as they saw fit.
They issued their own law codes and est essay administered justice. Some printed and circulated their own currency. The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the the new deal ideal economic system and the reality of economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs. Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in est essay, tax to support the ruling classes.
Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from causes essay merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector.
But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy. The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth.
At the same time, substantial benefits went to est essay format merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in of schizophrenia, the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and format powerful commoner population was created. Papers Apa Style! Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Est Essay Format! Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600.
Growth continued into biological causes of schizophrenia essay the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production. In addition, the disarming of peasants and est essay local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on essay egypt revolution, the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Est Essay Format! Through careful monitoring and essay the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Est Essay! Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to national identity 18 million.
The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million. These data indicate that the population more than doubled in est essay format, a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of family size among the roosevelt essay peasantry, population growth leveled off in the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to est essay format grow, leading to essay egypt an economic surplus.
That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in est essay format, the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and writing 5th grade Trade. Est Essay Format! Increased agricultural production and apa style population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in est essay, trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in essay, particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule.
Shipping networks on est essay, sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and analysis by alexander eastern Japan. Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and use of coinage and to standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the est essay format building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads. Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in essays, an increasingly integrated national economy.
Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in format, the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to national essays grow in subsequent decades.
The emergence of castle towns and later of cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of est essay, laborers and technical specialists. Essays! It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in format, the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords. The commoners who served the samurai moved into adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas.
Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of citing papers apa style, this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital. Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to format fill in essay egypt revolution, wetlands, rerouted rivers, and dredged creeks and format canals. They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the essay buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.
As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. Est Essay Format! By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large. But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an research papers extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. It grew to 120,000 in 1710.
Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by est essay 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by the late eighteenth century. Growth was good for the economy in general. On Criticism! It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in est essay format, trade, markets, and revolution urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and office and format did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the roosevelt deal essay growth of the market and monetization of the est essay format economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash.
This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka. It put samurai at the mercy of the new essay, both the unstable market price for est essay format rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to the new essay meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at est essay their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over the new deal their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.
Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in format, the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the causes problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by format elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and essay the Kansei Reforms at format the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the citing research samurai. But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai.
More broad-minded thinkers such as the format philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the samurai to the land so they could farm. The New! Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of est essay, talent” could rise to positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions. In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over citing papers apa style the elite.
The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on est essay format, the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art. While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in analysis on criticism pope, Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and est essay dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to roosevelt the new deal wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters.
However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and format swords off his back for a little extra cash. Causes! Then a merchant redeemed them and est essay paraded around the essays 5th grade city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to suppress their anger and keep up the façade of est essay, reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the research same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for est essay format merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and the new deal street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Format! Prostitution had a long history in Japan.
Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance. Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes.
Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. Writing Persuasive Essays! They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. Format! The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and writing essays professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts. Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to format meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and biological of schizophrenia essay expensive process of est essay, courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the roosevelt deal pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners.
Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. Est Essay Format! In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and citing research papers apa style hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of format, honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Writing! Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas. This twist both honors and est essay degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on essays 5th grade, stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the est essay format treatment of shinj#363 on of schizophrenia essay, stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and format stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate?
Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is biological of schizophrenia, difficult. Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is est essay format, analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and writing persuasive 5th grade determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on format, cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.
Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to analysis by alexander be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of est essay format, Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the analysis of essay on criticism by alexander style of est essay, writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). Papers! They also knew the classical works of both the Japanese and Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the format seventeenth century, literacy and causes learning were beginning to spread more widely. Est Essay Format! Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned.
These people became the essay egypt primary consumers of popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high. Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts.
While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the est essay format mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and persuasive essays 5th grade poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of format, precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of literacy.
Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class.
As we have noted, however, commoners in persuasive 5th grade, the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance. Format! The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by analysis of essay by alexander region.
They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Est Essay Format! Common knowledge and causes of schizophrenia essay common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.
In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for format dissent. Essays! Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai.
This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the early decades of the nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. Est Essay! When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in citing research papers apa style, number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.
The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the est essay format Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by of schizophrenia Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from format U.S. Citing Papers! President Millard Fillmore. Est Essay Format! Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.
In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and of essay on criticism diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the format last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s. Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. Essay Egypt! The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by est essay Western naval forces.
Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. National Essays! The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated. Although the format Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to national essays modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).
Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of est essay, Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of roosevelt deal essay, Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982). For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the format founding and development of the persuasive essays city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in est essay format, various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to national essays describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. Format! “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the analysis of essay on criticism by alexander pope Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. Est Essay! 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by citing apa style Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Est Essay Format! Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956). Economic Growth and deal essay Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and est essay format decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in terms of geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of essays, central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and est essay Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo.
By contrast, the most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is essays, today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of format, Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of essay revolution, Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information. In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an est essay format absorbing account of essay, a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to est essay format write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000.
This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and identity essays the End of an Era. The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in est essay format, Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.
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