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Argumentative Speech Essays and Research Papers. Speech Assignment Five Type of speech : Persuasive Persuasive type: Question of policy Time limits: 6-7 minutes . Visual aid: Required Typed outline: Required Bibliography: Required Copy of Sources Used: 4 Required Assignment Synopsis: This is the most important speech of the semester. Start early and work really hard on loyalty research this one. Students are to maya angelou poem, present a 6-7 minute persuasive speech on a current, controversial topic of state, regional, national, or international. Audience , Conclusion , Language 668 Words | 3 Pages. prepare for loyalty research papers, your fi rst speech and maya angelou poem essays, as a checklist for brand research papers, all the identity paper, speeches you give in your public speaking class. You can also use the papers, guide as . a handy reference for speeches you give aft er college. Presenting a speech involves six basic stages: 1. Determining your purpose and topic (Chapter 4) 2. Identity. Adapting to your audience (Chapter 5) 3. Researching your topic (Chapter 6) 4. Organizing your ideas (Chapter 8) 5. Practicing your speech (Chapter 12) 6. Presenting your speech (Chapter 12) Th ese. Audience , Oratory , Public speaking 632 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Speech Freedom of brand research papers, Speech We all know what the general meaning of freedom of maya, speech . is. But let me tell you a deeper meaning of loyalty research papers, freedom of speech . Freedom of speech is the right, guaranteed by essay paper, the First Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution, to brand research papers, express beliefs and ideas without unwarranted government restriction. Speech is built in to our lives as a way to communicate with others. That’s why I believe everyone has the freedom and poem, right to brand loyalty, speak. Some nations still restrict the people’s. Self Identity Essay. Communism , Democracy , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 786 Words | 2 Pages. type of loyalty, speech would the speaker choose.
Well chapter 13 contents the creative process for informative speaking. What informative speaking is . how to choose a focused informative topic, how to conduct a research and informative outline? The chapter also contains how to organize the body, introduction, and conclusion of the informative speech . Lastly chapter 13 contents explain how to prepare to present the speech and evaluate and informative speech . In order to make a well informative speech the speaker. Knowledge management , Language , Learning 850 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Speaking out to persuade others . . . From Reading to Writing Martin Luther King, Jr.’s powerful “I Have a Dream” . speech helped convince Congress to pass landmark civil rights legislation. It also continues to influence people of ellen thesis, all ages to believe in and work to achieve their personal dreams. Persuasive Speech Speaking out to persuade others . . . Persuasive speeches such as Dr.
King’s can move listeners to tears and inspire them to move mountains. Politicians, advertisers. Audience , Eye contact , Language 807 Words | 16 Pages. Writing a speech can be a daunting task for brand, many people. Perhaps you're worried about the quality of your writing skills, you're nervous about . your public speaking inexperience or maybe you just don't know what to write. By setting out a few clear goals before you start writing your speech , you will be better equipped to brand, judge its progress and success of your speech prior to papers, its public airing.
A hilarious Best Man speech may have your audience rolling in the aisles, but if you fail to ammu velutha essay, give tribute. Audience , Creative writing , Public speaking 1710 Words | 5 Pages. S. Buscaino DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPEECH What is speech according to its purpose? People have gathered to hear you speak on a . Loyalty. specific issue, and ellen, they expect to get something out of it immediately. And you, the speaker, hope to brand loyalty papers, have an angelou poem essays immediate effect on your audience. The purpose of your speech is to get the response you want. 4 types of research papers, speech according to purpose A Informative Speech - An Informative Speech is like teaching. The purpose of an informative speech is to try to teach something to. Essays On Ozone. Graduation , Kofi Annan , Martin Luther King, Jr.
764 Words | 3 Pages. Speech to Entertain: An Overview The primary purpose of a speech to brand research, entertain is to portrait, have the audience relax, smile and enjoy the loyalty papers, . occasion. The speech should have a central theme or a focus. A series of jokes will NOT work well for this type of speech . Good speeches to loyalty, entertain typically mix humor with more serious morals, lessons learned, or experiences. In other words, they have a real point to make… they are not just silly, slapstick humor. You can tell a lighthearted, personal story that reveals. Amusement , Audience , Comedy 938 Words | 3 Pages. Loyalty Papers. work’s. Host: How would you prepare and conduct a good Process speech so that it is effective? (SLIDE 4) Brian: TO prepare for a . Process speech you will first want to … carefully think about the steps in the process and set them up in the order they occur. THEN you will need to group the steps AND create explanations for each step and sub step. YOU should prepare AND use…. Visual aids and demonstration during your speech . Velutha. But….. some process speeches are not suited for brand loyalty, demonstrations.
Audience , Audience theory , Demonstration 623 Words | 3 Pages. ?ORGC 201 Informative Speech Assignment Create a 5-6 minute presentation using PowerPoint visuals. Make sure your PowerPoint follows the . guidelines discussed in class. The purpose of the presentation should be to inform the angelou poem essays, audience. Your presentation should reflect a topic, theme, or issue relevant to your major. For ideas of topics, you may consider looking at brand papers, issues of Crains’ Chicago, The Wall Street Journal, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, The New York Times, The Chicago Tribune, cnn.com, The. Brand Loyalty Research. Audience , Better , Evaluation 1497 Words | 4 Pages. Lesson Plan Form Four Persuasive Speech. speaking.
Firstly, teacher invites students to identify and match language features to research papers, appropriate example on the | | |whiteboard. . Then, teacher will check the answer by explaining the language features involved in persuasive speech as well as prompt students to | | |give more examples. Then, teacher will show a video of persuasive advertisements which produced by other students. After that, students work in | | |group for ‘Dragon’s Den’. Education , Language , Lesson plan 792 Words | 5 Pages. the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and . their set of speech sound units differ, creating the on ozone depletion, existence of many thousands of loyalty research, different types of mutually unintelligible human languages.
Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing. A gestural form. Brain , Language , Linguistics 1360 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline For Public Speaking Sample persuasive speech outline including speechwriting tips on angelou essays outlining . the main speech topics for brand loyalty papers, public speaking. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline YOUR NAME, SPEECH CLASS AND DATE: TITLE: SUBJECT: Your persuasive speech topic. GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To persuade the audience to . (fill in your ultimate goal of course :-) I INTRODUCTION A. Your attention grabber.
Try a snappy one if you like. American Psychological Association , APA style , Authority 490 Words | 3 Pages. Nguyen COM 111-550 06/14/13 CHAPTER 16 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Essay. What is the difference between an informative speech and a persuasive . speech ? Why is speaking to loyalty, persuade more challenging than speaking to inform? Informative speech is designed to convey knowledge of and understanding and persuasive speech is to either reinforce or changing people’s beliefs or actions. Persuasive speech is more challenging than informative because there are different points of view on the topic your discussing since. Audience , Audience theory , Fact 691 Words | 3 Pages. Memorized Speech Delivery Over the years, four basic methods of delivering speeches are developed. Key Points * Memorized delivery . takes two basic forms: the total speech or manuscript is committed to memory, or standard parts of the message are memorized and woven into ellen each speech . * Memorizing your speech allows you to stay in touch with your audience. * One of the main problems of delivering a speech from research papers, memory is that it sounds like you are reading since you are focusing your. Audience , Audience theory , Declaration of ellen thesis, independence 1169 Words | 4 Pages. wikihow.com/Say-a- Speech -Without-Getting-Nervousgfjkjkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfkigftytu- y « Study and create flashcards for brand research, . free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Welcome Speech For The Business Meeting Essays and Term Papers Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of ammu velutha, 919 Hi Welcome Speech Welcome Speech Good morning.
Business , Etiquette , Management 1135 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Speech Fox Speech of Introduction: The Day I was Born Speech For your introduction . speech you will present a brief speech on the day you were born. This speech is meant to research, be an icebreaker and is your time to ellen eischen thesis, introduce yourself to your fellow classmates and me. Do some research and find out a few interesting pieces about the day you were born. If you cannot find anything you would like to use on the exact day, you may expand out to the week, month, or year.
Please try to stay. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 788 Words | 3 Pages. Speaking: Speech and Informative Speeches. Speaking to Inform I. Speaking to inform is one of the most important skills a student can develop. Brand Research. A. Essays On Ozone. Informative speaking is vital to success in . business. 1. In one survey, informative speaking was ranked as the most important speech skill in the workplace. 2. In another survey, 62% of the respondents said they used informative speaking “almost constantly.” B. Nor are people in business the only ones who rely on informative speaking. 1. Brand Research Papers. There are endless situations in which people. Abstraction , Audience , Concept 1412 Words | 5 Pages. their previous experience.
1-3. What is feedback? Why is it important in human communication? -Feedback is present in public speaking. It is how the . speaker knows to adjust their vocabulary, volume, or how the velutha, audience feels about the direction your speech is heading. It is brand loyalty research papers important because it helps the brand, speaker successfully get their point across.
1-4. Why should communication be labeled as “Transactional?” Does it mean anything to your classroom speeches? -They should be labeled as transactional. Oratory , Public speaking , Rhetoric 717 Words | 3 Pages. Research. Everybody learns moral values from different experiences of his/her life. Here is an experience, which was a turning point to my life. Eischen Thesis. My . speech was a laughable to listeners when I was in my 9th grade year. Learning how to speak in brand research papers, front of a crowd was a most significant moment in my life because I learned basic skills like speaking, facing an audience, and memorizing sentences. Thesis. My English teacher paved the brand, way for me to be a better speaker. It all started when she told me to speak some words. Essays On Ozone. Audience , Audience theory , Knowledge 964 Words | 3 Pages. Delivering a Persuasive Speech Douglas A. Brand. Parker August 13, 2001 | Amazon Products | |Subject(s): Language Arts/Reading and . Public Speaking |Links of Note | |[pic] | |Overview: Students need to understand that how they say something and how they physically present |Persuasive Essay Topics form| | | |themselves are just as important as what they say.
By understanding. Human voice , Language , Persuasion 1503 Words | 7 Pages. ?SPCH 250: Speech Fundamentals Speech 2: Informative Speech Due Date: 9/30/14, 10/2/14 Purposes of essays, Informative . Loyalty Papers. Speaking Informative speaking offers you an opportunity to velutha essay, practice your research, writing, organizing, and speaking skills. You will learn how to discover and present information clearly. Research Papers. If you take the time to angelou poem essays, thoroughly research and understand your topic, to create a clearly organized speech , and to practice an enthusiastic, dynamic style of delivery, you can be an effective teacher. Audience , Bibliography , Parenthetical referencing 462 Words | 3 Pages. ?Informative Speech Requirements Objective: To construct a well-written informative presentation following the criteria below and loyalty research, effectively . presenting to an audience. Poem. I have provided you with the research, informative outline template that I expect you to use for this speech . Ellen Eischen Thesis. I will also provide you with sample informative speeches in class so that you can see what one looks like. Topic selection 1. In this presentation you will be providing your audience with information about a topic. You should choose.
APA style , Bibliography , Citation 700 Words | 2 Pages. Inspirational Speech for school elections. ?WRIITEN TASK 1: SPEECH AFTER ELECTION VICTORY Good morning respected Principal, teachers and students. Papers. I stand here in front of you all . today, being bolder and more debonair than ever before. It is because you have given me power to essay questions, run and be part of this school’s engine. I stand with pride as the brand papers, new School Captain of this prestigious institution. You have given me strength to be as sturdy as an brand oak and brand papers, tell everyone with panache that it is me who the entire body feels capable enough to shoulder. Barack Obama , Jawaharlal Nehru , Leo Strauss 2358 Words | 7 Pages.
Oral Presentation - Persuasive Speech. levels of meaning. THE TASK Give the context/connect to what has been studied in class - use sentences. Insert visual. We have been studying the . Self Essay. language features and structures used in brand research, persuasive speeches. You are to present a persuasive speech taking on the persona of one of the following people: Travel agent persuading people to travel to a particular holiday destination Captain of a sporting team persuading the team that 2014 is their year Life coach telling the audience that they. Identity. Audience , Following , Language 537 Words | 3 Pages. you go to church knowing you will be preached to about Jesus and God, it isn't just that. There are life lessons to be learned and they can be applied to . everyday life and he did a really good job at teaching us something meaningful through his speech , which isn't easy to do. Loyalty Research Papers. He used a thesis, posing a question if we truly know what means to brand loyalty research papers, be baptized and if we are truly living our lives as disciples of brand papers, Jesus Christ. He began by telling a story about the bible and essays on ozone depletion, Jesus' baptism, then explained. Baptism , Christianity , Jesus 850 Words | 3 Pages.
Exercises to Improve Your Clarity of loyalty papers, Speech. There are different ways on how to improve your clarity of speech . Having clear speech requires a relaxed face and jaw. Ammu. Here are . a few exercises to improve the clarity of your speech . Step 1. Practice jaw exercises to enhance clarity of speech . Use a mirror to aid you in this step. Here are three exercises to help. Brand Loyalty Research Papers. These also help relax the depletion, jaw, making speech a lot clearer: ? Make wide chewing motions while humming gently. Brand Loyalty. ? Stretch every muscle in your jaw and face. Open your mouth as wide. Ellen Eischen Thesis. Exercise , Human voice , Language 848 Words | 3 Pages. Informative Speech on How to Dress. | Informative Speech Manuscript | “A Professional Outlook” | | Date: February 8, 2012Name: Rasheedah M. Hasan | | | . Loyalty Research Papers. Thesis: Appropriate dressing in a professional setting can determine the attitude an employer may develop when first meeting you.
As you can see, I have two people standing here in both business attire, and formal wear. You’re probably thinking to yourself why are they dressed so differently? As people, it takes the average person seven seconds to judge an. Confidence , Employment , First Impressions 923 Words | 3 Pages. Obama’s Speech Everybody knows how good of a speaker Obama is. His speeches always seem to convince the audience, but it is not by everybody . understood what distinguishes him from maya poem, other speakers. Certain skills he frequently uses help him reach his main purpose, but the question remains what these skills include. Therefore, the aim of this commentary is explain how the use of research papers, rhetorical devices makes Obama’s speeches stand out and memorable. Rhetorical devices are techniques that an author or speaker.
Aerosmith , Barack Obama , Effectiveness 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Speech: Education and New School Term. Ammu Essay. GoodWhat is a speech ?Speeches are talks delivered in public on formal and informal occasions.There are many types of speeches such as 'welcome . speech ', 'thank you speech ' and 'farewell speech '. Besides, there are also speeches on topics of interest and social issues. The PRESENT TENSE IS USUALLY USEDwhen you write out a speech.Sample question:You are the head prefect in your school. At the beginning of the brand research papers, new school term, you have been asked to loyalty papers, remind students about the school regulations. Write. Education , Hair , High school 445 Words | 3 Pages. Speech is the expression of brand research, or the ability to express thoughts and feelings by maya poem, articulate sounds.
It is the spoken expression of ideas. It is . Loyalty Research Papers. also defined as our ability to speak or the power of angelou poem essays, expressing or communicating thoughts by speaking. We often use speech to interact with other people. Papers. Social Interaction is the means and ability of essay, two or more social beings to come into loyalty research papers contact, communicate or acknowledge one another while each being is aware of the others. This is the way people talk and. Cluttering , Communication disorders , Dysarthria 1137 Words | 4 Pages. Pregnant Women and Abortion in the oval portrait, Persuasive Speech. for you to understand Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (a persuasive outline) by comparing it with the traditional outline (used for your informative speeches). . 2. Brand Research. As an alternative outline choice for your persuasive speech . If you decide to use the problem/solution approach in research, your speech , then you may follow the outline format below (Monroe’s Motivated Sequence) or you may follow the example of outlines 4 through 7. It is important to research, note that whichever of the two outline formats for Monroe’s Motivated. Public speaking , Speech 317 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sahra Sheikhnur Argumentative Essay Terrorism has made a major impact in The U.S in the past 10 years.
Terrorism is loyalty research very dangerous and has . led to many lives being lost. Recently, there have been many terrorist acts going on, which led the U.S. government to wonder if individuals should use censorship to brand research, prevent terrorist speech . Loyalty Research. The United States government should completely renounce coverage of terrorist speech because the ongoing coverage can lead to brand papers, more threats and dangers. The media is a great. Al-Qaeda , Censorship , Freedom of speech 1106 Words | 4 Pages. Speech-Related Activity: 1-Minute Speeches. Speech -Related Activity: 1-minute Speeches Aims: Practice quick analytical thinking, expression of ammu velutha essay, opinions Level: This works best . with more advanced students, and in smaller groups.
Materials: Pre-made topic slips, a clock or watch for papers, keeping time. Roles: Each speech requires a speaker and a timekeeper. Ammu Essay. Procedure: The student to perform the research papers, speech randomly selects a faced-down strip of paper containing a topic. The student has a short period of time (3 – 5 seconds). Convenience store , Language , Psychology 590 Words | 3 Pages. Breaking Barriers: a Reflection Paper on self essay paper the King's Speech. Brand Research Papers. was reminded of this significance when Bertie suddenly released his frustration during his talk with Lionel. Truly, The King’s Speech presented . a story of loyalty research papers, a man whose courage to change inspires the viewers to speak for their purpose.
Courageous it is for the challenges that Bertie faced to overcome his apprehension were not of ease, but of difficulty, given that his speech problem was rooted in something deeper- his experiences as a young prince. Brand. As a child, he encountered the strict side of his father. 2002 albums , Debut albums , Language 842 Words | 3 Pages. Self Identity Paper. ? Argumentative Essay About Internet Censorship Censorship has been defined as “The removal of material that is deemed or judged offensive to . Loyalty. any sector of the population. Many have wondered, “Just how beneficial is maya poem essays censorship to brand loyalty research papers, man, when is it enough and does it help”? It is velutha my view however; that there is no clear answer to the question, for censorship has its fair balance of brand research papers, advantages and disadvantages. I argue that the portrait, censorship of the internet in the modern digital era is brand research “Ludacris” ridiculous.
Broadband Internet access , Censorship , Freedom of questions, speech 1524 Words | 4 Pages. How Does My Speech Change When Communicating with Different Audiences and How Does It Change the brand loyalty research, Way People Think of portrait essay, Me? CA- First Draft How does my speech change when communicating with different audiences and how does it change the loyalty research papers, way people think of me? . George Orwell said-‘If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought’ illustrating that the power of language over our thought. People change their register when communicating with different audiences unintentionally: including myself. In 15 years of my life, I have always adapted my idiolect differently to ellen, my friends, parents, teachers and strangers;. Dialect , Language , Linguistics 1418 Words | 4 Pages. Brand Loyalty Research. ------------------------------------------------- City University of New York Department of Speech , Communications and Theatre Arts . Fundamentals of Speech : SPE100 (3credit) Prof.
Mila Brisbon Scheduled Days Monday/ Wednesday/ Friday SPE 100-071 room S608 SPE 100-083 room S608/N680 SPE 100-091 room S608/N680 SPE 100-111 room N487/N680/S608 SPE 100-122 room S608 Email: Mbrisbon@bmcc.cuny.edu Speech dept S628 for my mailbox and class schedule. Office S628P phone (212) 220-8094. Language , Oratory , Public speaking 1316 Words | 6 Pages. Socio – Political Situation of India. secular nation it is on the religious believes that the parties sail. The great Indian paradox is a thriving democracy in which the people are powerless to . change the exploitative and unequal economic order.
As Amartya Sen writes in essay, his book The Argumentative Indian, “Sometimes the very institutions that were created to overcome disparities and barriers have tended to act as reactionary influences in reinforcing inequality… Though he used it against the teachers it suits well the politicians too. . Akbar the Great , Amartya Sen , Democracy 1817 Words | 6 Pages. ? SPEECH WRITING Format of a Speech : 1. Salutation 2. Introduction of the speaker and the topic as the case may be. 3. Brand Loyalty. . Expression of ellen eischen thesis, one’s views 4. Brand Loyalty. Compare and Contrast your views with others 5. Use of illustrations to papers, impress meaningful pictures on the minds of the audience, and loyalty papers, thereby, stimulate interest, highlight important ideas, and facilitate learning. 6. Summing up or Conclusion Purpose of a Speech : To convey information orally to a large gathering of on ozone depletion, people, forcefully and convincingly. Audience , Orator , Public speaker 372 Words | 2 Pages. Research Papers. Online Public Speaking Speech Analysis Assignment #1 _____________________________________________________________________________________ . Please answer the following questions after reading the Land of the ammu essay, Free Because of the Homeless speech on page 450 of your text. Please support your answers with the material from chapters 8 - 10 in brand, your textbook. Essays Depletion. 1. Does the loyalty papers, speech introduction meet the criteria established on p. 196 of your textbook? Why or why not? Explain your answer. . Answer , Critical thinking , Following 292 Words | 2 Pages. considered absences. Participation: MANDATORY.
Completion of thesis, all On Line work and participation in all classroom activities are necessary to pass the . class Make-up speeches cannot be allowed: Time scheduling is too constricted to research, allow it. Speech outlines will NOT be accepted late. All major speeches must be completed on the scheduled day, to self identity essay paper, pass this class. Assignments: All other assignments must be on time to get full credit. Plagiarism: Policies on cheating and plagiarism will. Critical thinking , Oratory , Public speaking 480 Words | 2 Pages. College graduates are increasingly being asked to give presentations as part of their job interviews • Internet other technologies has not reduced the . need for research, pubic speaking The tradition of public speaking • Oldest handbook on effective speech was written on papyrus in Egypt 4,500yrs ago. Poem. • Eloquence was highly prized in ancient India, Africa china as well as Aztecs and other pre-European cultures of north south America • Greece and Rome essential role in education life • Aristotle’s.
Communication , Critical thinking , Language 307 Words | 2 Pages. ?Ms. Lindsey 2014-2015 Speech Syllabus Hello students! We are going to have a great semester in Speech ! This syllabus is to loyalty, . provide you with some guidance into how I expect the class to go during your time this semester. Below are my expectations for this course. It is a required course and ellen, you cannot graduate without passing this class. I hope you all do your best and work hard! According to national surveys, fear of public speaking ranks among Americans' top dreads, surpassing fear of research papers, illness. English-language films , Notebook , Oratory 436 Words | 2 Pages.
Jonathan Rueff July 8, 2013 I felt I was well prepared for my first speech , I knew my research very well and felt like my arrangement and maya angelou, . flow throughout the speech was well organized. If I had to change a couple of things I would definitely change my emotional approach. I felt like I didn’t change my tone of voice. I think that was the brand loyalty research papers, case because I was nervous coming into my speech and towards the end I was more comfortable and I started to change my voice and my emotional approach was better. Better , Communication , Neuroscience 780 Words | 2 Pages. TYPES OF SPEECH According to Purpose ii. According to Preparation of Delivery iii. According to Occasion i. Velutha. I. According to Purpose 1. Research Papers. . Speech to Inform or Informative Speech 2. Speech to Inspire or Inspirational Speech 3. Essay Paper. Speech to Persuade or Argumentative Speech 4. Speech to loyalty research, Entertain or Entertaining or Graceful Speech II.
According to ellen eischen thesis, Preparation of Delivery 1. Impromptu Speech 2. Manuscript Reading 3. Brand Loyalty. The Memorized Speech 4. The Extemporaneous Speech III. According to Occasion 1. Salutation. Audience , Audience theory , Introduction 1191 Words | 34 Pages. preview statement? A) A preview statement summarizes a speech or article and is written by someone other than the author, and an internal . preview is a summary of the speech or article and is written by the author. B) An internal preview is at the beginning of a speech and introduces the loyalty research papers, main points of the speech , and a preview statement is loyalty during the essay and summarizes the previous points. C) An internal preview is in the middle of depletion, a speech and summarizes both the points already stated, and introduces. Loyalty Research. Audience , Essay , Expert witness 634 Words | 3 Pages. Aung San Suu Kyi’s Speech One of my favourite dicta is that people should not be categorized as good or evil, wise or stupid. It would be much . more sensible to divide them simply into maya angelou essays learners and non-learners. In between the two extremes would be a broad spectrum graded on the degree to which in Why I Would Not Like to Become a Teacher Teaching is hell. The reasons I would not like to become a teacher are simply just obvious.
More work than pay i.e. low net salary, stress, strict rules, you got. Aung San , Aung San Suu Kyi , Language 1272 Words | 4 Pages. zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzc- e Speech by Mother Teresa - Media Player at . . www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1852 Acceptance Speech by Mother Teresa (19 minutes). Mother Teresa held her Acceptance Speech on 10 December 1979, in the Oslo City Hall, Norway. Copyright . Brand Loyalty. Durant's MVP Speech A Great Message On Mother's Day . The Oval. www.nba.com/. /news/durants-mvp- speech -great-message-mothers-day May 11, 2014 - He was so emotional during that speech , as was his mother, and it was an research papers absolutely. 1979 , Kevin Durant , Mother 679 Words | 4 Pages. can be defined as the act of making a speech in front of a group of listeners, and is different from conversation in terms of approach, . language, and structure. Self Identity. TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Naomi Rockler-Gladen, a former professor at Colorado State University, wrote on the website suite101 that there are three types of brand loyalty, public speaking; informative, persuasive, and loyalty papers, ceremonial. These types also defines the purposes, or the reasons the speech is made. Loyalty Research Papers. More details on brand loyalty papers the three types. Eulogy , Oratory , Public speaking 1994 Words | 5 Pages. 10 Tips For Successful Public Speaking Feeling some nervousness before giving a speech is natural and healthy.
It shows you care about doing . well. But, too much nervousness can be detrimental. Brand Loyalty Research. Here's how you can control your nervousness and make effective, memorable presentations: 1. Thesis. Know the room. Be familiar with the place in which you will speak. Arrive early, walk around the speaking area and practice using the microphone and loyalty research papers, any visual aids. 2. Know the audience.
Greet some of the audience. Audience , Audience theory , Impromptu speaking 1283 Words | 4 Pages. Final Speech Name: Fall 2013 Student General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: At the end of ellen, my speech , my audience will be . aware of the concept I learned most from in my speech course and how I will use it in my future. Introduction Did you know that there was a speech that killed? On a cold and brand research papers, wet day, President William Henry Harrison presented a speech comprised of 8,445 words at his inaugural ceremony. By being exposed to these cold conditions, a month later, he died a slow and the oval portrait essay, painful. 2006 singles , Oratory , Public speaking 849 Words | 3 Pages.
Delivery of brand research papers, a Presentation Impromptu speech : The word impromptu means to do anything without planning. Impromptu speech is a . mode of speech in the oval portrait, which a speaker delivers a presentation without planned or without rehearses in brand loyalty, a spontaneous manner. Like impromptu press conference of any political person. Advantages: * It provides the on ozone, opportunity to response. Brand. * it shows how good an individual is at thinking for themselves, on their feet. * Impromptu speech is a useful tool for debating competition. Audience , Feedback , Impromptu speaking 1244 Words | 5 Pages.
Fundamentals of self essay, Public Speaking: Internet Course Syllabus. Research. planning, rehearsing, and presentation of professional speeches. Power Point presentations are incorporated. Student speech performances are . emphasized. COURSE OBJECTIVES: At the completion of this course, students will demonstrate knowledge of 1. Audience and portrait questions, environment analysis 2. Topic selection and research, research 3. Organization of speech text according to speech goals 4. Rehearsal techniques 5. Verbal and non-verbal delivery skills 6. Techniques for controlling. Course , Faulkner State Community College , Final examination 918 Words | 5 Pages. forward in every speech to get better. After a couple speeches I realized this wasn’t a realistic goal. After a lot incubating I decided . that a better goal was to become more comfortable with speaking not just during speeches, but with my peers.
So really my original goal that I wanted to fulfill wasn’t plausible, and as a result I thought of another way I could grow from this experience. Next off, currently in the class we have just finished our final speech which was either. Area , Mind , Oratory 1045 Words | 7 Pages. here. I have been selected by my employer to present a speech to all of you on How to Overcome Fear in Public Speaking. Maya Angelou Poem. Ladies and brand loyalty research papers, . Ellen. Gentlemen, either you realise or not, the real fact is, most of loyalty papers, us are having this problem. The Oval Portrait Essay. This is the most common problem to us. It is not easy for us to stand and speak in front of many peoples. Some peoples experience something in brand research, their stomach, sweating, shaky legs and difficulties to start their speech . Even sometime, they feel like visiting the toilet. Even.
2006 singles , Audience , It's Not Me, It's You 1513 Words | 4 Pages. Velutha. students: * Practice the different skills of public speaking such as: eye contact, using gestures, movement, and brand loyalty research papers, vocal variety, using pauses, and using . Portrait. visual aids. * Learn how to create a speech that keeps an brand loyalty research audience’s attention by using examples, stories, and quotes. * Learn to close their speech with a call for action. Poem Essays. * Learn how to write an effective introduction and how to loyalty research, give an introduction. * Practice listening skills as they evaluate each other’s speeches. Ammu. Spread. Eulogy , Impromptu speaking , Introduction 1497 Words | 5 Pages. section 1- directed writing. 2. Beware that you have to brand research, write exactly how you speak before your audience. In fact, it is the brand loyalty research papers, easiest in its writing . style.
3. Start with opening your speech marks.” “,or ‘ ‘ both are fine. 4. Begin with greeting your audience.Keep in mind the type of speech being delivered (formal or informal). Eg. ’Good morning friends’, ‘hello’, ‘greeting my dear fellow peers’, ‘good evening ma’am, respected teachers’ e.t.c. 5. A greeting should be followed. Language , Linguistics , Question 1062 Words | 3 Pages. Review questions chapter 9, 10 and 11 of the ART OF PUBLIC SPEAKING. ?REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 9: Organizing the brand loyalty, body of the speech . 1. Why is important that speeches be organized clearly and research, coherently? . If you organized clearly and coherently your speeches the listeners can follow the progression of brand research, ideas in essays on ozone, your speech from the beginning to loyalty papers, the end. 2. How many main points will your speeches usually contain? Why is important to eischen, limit the number of main points in your speeches? Your speeches should contain no more than two to five main points because the. Brand Research Papers. Rhetoric , Speech 875 Words | 4 Pages. types, and this is to REPLACE pages 337-344.
Use these, and NOT the ones in the text, to guide you in the development of the Informative . Identity Essay Paper. Speech . 4 Types of Informative Speeches 1) Descriptive – in the most general sense, you are trying to get the audience to experience something through you. Brand Research. There are 2 approaches to do this: a) the loyalty research papers, “real” speech - this is the description of a real, tangible, and physical that is so vivid and precise that the brand loyalty, audience can picture it in their mind. The. Audience , Audience theory , Emotion 984 Words | 3 Pages.
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Political Science 601: Political Theory of the American Revolution. Essays Moral, Political and brand research Literary. Nothing appears more surprizing to those, who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye, than the easiness with which the many are governed by the few; and the implicit submission, with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to those of ammu velutha essay their rulers. When we enquire by what means this wonder is effected, we shall find, that, as Force is always on the side of the governed, the governors have nothing to support them but opinion. Brand Papers! It is therefore, on research opinion only that government is founded; and this maxim extends to the most despotic and most military governments, as well as to the most free and most popular.
The soldan° of Egypt , or the emperor of Rome , might drive his harmless subjects, like brute beasts, against their sentiments and brand loyalty research inclination: But [ 33 ] he must, at least, have led his mamalukes, ° or pr?torian bands, ° like men, by ammu velutha, their opinion. Opinion is of two kinds, to wit, opinion of research interest , and opinion of right . Identity Essay Paper! By opinion of interest, I chiefly understand the loyalty research sense of the general advantage which is reaped from government; together with the persuasion, that the particular government, which is established, is papers equally advantageous with any other that could easily be settled. When this opinion prevails among the generality of a state, or among those who have the force in brand research papers their hands, it gives great security to any government. Right is of two kinds, right to Power and right to Property . On Ozone! What prevalence opinion of the first kind has over mankind, may easily be understood, by observing the attachment which all nations have to their ancient government, and even to brand loyalty, those names, which have had the sanction of antiquity. Antiquity always begets the opinion of ammu velutha essay right; and whatever disadvantageous sentiments we may entertain of mankind, they are always found to be prodigal° both of blood and treasure in the maintenance of public justice.a There is, indeed, no particular, in which, at first sight, there may appear a greater contradiction in the frame of the human mind than the present. When men act in a faction, they are apt, without shame or remorse, to neglect all the ties of honour and morality, in order to serve their party; and yet, when a faction is formed upon a point of right or principle, there is no occasion, where men discover a greater obstinacy, and brand a more determined sense of ammu justice and equity. The same social disposition of mankind is the cause of these contradictory appearances. It is sufficiently understood, that the opinion of right to property is of moment in all matters of brand research government. A noted author has made property the foundation of all government;1 [ 34 ] and most of our political writers seem inclined to follow him in that particular. This is carrying the matter too far; but still it must be owned, that the opinion of right to property has a great influence in the oval questions this subject. Upon these three opinions, therefore, of public interest, of right to power, and of right to property, are all governments founded, and all authority of the brand loyalty research papers few over the many.
There are indeed other principles, which add force to these, and determine, limit, or alter their operation; such as self-interest, fear, and affection: But still we may assert, that these other principles can have no influence alone, but suppose the ammu velutha essay antecedent influence of those opinions above-mentioned. They are, therefore, to be esteemed the secondary, not the original principles of papers government. For, first, as to self-interest, by which I mean the expectation of the oval portrait essay questions particular rewards, distinct from the general protection which we receive from government, it is evident that the magistrate’s authority must be antecedently established, at least be hoped for, in order to brand loyalty research, produce this expectation. The prospect of the oval portrait reward may augment his authority with regard to brand loyalty papers, some particular persons; but can never give birth to the oval portrait questions, it, with regard to brand research papers, the public. Men naturally look for the greatest favours from their friends and acquaintance; and therefore, the hopes of any considerable number of the state would never center in any particular set of loyalty research men, if these men had no other title to magistracy, and had no separate influence over research, the opinions of mankind.
The same observation may be extended to ammu, the other two principles of fear and affection. Research! No man would have any reason to fear the fury of a tyrant, if he had no authority over any but from fear; since, as a single man, his bodily force can reach but a small way, and essays on ozone depletion all the farther power he possesses must be founded either on our own opinion, or on the presumed opinion of others. And though affection to wisdom and virtue in a sovereign extends very far, and brand loyalty research has great influence; yet he must antecedently be supposed invested with a public character, otherwise the public esteem will serve him in eischen no stead,° nor will his virtue have any influence beyond a narrow sphere. A Government may endure for several ages, though the balance of papers power, and the balance of property do not coincide. This chiefly happens, where any rank or order of the state has acquired a large share in the property; but from the original constitution of the government, has no share in the power. Under what pretence would any individual of that order assume authority in on ozone depletion public affairs? As men are commonly much attached to their ancient government, it is not to loyalty, be expected, that the maya poem public would ever favour such usurpations. But where the original constitution allows any share of power, though small, to an order of research papers men, who possess a large share of the property, it is easy for them gradually to stretch their authority, and angelou essays bring the balance of power to coincide with that of brand property. This has been the eischen case with the house of commons in England . Most writers, that have treated of the British government, have supposed, that, as the brand research papers lower house represents all the commons of Great Britain , its weight in the scale is maya angelou proportioned to the property and power of all whom it represents. But this principle must not be received as absolutely true. For though the people are apt to attach themselves more to the house of loyalty research commons, than to any other member of the constitution; that house being chosen by them as their representatives, and as the public guardians of their liberty; yet are there instances where the house, even when in brand opposition to brand loyalty, the crown, has not been followed by the people; as we may particularly observe of the eischen tory house of commons in the reign of loyalty king William .2 Were the members obliged to receive instructions from their constituents, like the Dutch deputies, [ 36 ] this would entirely alter the case; and if such immense power and maya essays riches, as those of all the brand research commons of Great Britain , were brought into the scale, it is self identity essay paper not easy to conceive, that the crown could either influence that multitude of brand loyalty people, or withstand that overbalance of property.
It is true, the crown has great influence over the collective body in the elections of depletion members; but were this influence, which at present is only exerted once in seven years, to be employed in bringing over the people to every vote, it would soon be wasted; and no skill, popularity, or revenue, could support it. Loyalty! I must, therefore, be of opinion, that an velutha, alteration in this particular would introduce a total alteration in our government, and would soon reduce it to a pure republic; and, perhaps, to a republic of no inconvenient form. Brand Research Papers! For though the people, collected in a body like the Roman tribes, be quite unfit for government, yet when dispersed in small bodies, they are more susceptible both of reason and order; the force of eischen thesis popular currents and tides is, in a great measure, broken; and the public interest may be pursued with some method and brand constancy. But it is needless to reason any farther concerning a form of government, which is never likely to have place in ammu velutha Great Britain , and papers which seems not to brand papers, be the aim of loyalty papers any party amongst us. Let us cherish and improve our ancient government as much as possible, without encouraging a passion for such dangerous novelties.b. ESSAY V: OF THE ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT? Man , born in a family, is compelled to on ozone depletion, maintain society, from brand papers necessity, from natural inclination, and from habit. The same creature, in his farther progress, is engaged to establish political society, in order to administer justice; without which there can be no peace among them, nor safety, nor mutual intercourse. We are, therefore, to look upon all the ammu essay vast apparatus of our government, as having ultimately no other object or purpose but the distribution of justice, or, in other words, the support of the twelve judges.
Kings and parliaments, fleets and armies, officers of the loyalty papers court and revenue, ambassadors, ministers, and the oval questions privy-counsellors, are all subordinate in their end to this part of administration. Even the loyalty clergy, as their duty leads them to maya angelou poem essays, inculcate morality, may [ 38 ] justly be thought, so far as regards this world, to have no other useful object of their institution. All men are sensible of the necessity of justice to maintain peace and order; and all men are sensible of the necessity of peace and order for the maintenance of society. Yet, notwithstanding this strong and obvious necessity, such is the frailty or perverseness of our nature! it is brand research papers impossible to keep men, faithfully and unerringly, in the paths of justice. Some extraordinary circumstances may happen, in which a man finds his interests to loyalty papers, be more promoted by brand papers, fraud or rapine, than hurt by the breach which his injustice makes in the social union. But much more frequently, he is seduced from his great and important, but distant interests, by the allurement of present, though often very frivolous temptations. Loyalty! This great weakness is incurable in human nature. Men must, therefore, endeavour to palliate° what they cannot cure.
They must institute some persons, under the appellation° of magistrates, whose peculiar° office it is, to point out the decrees of equity, to punish transgressors, to correct fraud and violence, and to oblige men, however reluctant, to consult their own real and permanent interests. In a word, Obedience is research papers a new duty which must be invented to support that of Justice ; and the tyes° of equity must be corroborated by those of allegiance. But still, viewing matters in an abstract light, it may be thought, that nothing is ammu velutha gained by this alliance, and that the loyalty factitious° duty of obedience, from its very nature, lays as feeble a hold of the human mind, as the portrait essay questions primitive and brand papers natural duty of essays on ozone depletion justice. Peculiar interests and present temptations may overcome the loyalty one as well as the other. They are equally exposed to loyalty research, the same inconvenience. And the brand loyalty research man, who is inclined to be a bad neighbour, must be led by the same motives, well or ill understood, to be a bad citizen and subject. Self Identity Essay Paper! Not to mention, that the magistrate himself may often be negligent, or partial, or unjust in his administration. Experience, however, proves, that there is a great difference between the loyalty research cases. Maya Angelou Poem Essays! Order in society, we find, is much [ 39 ] better maintained by means of government; and our duty to the magistrate is more strictly guarded by the principles of brand research human nature, than our duty to ammu, our fellow-citizens. The love of dominion is so strong in the breast of man, that many, not only submit to, but court all the dangers, and fatigues, and cares of government; and men, once raised to that station, though often led astray by private passions, find, in ordinary cases, a visible interest in loyalty research papers the impartial administration of essays on ozone depletion justice. The persons, who first attain this distinction by the consent, tacit or express, of the people, must be endowed with superior personal qualities of valour, force, integrity, or prudence, which command respect and confidence: and after government is established, a regard to birth, rank, and station has a mighty influence over men, and enforces the decrees of the magistrate.
The prince or leader exclaims° against every disorder, which disturbs his society. He summons all his partizans and all men of brand research papers probity° to aid him in correcting and redressing it: and he is readily followed by all indifferent persons in the execution of his office. He soon acquires the power of rewarding these services; and in the progress of society, he establishes subordinate ministers and often a military force, who find an immediate and a visible interest, in supporting his authority. Habit soon consolidates what other principles of ellen thesis human nature had imperfectly founded; and men, once accustomed to obedience, never think of departing from that path, in which they and their ancestors have constantly trod, and to which they are confined by so many urgent and visible motives. But though this progress of loyalty papers human affairs may appear certain and inevitable, and though the support which allegiance brings to justice, be founded on obvious principles of human nature, it cannot be expected that men should beforehand be able to discover them, or foresee their operation. Government commences more casually and more imperfectly.
It is probable, that the first ascendant° of one man over multitudes begun during a state of war; where the superiority of courage and of genius discovers itself most visibly, where unanimity and concert [ 40 ] are most requisite, and where the pernicious effects of disorder are most sensibly felt. Identity Essay! The long continuance of that state, an incident common among savage tribes, enured the people to submission; and if the chieftain possessed as much equity as prudence and valour, he became, even during peace, the arbiter of all differences, and could gradually, by a mixture of force and brand loyalty research consent, establish his authority. The benefit sensibly felt from his influence, made it be cherished by the people, at essays depletion least by the peaceable and brand research papers well disposed among them; and if his son enjoyed the same good qualities, government advanced the essay sooner to maturity and perfection; but was still in a feeble state, till the farther progress of brand research improvement procured the magistrate a revenue, and enabled him to bestow rewards on the several instruments of his administration, and to inflict punishments on the refractory° and disobedient. Before that period, each exertion of his influence must have been particular, and founded on the peculiar circumstances of the case. Angelou Essays! After it, submission was no longer a matter of choice in the bulk of the community, but was rigorously exacted by the authority of the supreme magistrate. In all governments, there is a perpetual intestine° struggle, open or secret, between Authority and Liberty ; and neither of them can ever absolutely prevail in the contest. A great sacrifice of liberty must necessarily be made in every government; yet even the authority, which confines liberty, can never, and perhaps ought never, in any constitution, to become quite entire and uncontroulable.
The sultan is master of the life and brand papers fortune of any individual; but will not be permitted to essays depletion, impose new taxes on his subjects: a French monarch can impose taxes at pleasure; but would find it dangerous to attempt the lives and fortunes of individuals. Religion also, in most countries, is commonly found to be a very intractable principle; and brand loyalty research other principles or prejudices frequently resist all the authority of the portrait essay civil magistrate; whose power, being founded on opinion, can never subvert other opinions, equally rooted with that of his title to dominion. The government, which, in common appellation, receives the appellation of [ 41 ] free, is that which admits of brand a partition of power among several members, whose united authority is no less, or is commonly greater than that of any monarch; but who, in the usual course of administration, must act by ammu velutha, general and brand research equal laws, that are previously known to all the self identity essay paper members and to all their subjects. In this sense, it must be owned,° that liberty is the perfection of civil society; but still authority must be acknowledged essential to its very existence: and in those contests, which so often take place between the one and the other, the latter may, on that account, challenge the preference. Brand Loyalty! Unless perhaps one may say (and it may be said with some reason) that a circumstance, which is essential to the existence of civil society, must always support itself, and the oval portrait essay needs be guarded with less jealousy, than one that contributes only to its perfection, which the brand research indolence of loyalty men is so apt to neglect, or their ignorance to overlook. ESSAY VI: OF THE INDEPENDENCY OF PARLIAMENTa? Political writers have established it as a maxim, that, in contriving any system of government, and fixing the several checks and controuls of the constitution, every man ought to be supposed a knave, and to have no other end, in all his actions, than private interest.
By this interest we must govern him, and, by research, means of loyalty papers it, make him, notwithstanding his insatiable avarice and ambition, co-operate to public good. Without this, say they, we shall in vain boast of the advantages of any constitution, and shall find, in the end, that we have no security for our liberties or possessions, except the good-will of our rulers; that is, we shall have no security at papers all. It is, therefore, a just political maxim, that every man must be supposed a knave: Though at the same time, it appears [ 43 ] somewhat strange, that a maxim should be true in politics, which is false in fact. But to satisfy us on this head, we may consider, that men are generally more honest in their private than in their public capacity, and will go greater lengths to brand papers, serve a party, than when their own private interest is brand loyalty papers alone concerned. Essay Questions! Honour is a great check upon mankind: But where a considerable body of men act together, this check is, in a great measure, removed; since a man is sure to be approved of by his own party, for what promotes the loyalty papers common interest; and he soon learns to despise the clamours of adversaries. Angelou Poem! To which we may add, that every court or senate is determined by the greater number of voices; so that, if self-interest influences only the majority, (as it will always dob) the whole senate follows the papers allurements of this separate interest, and acts as if it contained not one member, who had any regard to public interest and liberty. When there offers, therefore, to our censure and examination, any plan of government, real or imaginary, where the angelou essays power is distributed among several courts,° and several orders of men, we should always consider the separate interest of each court, and each order; and, if we find that, by the skilful division of power, this interest must necessarily, in its operation, concur with public, we may pronounce that government to be wise and happy. If, on the contrary, separate interest be not checked, and be not directed to the public, we ought to loyalty papers, look for nothing but faction, disorder, and tyranny from such a government. In this opinion I am justified by experience, as well as by the authority of all philosophers and politicians, both antient and modern. How much, therefore, would it have surprised such a genius as Cicero , or Tacitus , to have been told, that, in a future age, there should arise a very regular system of mixed government, where the authority was so distributed, that one rank, whenever it pleased, might swallow up all the research papers rest, and loyalty research engross the whole power of the constitution.
Such a government, they would say, will not be a mixed government. For so great is the natural ambition of men, that they are never satisfied [ 44 ] with power; and maya angelou essays if one order of men, by pursuing its own interest, can usurp upon research every other order, it will certainly do so, and render itself, as far as possible, absolute and uncontroulable. But, in ellen eischen this opinion, experience shews they would have been mistaken. For this is actually the case with the British constitution. The share of power, allotted by our constitution to the house of commons, is so great, that it absolutely commands all the other parts of the loyalty papers government. The king’s legislative power is plainly no proper check to it. For though the king has a negative in framing laws; yet this, in fact, is esteemed of so little moment, that whatever is voted by the two houses, is always sure to pass into a law, and the royal assent is little better than a form.
The principal weight of the crown lies in the executive power. But besides that the executive power in maya angelou poem essays every government is altogether subordinate to the legislative; besides this, I say, the exercise of this power requires an immense expence; and the commons have assumed to themselves the sole right of granting money. How easy, therefore, would it be for that house to wrest from the crown all these powers, one after another; by making every grant conditional, and choosing their time so well, that their refusal of supply should only distress the government, without giving foreign powers any advantage over us? Did the research house of commons depend in the same manner on the king, and had none of the members any property but from his gift, would not he command all their resolutions, and ellen be from that moment absolute? As to the house of lords, they are a very powerful support to brand, the Crown, so long as they are, in brand loyalty papers their turn, supported by it; but both experience and reason shew, that they have no force or authority sufficient to loyalty research papers, maintain themselves alone, without such support. How, therefore, shall we solve this paradox? And by what means is this member of our constitution confined within the proper limits; since, from ammu essay our very constitution, it must necessarily have as much power as it demands, and can only papers, be confined by itself? How is this consistent with our experience [ 45 ] of human nature? I answer, that the interest of the body is essay questions here restrained by brand papers, that of the individuals, and that the house of commons stretches not its power, because such an usurpation would be contrary to the interest of the majority of its members. The crown has so many offices at its disposal, that, when assisted by the honest and disinterested part of the house, it will always command the resolutions of the identity essay paper whole so far, at least, as to brand loyalty papers, preserve the antient constitution from danger.
We may, therefore, give to this influence what name we please; we may call it by the invidious appellations of corruption and dependence; but some degree and eischen some kind of brand research papers it are inseparable from the very nature of the constitution, and necessary to the preservation of our mixed government. Instead then of asserting1 absolutely, that the dependence of parliament, in every degree, is an ellen eischen thesis, infringement of British liberty, the country-party should have made some concessions to their adversaries, and have only examined what was the proper degree of this dependence, beyond which it became dangerous to liberty. But such a moderation is not to be expected in loyalty papers party-men of any kind. After a concession of this nature, all declamation must be abandoned; and a calm enquiry into the proper degree of court-influence and brand research papers parliamentary dependence would have been expected by the readers. And though the brand loyalty research advantage, in such a controversy, might possibly remain to the country-party; yet the victory would not be so compleat as they wish for, nor would a true patriot have given an entire loose to his zeal, for fear of running matters into a contrary extreme, by diminishing too2 far the papers influence [ 46 ] of the crown. It was, therefore, thought best to deny, that this extreme could ever be dangerous to brand research, the constitution, or that the crown could ever have too little influence over members of parliament. All questions concerning the proper medium between extremes are difficult to be decided; both because it is self identity essay paper not easy to find words proper to brand loyalty research, fix this medium, and because the good and brand loyalty research ill, in such cases, run so gradually into each other, as even to render our sentiments doubtful and uncertain. But there is a peculiar difficulty in the present case, which would embarrass the brand loyalty research papers most knowing and most impartial examiner. The power of the crown is always lodged in a single person, either king or minister; and as this person may have either a greater or less degree of ambition, capacity, courage, popularity, or fortune, the power, which is essays too great in one hand, may become too little in another. In pure republics, where the authority is distributed among several assemblies or senates, the checks and loyalty controuls are more regular in their operation; because the velutha members of such numerous assemblies may be presumed to be always nearly equal in capacity and virtue; and it is only their number, riches, or authority, which enter into consideration. But a limited monarchy admits not of any such stability; nor is it possible to assign to the crown such a determinate degree of power, as will, in every hand, form a proper counterbalance to the other parts of the constitution.
This is an unavoidable disadvantage, among the many advantages, attending that species of government. ESSAY VII: WHETHER THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT INCLINES MORE TO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, OR TO A REPUBLIC? It affords a violent° prejudice against almost every science, that no prudent man, however sure of his principles, dares prophesy concerning any event, or foretel the remote consequences of brand research papers things. A physician will not venture to pronounce concerning the condition of his patient a fortnight or month after: And still less dares a politician foretel the situation of public affairs a few years hence. Harrington thought himself so sure of essay his general principle, that the balance of power depends on that of property, that he ventured to pronounce it impossible ever to re-establish monarchy in brand loyalty research papers England : But his book was scarcely published when the king was restored; and we see, that monarchy has ever since subsisted upon the [ 48 ] same footing as before.1 Notwithstanding this unlucky example, I will venture to portrait, examine an important question, to wit, Whether the British government inclines more to absolute monarchy, or to a republic; and in which of these two species of government it will most probably terminate? As there seems not to be any great danger of a sudden revolution either way, I shall at loyalty research papers least escape the shame attending my temerity,° if I should be found to have been mistaken. Those who assert, that the balance of our government inclines towards absolute monarchy, may support their opinion by the following reasons. That property has a great influence on power cannot possibly be denied; but yet the general maxim, that the balance of one depends on the balance of the other, must be received with several limitations.
It is self identity essay paper evident, that much less property in a single hand will be able to counterbalance a greater property in several; not only because it is difficult to brand research, make many persons combine in the same views and measures; but because property, when united, causes much greater dependence, than the same property, when dispersed. A hundred persons, of brand loyalty papers 1000 l. Brand Research Papers! a year a-piece, can consume all their income, and essay no body shall ever be the better for them, except their servants and tradesmen, who justly regard their profits as the product of their own labour. But a man possessed of loyalty research 100,000 l. a year, if he has either any generosity or any cunning, may create a great dependence by obligations, and still a greater by expectations. Self Identity Essay! Hence we may observe, that, in all free governments, any subject exorbitantly rich has always created jealousy, even though his riches bore no proportion to [ 49 ] those of the state. Crassus’s fortune,2 if I remember well, amounted only to about two millions and a half of our money;a , b yet we find, that, though his genius was nothing extraordinary, he was able, by means of his riches alone, to counterbalance, during his lifetime, the brand research papers power of Pompey as well as that of C?sar , who afterwards became master of the world. The wealth of the Medici made them masters of ammu Florence ;3 though, it is probable, it was not considerable, compared to the united property of that opulent republic. These considerations are apt to make one entertain a magnificent idea of the British spirit and love of liberty; since we could maintain our free government, during so many centuries, against our sovereigns, who, besides the power and dignity and majesty of the crown, have always been possessed of much more property than any subject has ever enjoyed in research papers any commonwealth. But it may be said, that this spirit, however great, will never be able to support itself against that immense property, which is now lodged in the king, and which is still encreasing.
Upon a moderate computation, there are near three millions a year at the disposal of the crown. The civil list amounts to near a million; the collection of all taxes to the oval, another; and the employments in the army and navy, together with ecclesiastical preferments,° to above a third million: An enormous sum, and what may fairly be computed to be more than a thirtieth part of the whole income and labour of the kingdom. When we add to this great property, the encreasing luxury of the brand loyalty nation, our proneness to corruption, together with the great power and prerogatives of the maya angelou poem crown, and loyalty the [ 50 ] command of military force, there is no one but must despair of being able, without extraordinary efforts, to support our free government much longer under these disadvantages. On the other hand, those who maintain, that the byass° of the British government leans towards a republic, may support their opinion by specious° arguments. It may be said, that, though this immense property in portrait questions the crown, be joined to brand loyalty research papers, the dignity of brand research first magistrate, and to many other legal powers and prerogatives, which should naturally give it greater influence; yet it really becomes less dangerous to liberty upon that very account. Brand Research! Were England a republic, and were any private man possessed of a revenue, a third, or even a tenth part as large as that of the paper crown, he would very justly excite jealousy; because he would infallibly have great authority, in the government: And such an irregular authority, not avowed by the laws, is always more dangerous than a much greater authority, derived from them. A man, possessed of usurped power, can set no bounds to his pretensions:c His partizans have liberty to hope for every thing in his favour: His enemies provoke his ambition, with his fears, by the violence of their opposition: And the government being thrown into a ferment, every corrupted humour in the state naturally gathers to him.
On the contrary, a legal authority, though great, has always some bounds, which terminate both the hopes and pretensions of the person possessed of it: The laws must have provided a remedy against its excesses: Such an eminent magistrate has much to fear, and little to hope from his usurpations: And as his legal authority is quietly submitted to, he has small temptation and small opportunity of extending it farther. Besides, it happens, with regard to ambitious aims and projects, what may be observed with regard to sects of philosophy and religion. A new sect excites such a ferment, and is both opposed and defended with such vehemence, that it always spreads faster, and multiplies its partizans with greater rapidity, than any old established opinion, recommended by the sanction of the laws and of antiquity. Such is the nature of novelty, that, where any thing pleases, it becomes [ 51 ] doubly agreeable, if new; but if it displeases, it is doubly displeasing, upon that very account. And, in most cases, the violence of enemies is favourable to brand research papers, ambitious projects, as well as the essays depletion zeal of research papers partizans. It may farther be said, that, though men be much governed by interest; yet even interest itself, and all human affairs, are entirely governed by opinion. Now, there has been a sudden and sensible change in paper the opinions of brand loyalty research papers men within these last fifty years, by the progress of learning and of liberty. Most people, in this island, have divested themselves of all superstitious reverence to names and authority: The clergy have much lostd their credit: Their pretensions and doctrines have been ridiculed; and even religion can scarcely support itself in the world. The mere name of king commands little respect; and to talk of a king as GOD’s vicegerent° on earth, or to give him any of those magnificent titles, which formerly dazzled mankind, would but excite laughter in every one.
Though the crown, by means of its large revenue, may maintain its authority in times of tranquillity, upon private interest and influence; yet, as the least shock or convulsion must break all these interests to pieces, the royal power, being no longer supported by maya angelou essays, the settled principles and opinions of men, will immediately dissolve. Had men been in the same disposition at the revolution, as they are at present, monarchy would have run a great risque° of being entirely lost in this island. Durst I° venture to deliver my own sentiments amidst these opposite arguments, I would assert, that, unless there happen some extraordinary convulsion, the power of the crown, by means of its large revenue, is rather upon the encrease; though, at the same time I own, that its progress seems very slow, and almost insensible. Research Papers! The tide has run long, and with some rapidity, to essay, the side of popular government, and loyalty research papers is just beginning to turn towards monarchy. It is well known, that every government must come to the oval portrait questions, a period,° and that death is unavoidable to brand, the political as well as to the animal body. Velutha Essay! But, as one kind of death may be preferable to another, it may be enquired, whether it be more [ 52 ] desirable for the British constitution to terminate in a popular government, or in absolute monarchy? Here I would frankly declare, that, though liberty be preferable to loyalty research, slavery, in almost every case; yet I should rather wish to see an absolute monarch than a republic in this island.
For, let us consider, what kind of republic we have reason to expect. The question is not concerning any fine imaginary republic, of which a man may form a plan in his closet.° There is no doubt, but a popular government may be imagined more perfect than absolute monarchy, or even than our present constitution. But what reason have we to expect that any such government will ever be established in self paper Great Britain , upon the dissolution of our monarchy? If any single person acquire power enough to take our constitution to pieces, and put it up a-new, he is really an brand research papers, absolute monarch; and we have already had an instance of this kind, sufficient to convince us, that such a person will never resign his power, or establish any free government.4 Matters, therefore, must be trusted to their natural progress and operation; and the house of commons, according to its present constitution, must be the only legislature in poem such a popular government. The inconveniencies attending such a situation of affairs, present themselves by thousands. If the house of commons, in brand research papers such a case, ever dissolve itself, which is not to be expected, we may look for a civil war every election. If it continue itself, we shall suffer all the tyranny of a faction, subdivided into new factions.
And, as such a violent government cannot long subsist, [ 53 ] we shall, at last, after many convulsions, and civil wars, find repose in absolute monarchy, which it would have been happier for on ozone us to have established peaceably from the loyalty research papers beginning. Absolute monarchy, therefore, is the easiest death, the true Euthanasia ° of the British constitution. Thus, if we have reason to be more jealous of monarchy, because the danger is more imminent from that quarter; we have also reason to be more jealous of popular government, because that danger is more terrible. This may teach us a lesson of moderation in all our political controversies. Of all men, that distinguish themselves by memorable achievements, the first place of essays on ozone depletion honour seems due to Legislators and founders of states, who transmit a system of laws and institutions to secure the peace, happiness, and liberty of brand loyalty papers future generations. The influence of useful inventions in the arts and sciences may, perhaps, extend farther than that of wise laws, whose effects are limited both in time and loyalty research place; but the benefit arising from the former, is not so sensible as that which results from the latter. Speculative sciences do, indeed, improve the mind; but this advantage reaches only to a few persons, who have leisure to apply themselves to them. And as to brand loyalty research, practical arts, which encrease the commodities and enjoyments of life, it is ellen well known, that [ 55 ] men’s happiness consists not so much in an abundance of these, as in research papers the peace and security with which they possess them; and those blessings can only be derived from good government. Ellen Eischen! Not to mention, that general virtue and good morals in brand research a state, which are so requisite to happiness, can never arise from the most refined precepts of philosophy, or even the eischen severest injunctions of religion; but must proceed entirely from the virtuous education of youth, the effect of wise laws and loyalty research papers institutions. I must, therefore, presume to differ from Lord Bacon in this particular, and must regard antiquity as somewhat unjust in its distribution of honours, when it made gods of all the inventors of useful arts, such as Ceres , Bacchus , ?sculapius ; and dignify legislators, such as Romulus and Theseus , only identity paper, with the appellation of demigods and heroes.1.
As much as legislators and founders of states ought to be honoured and respected among men, as much ought the founders of sects and loyalty research factions to be detested and hated; because the maya poem essays influence of faction is directly contrary to that of laws. Factions subvert government, render laws impotent, and beget the brand research fiercest animosities among men of the same nation, who ought to give mutual assistance and protection to each other. And what should render the research papers founders of parties more odious is, the difficulty of brand extirpating° these weeds, when once they have taken root in any state. They naturally propagate themselves for many centuries, and seldom end but by maya angelou, the total dissolution of that government, in which they are sown. They are, besides, plants which grow most plentifully in brand the richest soil; and though absolute governments be not wholly free from them, it must be confessed, that they rise more easily, and propagate themselves faster in free governments, [ 56 ] where they always infect the legislature itself, which alone could be able, by the steady application of rewards and punishments, to eradicate them.
Factions may be divided into Personal and Real ; that is, into factions, founded on personal friendship or animosity among such as compose the contending parties, and into those founded on some real difference of sentiment or interest. The reason of this distinction is obvious; though I must acknowledge, that parties are seldom found pure and unmixed, either of the one kind or the other. It is ammu velutha not often seen, that a government divides into factions, where there is no difference in the views of the constituent members, either real or apparent, trivial or material: And in those factions, which are founded on the most real and most material difference, there is always observed a great deal of personal animosity or affection. Loyalty Papers! But notwithstanding this mixture, a party may be denominated either personal or real, according to that principle which is predominant, and is found to have the greatest influence. Personal factions arise most easily in small republics. Every domestic quarrel, there, becomes an affair of state. Love, vanity, emulation, any passion, as well as ambition and resentment, begets public division.
The Neri and Bianchi of research papers Florence , the Fregosi and Adorni of Genoa , the Colonesi and Orsini of modern Rome , were parties of this kind.2. Men have such a propensity to divide into personal factions, that the smallest appearance of real difference will produce [ 57 ] them. Brand Loyalty Research Papers! What can be imagined more trivial than the difference between one colour of livery and another in horse races? Yet this difference begat two most inveterate factions in the Greek empire, the ellen eischen Prasini and Veneti , who never suspended their animosities, till they ruined that unhappy government.3. We find in the Roman history a remarkable dissension between two tribes, the Pollia and Papiria , which continued for the space of near three hundred years, and discovered itself in their suffrages at every election of magistrates.4 [ 58 ] This faction was the more remarkable, as it could continue for so long a tract of time; even though it did not spread itself, nor draw any of the other tribes into a share of the quarrel.
If mankind had not a strong propensity to such divisions, the indifference of the rest of the community must have suppressed this foolish animosity, that had not any aliment° of loyalty research new benefits and injuries, of the oval questions general sympathy and antipathy, which never fail to take place, when the whole state is rent into two equal factions.a. Nothing is more usual than to see parties, which have begun upon a real difference, continue even after that difference is lost. When men are once inlisted on opposite sides, they contract an affection to the persons with whom they are united, and an animosity against their antagonists: And these passions they often transmit to their posterity. The real difference between Guelf and Ghibbelline was long lost in Italy , before these factions were extinguished. The Guelfs adhered to the pope, the Ghibbellines to the emperor; yet the loyalty papers family of Sforza , who were in alliance with the emperor, though they were Guelfs , being expelled Milan by the king5 of France , assisted by Jacomo Trivulzio and papers the Ghibbellines , the research papers pope concurred with the latter, and they formed leagues with the pope against the emperor.6.
The civil wars which arose some few years ago in Morocco , between the blacks and whites, merely on account of their complexion, are founded on a pleasant difference.7 We laugh at them; but I believe, were things rightly examined, we afford much more occasion of ridicule to the Moors . For, what are all the wars of religion, which have prevailed in this polite and knowing part of the world? They are certainly more absurd than the Moorish civil wars. The difference of complexion is a sensible and a real difference: But the controversy about an article of faith, which is utterly absurd and angelou poem essays unintelligible, is not a difference in sentiment, but in a few phrases and expressions, which one party accepts of, without understanding them; and papers the other refuses in ellen thesis the same manner.c. Real factions may be divided into those from interest, from brand loyalty principle, and eischen from affection. Research Papers! Of all factions, the maya first are the most reasonable, and the most excusable. Where two orders of men, such as the nobles and people, have a distinct authority in a government, not very accurately balanced and modelled, they naturally follow a distinct interest; nor can we reasonably expect a different conduct, considering that degree of selfishness implanted in human nature. It requires great skill in a legislator to prevent such parties; and many philosophers are of opinion, that this secret, like the brand loyalty research papers grand elixir, or perpetual motion, may amuse men in theory, but can never possibly be reduced to practice.8 In despotic governments, indeed, factions [ 60 ] often do not appear; but they are not the less real; or rather, they are more real and more pernicious, upon that very account. Self Identity Essay Paper! The distinct orders of men, nobles and people, soldiers and papers merchants, have all a distinct interest; but the more powerful oppresses the weaker with impunity, and the oval essay without resistance; which begets a seeming tranquillity in brand research papers such governments.d. There has been an attempt in England to divide the landed and trading part of the nation; but without success.
The interests of ellen eischen thesis these two bodies are not really distinct, and brand loyalty research never will be so, till our public debts encrease to maya angelou essays, such a degree, as to become altogether oppressive and intolerable. Parties from principle, especially abstract speculative principle, are known only to modern times, and are, perhaps, the most extraordinary and unaccountable ph?nomenon, that has yet appeared in human affairs. Where different principles beget a contrariety° of conduct, which is the loyalty case with all different political principles, the matter may be more easily explained. A man, who esteems the true right of government to lie in one man, or one family, cannot easily agree with his fellow-citizen, who thinks that another man or family is possessed of this right. Each naturally wishes that right may take place, according to his own notions of it.
But where the poem difference of principle is attended with no contrariety of papers action, but every one may follow his own way, without interfering with his neighbour, as happens in essays depletion all religious controversies; what madness, what fury can beget such unhappy and such fatal divisions? Two men travelling on the highway, the one east, the other west, can easily pass each other, if the research papers way be broad enough: But two men, reasoning upon opposite principles of religion, cannot so easily pass, without shocking; though one should think, that the way were also, in that case, sufficiently broad, and essays on ozone that each might proceed, without interruption, in his own course. But such is the nature of the human mind, that it always lays hold on every mind that approaches it; and as it is wonderfully fortified by an unanimity of sentiments, so is [ 61 ] it shocked and disturbed by any contrariety. Hence the eagerness, which most people discover° in a dispute; and hence their impatience of opposition, even in the most speculative and indifferent opinions. This principle, however frivolous it may appear, seems to have been the papers origin of self identity essay all religious wars and divisions.
But as this principle is universal in human nature, its effects would not have been confined to one age, and to one sect of religion, did it not there concur with other more accidental causes, which raise it to such a height, as to produce the greatest misery and devastation. Most religions of the ancient world arose in the unknown ages of government, when men were as yet barbarous and uninstructed, and the prince, as well as peasant, was disposed to receive, with implicit faith, every pious tale or fiction, which was offered him. The magistrate embraced the religion of the people, and entering cordially into the care of brand loyalty papers sacred matters, naturally acquired an essay questions, authority in them, and united the brand research papers ecclesiastical with the civil power. But the Christian religion arising, while principles directly opposite to it were firmly established in the polite part of the world, who despised the nation that first broached this novelty; no wonder, that, in such circumstances, it was but little countenanced by the civil magistrate, and essays on ozone that the priesthood was allowed to engross all the authority in research the new sect. So bad a use did they make of this power, even in those early times, that the the oval essay primitive persecutions may, perhaps, in part, 9 be [ 62 ] ascribed to the violence instilled by them into their followers. And the loyalty same principles of priestly government continuing, after Christianity became the established religion, they have engendered a spirit of persecution, which has ever since been the poison of human society, and the source of the most inveterate factions in every government. Such divisions, therefore, on the part of the people, may justly be esteemed factions of principle; but, on the part of the priests, who are the prime movers, they are really factions of interest. There is another cause (beside the authority of the priests, and the separation of the ecclesiastical and civil powers) which has contributed to eischen, render Christendom ° the scene of religious wars and divisions.
Religions, that arise in ages totally ignorant and barbarous, consist mostly of traditional tales and fictions, which may be different in every sect, without being contrary to each other; and even when they are contrary, every one adheres to the tradition of his own sect, without much reasoning or disputation. But as philosophy was widely spread over the world, at the time when Christianity arose, the teachers of the new sect were obliged to loyalty research, form a system of on ozone speculative opinions; to divide, with some accuracy, their articles of faith; and to explain, comment, confute, and defend with all the subtilty of argument and science. Hence naturally arose keenness in dispute, when the Christian religion came to be [ 63 ] split into new divisions and heresies: And this keenness assisted the priests in their policy, of begetting a mutual hatred and research antipathy among their deluded followers. Sects of philosophy, in the ancient world, were more zealous than parties of religion; but in modern times, parties of angelou religion are more furious and enraged than the most cruel factions that ever arose from brand research papers interest and ambition. I have mentioned parties from affection as a kind of real parties, beside those from interest and principle. By parties from affection, I understand those which are founded on the different attachments of men towards particular families and persons, whom they desire to rule over them. These factions are often very violent; though, I must own, it may seem unaccountable, that men should attach themselves so strongly to persons, with whom they are no wise acquainted, whom perhaps they never saw, and from whom they never received, nor can ever hope for any favour. Yet this we often find to be the case, and even with men, who, on other occasions, discover no great generosity of spirit, nor are found to be easily transported by friendship beyond their own interest. We are apt to research, think the relation between us and our sovereign very close and intimate. The splendour of majesty and power bestows an importance on the fortunes even of a single person. Loyalty Papers! And when a man’s good-nature does not give him this imaginary interest, his ill-nature will, from spite and opposition to persons whose sentiments are different from his own.
ESSAY IX: OF THE PARTIES OF GREAT BRITAIN? Were the British government proposed as a subject of speculation, one would immediately perceive in the oval questions it a source of division and party, which it would be almost impossible for it, under any administration, to avoid. The just balance between the brand loyalty papers republican and monarchical part of our constitution is really, in itself, so extremely delicate and uncertain, that, when joined to self identity, men’s passions and prejudices, it is brand loyalty impossible but different opinions must arise concerning it, even among persons of the best understanding. Velutha! Those of mild tempers, who love peace and order, and detest sedition and civil wars, will always entertain more favourable sentiments of monarchy, than men of bold and generous° spirits, who are passionate lovers of liberty, and think no evil comparable to [ 65 ] subjection and slavery. And though all reasonable men agree in general to preserve our mixed government; yet, when they come to brand loyalty research, particulars, some will incline to trust greater powers to the crown, to bestow on it more influence, and to guard against its encroachments with less caution, than others who are terrified at essays on ozone the most distant approaches of tyranny and despotic power. Thus are there parties of Principle involved in the very nature of our constitution, which may properly enough be denominated those of Court and Country .a The strength and violence of research papers each of eischen thesis these parties will much depend upon the particular administration. Brand Papers! An administration may be so bad, as to throw a great majority into the oval portrait questions, the opposition; as a good administration will reconcile to the court many of the most passionate lovers of liberty. But however the nation may fluctuate between them, the parties themselves will always subsist, so long as we are governed by a limited monarchy. But, besides this difference of Principle, those parties are very much fomented by a difference of Interest , without which they could scarcely ever be dangerous or violent. The crown will naturally bestow all trust and power upon those, whose principles, real or pretended, are most favourable to brand papers, monarchical government; and this temptation will naturally engage them to go greater lengths than their principles would otherwise carry them.
Their antagonists, who are disappointed in their ambitious aims, throw themselves into the party whose sentiments incline them to be most jealous of royal power, and naturally carry those sentiments to a greater height than sound politics will justify. Thus Court and Country, which are the genuine offspring of the British government, are a kind of mixed parties, and essay are influenced both by principle and by interest. Research Papers! The heads of the factions are commonly most governed by the latter motive; the inferior members of them by the former.b. As to ecclesiastical parties; we may observe, that, in brand research papers all ages of the world, priests have been enemies to liberty;c and brand it is certain, that this steady conduct of theirs must have been founded on fixed reasons of interest and ambition. Liberty of [ 66 ] thinking, and of expressing our thoughts, is always fatal to priestly power, and to those pious frauds, on which it is commonly founded; and, by an infallible connexion, which prevails among all kinds of liberty, this privilege can never be enjoyed, at least has never yet been enjoyed, but in brand loyalty a free government. Hence it must happen, in such a constitution as that of Great Britain , that the established clergy, while things are in their natural situation, will always be of the Court -party; as, on the contrary, dissenters of all kinds will be of the Country -party; since they can never hope for that toleration, which they stand in need of, but by means of our free government. Loyalty Research! All princes, that have aimed at despotic power, have known of what importance it was to gain the established clergy: As the clergy, on their part, have shewn a great facility in entering into the views of such princes.1 Gustavus Vaza was, perhaps, the only ambitious monarch, that ever depressed the church, at the same time that he discouraged liberty. But the ellen thesis exorbitant power of the papers bishops in Sweden , who, at that time, overtopped the crown itself, together with their attachment to a foreign family, was the reason of his embracing such an ellen eischen thesis, unusual system of politics.2. This observation, concerning the propensity of priests to the government of a single person, is not true with regard to research papers, one sect only.
The Presbyterian and Calvinistic clergy in the oval portrait questions Holland were professed friends to the family of Orange ; as the Arminians, who were esteemed heretics, were of the Louvestein faction, and zealous for liberty.3 But if a prince have the choice of both, it is easy to see, that he will prefer the episcopal to the presbyterian form of brand government, both because of the essays depletion greater affinity between monarchy and episcopacy, and because of the facility, which he will find, in such a government, of ruling the clergy, by means of their ecclesiastical superiors.4. If we consider the first rise of parties in England , during the great rebellion,5 we shall observe, that it was conformable to this general theory, and that the species of government gave birth to them, by brand papers, a regular and poem infallible operation. Loyalty Research Papers! The English constitution, before that period, had lain in a kind of essay confusion; yet so, as that the subjects possessed many noble privileges, which, though not exactly bounded and secured by [ 68 ] law, were universally deemed, from long possession, to belong to research, them as their birth-right. An ambitious, or rather a misguided, prince arose, who deemed all these privileges to be concessions of his predecessors, revokeable at pleasure; and, in brand loyalty research papers prosecution of this principle, he openly acted in loyalty research violation of on ozone depletion liberty, during the course of loyalty research papers several years. Necessity, at last, constrained him to call a parliament: The spirit of liberty arose and spread itself: The prince, being without any support, was obliged to essay questions, grant every thing required of him: And his enemies, jealous and loyalty papers implacable, set no bounds to their pretensions.6 Here then began those contests, in which it was no wonder, that men of that age were divided into different parties; since, even at this day, the impartial are at a loss to decide concerning the justice of the quarrel. The pretensions of the parliament, if yielded to, broke the balance of the essay constitution, by research, rendering the government almost entirely republican. Ammu Essay! If not yielded to, the nation was, perhaps, still in danger of absolute power, from the settled principles and inveterate habits of the brand king, which had plainly appeared in every concession that he had been constrained to make to ammu essay, his people. Brand! In this question, so delicate and uncertain, men naturally fell to the side which was most conformable to thesis, their usual principles; and the more passionate favourers of papers monarchy declared for the king, as the zealous friends of papers liberty sided with the parliament. The hopes of success being nearly equal on both sides, interest had no general influence in this contest: So that Round-head and papers Cavalier were merely parties of principle;7 neither of [ 69 ] which disowned either monarchy or liberty; but the former party inclined most to the republican part of our government, the latter to the monarchical. In this respect, they may be considered as court and country-party, enflamed into a civil war, by loyalty research papers, an unhappy concurrence of circumstances, and by the turbulent spirit of the age. Brand Research! The commonwealth’s men, and the partizans of the oval questions absolute power, lay concealed in both parties, and formed but an inconsiderable part of brand loyalty papers them.
The clergy had concurred with the king’s arbitrary designs; and, in return, were allowed to persecute their adversaries, whom they called heretics and schismatics. The established clergy were episcopal; the non-conformists presbyterian: So that all things concurred to throw the former, without reserve, into the king’s party; and the latter into that of the parliament.f. Every one knows the event of this quarrel; fatal to the king first, to the parliament afterwards. After many confusions and revolutions, the royal family was at last restored, and the ancient government re-established.8 Charles II. Essays Depletion! was not made wiser by the example of his father; but prosecuted the same measures, though at first, with more secrecy and caution. New parties arose, under the appellation of Whig and Tory, which have continued ever since to confound and brand distract our government.9 To determine the nature of these parties is, perhaps, one of the most difficult problems, that can be met with, and is a proof that history may contain questions, as uncertain as any to essays depletion, be found in the most abstract sciences. We have seen the conduct of the brand loyalty two parties, during the course of seventy [ 70 ] years, in a vast variety of maya angelou poem circumstances, possessed of power, and deprived of it, during peace, and brand loyalty papers during war: Persons, who profess themselves of one side or other, we meet with every hour, in company, in our pleasures, in our serious occupations: We ourselves are constrained, in a manner, to take party; and living in a country of the highest liberty, every one may openly declare all his sentiments and opinions: Yet are we at a loss to tell the nature, pretensions, and principles of the different factions.g. When we compare the brand parties of Whig and Tory with those of Round-head and Cavalier , the most obvious difference, that appears between them, consists in the principles of passive obedience, and indefeasible right, which were but little heard of among the Cavaliers , but became the research universal doctrine, and were esteemed the true characteristic of a Tory . Thesis! Were these principles pushed into their most obvious consequences, they imply a formal renunciation of all our liberties, and an avowal of absolute monarchy; since nothing can be a greater absurdity than a limited power, which must not be resisted, even when it exceeds its limitations. But as the most rational principles are often but a weak counterpoise° to passion; it is no wonder that these absurd principlesh were found too weak for that effect. The Tories , as men, were enemies to oppression; and also as Englishmen , they were enemies to arbitrary power.
Their zeal for brand loyalty liberty, was, perhaps, less fervent than that of their antagonists; but was sufficient to make them forget all their general principles, when they saw themselves openly threatened with a subversion of the ancient government. From these sentiments arose the velutha revolution; 10 an event of brand research papers mighty consequence, and the firmest foundation of British liberty. The conduct of the Tories , during that event, and after it, will afford us a true insight into the nature of that party. In the first place, they appear to have had the genuine sentiments of Britons in their affection for liberty, and in [ 71 ] their determined resolution not to the oval portrait essay, sacrifice it to any abstract principle whatsoever, or to any imaginary rights of princes. This part of their character might justly have been doubted of before the revolution, from the obvious tendency of brand papers their avowed principles, and from theiri compliances with a court, which seemed to make little secret of its arbitrary designs.
The revolution shewed them to have been, in this respect, nothing, but a genuine court-party, such as might be expected in a British government: That is, Lovers of liberty, but greater lovers of monarchy. It must, however, be confessed, that they carried their monarchical principles farther, even in practice, but more so in theory, than was, in the oval portrait questions any degree, consistent with a limited government. Secondly, Neither their principles nor affections concurred, entirely or heartily, with the settlement made at the revolution, or with that which has since taken place. This part of their character may seem opposite to the former; since any other settlement, in those circumstances of the nation, must probably have been dangerous, if not fatal to liberty. But the loyalty research papers heart of man is made to reconcile contradictions; and this contradiction is brand loyalty papers not greater than that between passive obedience, and the resistance employed at the revolution. Loyalty Research! A Tory , therefore, since the revolution, may be defined in a few words, to be a lover of monarchy, though without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the family of essay Stuart . As a Whig may be defined to be a lover of liberty though without renouncing monarchy; and a friend to the settlement in the Protestant line. j. These different views, with regard to the settlement of the crown, were accidental, but natural additions to loyalty, the principles of the court and country parties, which are the genuine divisions in the British government.
A passionate lover of monarchy is apt to be displeased at essays depletion any change of the succession; as savouring too much of a commonwealth: A passionate lover of liberty is apt to think that every part of the government ought to loyalty papers, be subordinate to the interests of liberty. Some, who will not venture to assert, that the real difference between Whig and Tory was lost at the oval portrait essay the revolution, [ 72 ] seem inclined to think, that the difference is now abolished, and that affairs are so far returned to their natural state, that there are at present no other parties among us but court and country; that is, men, who, by interest or principle, are attached either to monarchy or liberty. The Tories have been so long obliged to talk in the republican stile, that they seem to have made converts of themselves by research, their hypocrisy, and to depletion, have embraced the sentiments, as well as language of their adversaries. There are, however, very considerable remains of brand loyalty research papers that party in England , with all their old prejudices; and a proof that court and country are not our only parties, is, that almost all the dissenters side with the court, and the lower clergy, at least, of the church of England , with the maya essays opposition. Brand Research! This may convince us, that some biass still hangs upon our constitution, some extrinsic weight, which turns it from its natural course, and causes a confusion in eischen our parties.
ESSAY XVI: IDEA OF A PERFECT COMMONWEALTH? It is not with forms of government, as with other artificial contrivances; where an old engine may be rejected, if we can discover another more accurate and commodious, or where trials may safely be made, even though the success be doubtful. Loyalty Research Papers! An established government has an essay, infinite advantage, by that very circumstance of loyalty research papers its being established; the brand loyalty bulk of mankind being governed by brand loyalty papers, authority, not reason, and never attributing authority to essays, any thing that has not the recommendation of antiquity. To tamper, therefore, in this affair, or try experiments merely upon the credit of supposed argument and loyalty research papers philosophy, can never be the part of a wise magistrate, who will bear a reverence to what carries the marks of age; and though he may attempt some improvements for the public [ 513 ] good, yet will he adjust his innovations, as much as possible, to maya poem, the ancient fabric, and preserve entire the chief pillars and supports of the constitution. The mathematicians in Europe have been much divided concerning that figure of a ship, which is the most commodious for sailing; and Huygens ,1 who at loyalty research last determined the controversy, is justly thought to thesis, have obliged the learned, as well as commercial world; though Columbus had sailed to America , and Sir Francis Drake made the tour of the world,2 without any such discovery. As one form of government must be allowed more perfect than another, independent of the manners and research humours of particular men; why may we not enquire what is the most perfect of all, though the common botched and inaccurate governments seem to serve the purposes of society, and self identity essay though it be not so easy to establish a new system of loyalty government, as to build a vessel upon a new construction? The subject is surely the most worthy curiosity of any the wit of man can possibly devise. And who knows, if this controversy were fixed by the universal consent of the wise and learned, but, in some future age, an opportunity might be afforded of reducing the theory to practice, either by a dissolution of some old government, or by the combination of men to form a new one, in some distant part of the world? In all cases, it must be advantageous to know what is most perfect in the kind, that we may be able to bring any real constitution or form of government as near it as possible, [ 514 ] by such gentle alterations and velutha innovations as may not give too great disturbance to loyalty papers, society.
All I pretend to in the questions present essay is to revive this subject of speculation; and therefore I shall deliver my sentiments in as few words as possible. A long dissertation on that head would not, I apprehend, be very acceptable to the public, who will be apt to regard such disquisitions both as useless and chimerical. All plans of government, which suppose great reformation in the manners of mankind, are plainly imaginary. Of this nature, are the Republic of Plato , and the Utopia of Sir Thomas More .3 The Oceana is the loyalty research only valuable model of a commonwealth, that has yet been offered to the public.4. The chief defects of the Oceana seem to brand papers, be these. First, Its rotation is inconvenient, by throwing men, of whatever abilities, by research, intervals, out of public employments. Secondly, Its Agrarian is portrait essay questions impracticable. Men will soon learn the art, which was practised in ancient Rome , of concealing their possessions under other people’s name; till at loyalty papers last, the abuse will become so common, that they will throw off even the appearance of restraint.
Thirdly, The Oceana provides not a sufficient security for liberty, or the redress of ammu velutha essay grievances. The senate must propose, and the people consent; by which means, the senate have not only loyalty papers, a negative upon the people, but, what is of much greater consequence, their negative goes before the votes of the people. Were the ammu velutha King’s negative of the same nature in the English constitution, and could he prevent any bill from coming into parliament, he would be an absolute monarch. As his negative follows the votes of the houses, it is of little consequence: Such a difference is there in the manner of placing the same thing. Brand Loyalty Research! When a popular bill has been debated in parliament, is brought to maturity, all its conveniencies and inconveniencies, weighed and eischen thesis balanced; if afterwards it be presented for the royal assent, few princes will venture to reject the unanimous desire of the brand research papers people. But could the King crush a disagreeable bill in embryo (as was the case, for some time, in the Scottish parliament, by means of the the oval portrait essay lords of the articles5), the British government would have no balance, nor would grievances ever be redressed: And it is certain, that exorbitant power proceeds not, in any government, [ 516 ] from new laws, so much as from neglecting to remedy the abuses, which frequently rise from the old ones. A government, says Machiavel , must often be brought back to its original principles.6 It appears then, that, in the Oceana , the whole legislature may be said to rest in the senate; which Harrington would own to be an inconvenient form of government, especially after the brand loyalty Agrarian is abolished. Here is a form of government, to the oval questions, which I cannot, in theory, discover any considerable objection.
aLet Great Britain and Ireland , or any territory of equal extent, be divided into loyalty research, 100 counties, and ellen each county into 100 parishes, making in all 10,000. If the country, proposed to be erected into loyalty, a commonwealth be of more narrow extent, we may diminish the number of counties; but never bring them below thirty. If it be of on ozone greater extent, it were better to papers, enlarge the the oval essay parishes, or throw more parishes into a county, than encrease the number of counties. bLet all the freeholders of twenty pounds a-year in the county, and all the householders worth 500 pounds in the town parishes, meet annually in the parish church, and chuse, by ballot, some freeholder of the county for their member, whom we shall call the county representative. Let the 100 county representatives, two days after their election, meet in the county town, and chuse by ballot, from their own body, ten county magistrates, and one senator. There are, therefore, in the whole commonwealth, 100 senators, 1100 county magistrates, and 10,000 county representatives. For we shall bestow on all senators the authority of county magistrates, and on all county magistrates the research papers authority of county representatives. Let the the oval essay questions senators meet in the capital, and be endowed with the whole executive power of the commonwealth; the power of peace and war, of research papers giving orders to generals, admirals, and velutha [ 517 ] ambassadors, and, in short, all the prerogatives of a British King, except his negative. Let the county representatives meet in their particular counties, and possess the loyalty research papers whole legislative power of the commonwealth; the greater number of counties deciding the ammu essay question; and where these are equal, let the senate have the casting° vote.
Every new law must first be debated in the senate; and though rejected by it, if ten senators insist and protest, it must be sent down to the counties. The senate, if they please, may join to brand loyalty research, the copy of the law their reasons for receiving or rejecting it. Because it would be troublesome to assemble all the county representatives for every trivial law, that may be requisite, the essay senate have their choice of brand research papers sending down the brand loyalty research law either to brand research, the county magistrates or county representatives. The magistrates, though the law be referred to them, may, if they please, call the representatives, and submit the affair to their determination. Whether the self law be referred by brand papers, the senate to the county magistrates or representatives, a copy of it, and of the senate’s reasons, must be sent to angelou poem, every representative eight days before the papers day appointed for poem essays the assembling, in order to deliberate concerning it. And though the determination be, by the senate, referred to the magistrates, if five representatives of the county order the magistrates to assemble the whole court of representatives, and submit the affair to research, their determination, they must obey. Either the county magistrates or representatives may give, to depletion, the senator of the county, the copy of a law to research, be proposed to ammu velutha essay, the senate; and research papers if five counties concur in the same order, the law, though refused by the senate, must come either to the county magistrates or representatives, as is contained in the order of the five counties. Any twenty counties, by a vote either of their magistrates or representatives, may throw any man out of all public offices for eischen thesis a year.
Thirty counties for three years. The senate has a power of loyalty research throwing out any member or number of members of its own body, not to be re-elected for that year. Maya Angelou Poem! The senate cannot throw out twice in brand papers a year the senator of the same county. The power of the old senate continues for three weeks after the on ozone depletion annual election of the county representatives. Then all the new senators are shut up in a conclave, like the cardinals; and by an intricate ballot, such as that of Venice 7 or Malta , they chuse the following magistrates; a protector, who represents the dignity of the brand research papers commonwealth, and presides in the senate; two secretaries of state; these six councils, a council of state, a council of religion and learning, a council of trade, a council of laws, a council of depletion war, a council of the admiralty, each council consisting of five persons; together with six commissioners of the treasury and research a first commissioner. All these must be senators. The senate also names [ 519 ] all the ambassadors to foreign courts, who may either be senators or not.
The senate may continue any or all of these, but must re-elect them every year. The protector and two secretaries have session° and suffrage in the council of state. The business of that council is all foreign politics. Ellen Thesis! The council of brand research papers state has session and suffrage in all the other councils. The council of religion and learning inspects the universities and depletion clergy. That of trade inspects every thing that may affect commerce.
That of laws inspects all the abuses of research papers law by the inferior magistrates, and examines what improvements may be made of the municipal law. Ammu! That of loyalty research papers war inspects the militia and its discipline, magazines, stores, c. and when the republic is in maya angelou essays war, examines into brand loyalty, the proper orders for ellen generals. The council of admiralty has the same power with regard to the navy, together with the brand papers nomination of the captains and all inferior officers. None of these councils can give orders themselves, except where they receive such powers from the senate. In other cases, they must communicate every thing to ammu essay, the senate. When the senate is under adjournment, any of the councils may assemble it before the day appointed for its meeting. Besides these councils or courts, there is another called the court of competitors; which is thus constituted. If any candidates for the office of senator have more votes than a third of the representatives, that candidate, who has most votes, next to brand loyalty research, the senator elected, becomes incapable for one year of identity essay paper all public offices, even of being a magistrate or representative: But he takes his seat in the court of competitors. Brand Research! Here then is a court which may sometimes consist of a hundred members, sometimes have no members at all; and by that means, be for ellen eischen a year abolished. The court of competitors has no power in research the commonwealth. It has only the inspection of public accounts, and the accusing of any man before the velutha senate.
If the research papers senate acquit him, the angelou poem essays court of competitors may, if they please, appeal to [ 520 ] the people, either magistrates or representatives. Upon that appeal, the magistrates or representatives meet on the day appointed by the court of competitors, and chuse in each county three persons; from which number every senator is excluded. These, to the number of 300, meet in the capital, and bring the person accused to a new trial. The court of research competitors may propose any law to the senate; and if refused, may appeal to the oval portrait, the people, that is, to brand, the magistrates or representatives, who examine it in their counties. Every senator, who is thrown out of the senate by a vote of the court, takes his seat in the court of competitors. The senate possesses all the judicative authority of the house of Lords, that is, all the appeals from the eischen inferior courts. It likewise appoints the Lord Chancellor, and all the officers of the law. Every county is a kind of republic within itself, and the representatives may make bye-laws; which have no authority ’till three months after they are voted. A copy of the brand papers law is sent to the senate, and to every other county.
The senate, or any single county, may, at any time, annul any bye-law of another county. The representatives have all the authority of the British justices of peace in trials, commitments, c. The magistrates have the appointment of all the the oval portrait essay questions officers of the revenue in brand papers each county. All causes with regard to the revenue are carried ultimately by appeal before the magistrates. They pass the self accompts of all the officers; but must have their own accompts examined and passed at the end of the year by the representatives. The magistrates name rectors or ministers to all the loyalty parishes. The Presbyterian government is established; and the highest ecclesiastical court is an assembly or synod of all the presbyters of the county.
The magistrates may take any cause from this court, and determine it themselves. The magistrates may try, and depose or suspend any presbyter. The militia is established in imitation of that of Swisserland , [ 521 ] which being well known, we shall not insist upon it.8 It will only be proper to make this addition, that an army of 20,000 men be annually drawn out by poem, rotation, paid and brand loyalty papers encamped during six weeks in summer; that the duty of a camp may not be altogether unknown. The magistrates appoint all the colonels and downwards. The senate all upwards.
During war, the general appoints the the oval portrait essay colonel and research downwards, and his commission is good for a twelvemonth. But after that, it must be confirmed by the magistrates of the county, to which the regiment belongs. Essays On Ozone! The magistrates may break° any officer in the county regiment. And the senate may do the same to any officer in the service. If the brand loyalty research magistrates do not think proper to ammu, confirm the general’s choice, they may appoint another officer in the place of him they reject. All crimes are tried within the brand research county by the magistrates and a jury. Essays On Ozone! But the senate can stop any trial, and bring it before themselves.
Any county may indict any man before the senate for any crime. The protector, the two secretaries, the council of state, with any five or more that the senate appoints, are possessed, on extraordinary emergencies, of dictatorial power for loyalty research six months. The protector may pardon any person condemned by the inferior courts. In time of war, no officer of the army that is in the field can have any civil office in the commonwealth. The capital, which we shall call London , may be allowed [ 522 ] four members in essay the senate.
It may therefore be divided into four counties. The representatives of each of these chuse one senator, and brand research papers ten magistrates. There are therefore in the city four senators, forty-four magistrates, and four hundred representatives. The magistrates have the same authority as in the counties. Depletion! The representatives also have the loyalty papers same authority; but they never meet in one general court: They give their votes in ammu their particular county, or division of hundreds. When they enact any bye-law, the greater number of counties or divisions determines the matter. And where these are equal, the magistrates have the casting vote.
The magistrates chuse the mayor, sheriff, recorder, and other officers of the city. In the brand research commonwealth, no representative, magistrate, or senator, as such, has any salary. The protector, secretaries, councils, and ambassadors, have salaries. The first year in every century is set apart for correcting all inequalities, which time may have produced in the representative. This must be done by maya angelou poem essays, the legislature. The following political aphorisms° may explain the reason of these orders. The lower sort of people and small proprietors are good judges enough of research papers one not very distant from them in rank or habitation; and therefore, in their parochial meetings, will probably chuse the best, or nearly the best representative: But they are wholly unfit for the oval county-meetings, and for electing into research, the higher offices of the republic. Their ignorance gives the grandees an essays, opportunity of brand loyalty research deceiving them. Ten thousand, even though they were not annually elected, are a basis large enough for portrait any free government.
It is true, the nobles in Poland are more than 10,000, and brand research papers yet these oppress the loyalty people. But as power always continues there in the same persons and families, this makes them, in a manner, a different nation from the people. Besides the nobles are there united under a few heads of brand papers families. All free governments must consist of the oval portrait questions two councils, a lesser and greater; or, in other words, of a senate and people. The [ 523 ] people, as Harrington observes, would want wisdom, without the senate: The senate, without the people, would want honesty. A large assembly of 1000, for instance, to represent the people, if allowed to debate, would fall into disorder. If not allowed to debate, the senate has a negative upon them, and the worst kind of negative, that before resolution. Here therefore is an inconvenience, which no government has yet fully remedied, but which is the easiest to be remedied in the world. If the brand papers people debate, all is confusion: If they do not debate, they can only resolve; and then the identity senate carves for them. Divide the people into many separate bodies; and then they may debate with safety, and every inconvenience seems to be prevented. Cardinal de Retz says, that all numerous assemblies, however composed, are mere mob, and swayed in their debates by the least motive.9 This we find confirmed by daily experience.
When an absurdity strikes a member, he conveys it to his neighbour, and loyalty research so on, till the the oval portrait whole be infected. Separate this great body; and though every member be only of middling sense, it is not probable, that any thing but reason can prevail over loyalty research papers, the whole. Influence and example being removed, good sense will always get the better of bad among a number of people.c. There are two things to be guarded against in every senate: Its combination, and ammu essay its division. Its combination is most dangerous. And against this inconvenience we have provided the following remedies. 1. Loyalty! The great dependence of the loyalty senators on brand research papers the people by annual elections; and that not by self identity, an undistinguishing [ 524 ] rabble, like the English electors, but by men of fortune and education. 2. The small power they are allowed. They have few offices to dispose of.
Almost all are given by the magistrates in the counties. 3. The court of research competitors, which being composed of on ozone men that are their rivals, next to them in interest, and uneasy in their present situation, will be sure to take all advantages against them. The division of the senate is loyalty research prevented, 1. By the smallness of their number. 2. As faction supposes a combination in a separate interest, it is prevented by their dependence on the people. 3. They have a power of expelling any factious member.
It is true, when another member of the same spirit comes from the county, they have no power of expelling him: Nor is it fit they should; for that shows the humour to be in the people, and may possibly arise from some ill conduct in public affairs. 4. Ammu Essay! Almost any man, in a senate so regularly chosen by loyalty research, the people, may be supposed fit for identity paper any civil office. Brand Loyalty Research! It would be proper, therefore, for the senate to form some general resolutions with regard to the disposing of offices among the members: Which resolutions would not confine them in critical times, when extraordinary parts on the one hand, or extraordinary stupidity on the other, appears in any senator; but they would be sufficient to preventd intrigue and faction, by making the disposal of the offices a thing of course. For instance, let it be a resolution, That no man shall enjoy any office, till he has sat four years in the senate: That, except ambassadors, no man shall be in office two years following: That no man shall attain the higher offices but through the lower: That no man shall be protector twice, c. The senate of Venice govern themselves by such resolutions. In foreign politics the interest of the senate can scarcely ever be divided from thesis that of the people; and therefore it is fit to make the senate absolute with regard to them; otherwise there could be no secrecy or refined policy. Besides, without money no alliance can be executed; and the senate is still sufficiently dependant. Not to mention, that the legislative power being always superior to the executive, the magistrates or representatives may interpose whenever they think proper. The chief support of the British government is the opposition of brand interests; but that, though in the main serviceable, breeds endless factions. Self Essay Paper! In the foregoing plan, it does all the good without any of the harm. The competitors have no power of controlling the senate: They have only the brand loyalty research power of accusing, and appealing to the people. It is necessary, likewise, to prevent both combination and division in the thousand magistrates.
This is done sufficiently by the separation of places and depletion interests. But lest that should not be sufficient, their dependence on the 10,000 for their elections, serves to the same purpose. Nor is that all: For the 10,000 may resume the power whenever they please; and not only when they all please, but when any five of brand a hundred please, which will happen upon essays depletion the very first suspicion of a separate interest. The 10,000 are too large a body either to unite or divide, except when they meet in one place, and fall under the brand research papers guidance of ambitious leaders. Not to mention their annual election,e by the whole body of the self essay paper people, that are of brand research papers any consideration. A small commonwealth is the happiest government in the world within itself, because every thing lies under the eye of the rulers: But it may be subdued by eischen thesis, great force from without. This scheme seems to have all the advantages both of a great and a little commonwealth. Every county-law may be annulled either by the senate or another county; because that shows an opposition of papers interest: In which case no part ought to decide for itself. The matter must be referred to the whole, which will best determine what agrees with general interest. As to the clergy and militia, the reasons of these orders are obvious. Without the dependence of the the oval portrait questions clergy on the civil magistrates, and without a militia, it is in vain to think that any free government will ever have security or stability.
In many governments, the brand loyalty inferior magistrates have no rewards but what arise from their ambition, vanity, or public spirit. The salaries of the French judges amount not to the interest of the sums they pay for their offices. The Dutch [ 526 ] burgo-masters have little more immediate profit than the English justices of ammu velutha essay peace, or the members of the house of loyalty research commons formerly. But lest any should suspect, that this would beget negligence in the administration (which is essays on ozone depletion little to be feared, considering the natural ambition of mankind), let the loyalty research magistrates have competent salaries. The senators have access to so many honourable and lucrative offices, that their attendance needs not be bought. There is little attendance required of the representatives. That the foregoing plan of government is practicable, no one can doubt, who considers the resemblance that it bears to the commonwealth of the United Provinces,f a wise and renowned government. The alterations in essays depletion the present scheme seem all evidently for the better. Loyalty Research Papers! 1. The representation is more equal.
2. The unlimited power of the burgo-masters in angelou poem essays the towns, which forms a perfect aristocracy in the Dutch commonwealth, is corrected by a well-tempered democracy, in giving to the people the papers annual election of the county representatives. Essays On Ozone Depletion! 3. The negative, which every province and town has upon the whole body of the Dutch republic, with regard to alliances, peace and war, and the imposition of taxes, is here removed. 4. The counties, in the present plan, are not so independent of each other, nor do they form separate bodies so much as the seven provinces; where the jealousy and envy of the smaller provinces and towns against the greater, particularly Holland and Amsterdam , have frequently disturbed the government. 5. Brand Research Papers! Larger powers, though of the safest kind, are intrusted to ellen, the senate than the research papers States-General possess; by which means, the former may become more expeditious, and secret in their resolutions, than it is possible for the latter. The chief alterations that could be made on the British government, in order to bring it to the most perfect model of limited monarchy, seem to be the eischen thesis following. First, The plan of g Cromwell’s parliament ought to be restored, by making the representation equal, and by allowing none to vote in the county elections who possess noth a property of 200 pounds [ 527 ] value. Secondly, As such a house of Commons would be too weighty for a frail house of research Lords, like the self present, the Bishops and Scotch Peers ought to be removed:i The number of the upper house ought to be raised to three or four hundred: Their seats not hereditary, but during life: They ought to research, have the election of their own members; and no commoner should be allowed to refuse a seat that was offered him. By this means the house of paper Lords would consist entirely of the men of chief credit, abilities, and interest in the nation; and every turbulent leader in brand loyalty research papers the house of Commons might be taken off, and connected by interest with the house of Peers. Such an ellen eischen thesis, aristocracy would be an excellent barrier both to brand papers, the monarchy and against portrait essay questions, it.
At present, the balance of brand loyalty papers our government depends in some measure on the abilities and behaviour of the the oval essay sovereign; which are variable and uncertain circumstances. This plan of brand research papers limited monarchy, however corrected, seems still liable to three great inconveniencies. First, It removes not entirely, though it may soften, the parties of court and country. Secondly, The king’s personal character must still have great influence on the government. Self Identity! Thirdly, The sword is in the hands of a single person, who will always neglect to brand loyalty research, discipline the militia, in order to have a pretence for keeping up a standing army.j. We shall conclude this subject, with observing the falsehood of the common opinion, that no large state, such as France or Great Britain , could ever be modelled into a commonwealth, but that such a form of government can only take place in a city or small territory.
The contrary seems probable. Though it is more difficult to eischen thesis, form a republican government in an extensive country than in a city; there is more facility, when once it is formed, of preserving it steady and uniform, without tumult and faction. It is not easy, for the distant parts of a large state to combine in any plan of brand research papers free government; but they easily conspire in the esteem and reverence for a single person, who, by means of this popular favour, may seize the power, and forcing the more obstinate to submit, may establish a monarchical government. On the other [ 528 ] hand, a city readily concurs in the same notions of government, the natural equality of eischen property favours liberty, and the nearness of brand loyalty research papers habitation enables the citizens mutually to assist each other. Even under absolute princes, the subordinate government of cities is brand commonly republican; while that of counties and provinces is monarchical. But these same circumstances, which facilitate the brand research papers erection of commonwealths in cities, render their constitution more frail and uncertain. Democracies are turbulent. For however the people may be separated or divided into small parties, either in their votes or elections; their near habitation in a city will always make the ammu essay force of popular tides and currents very sensible. Aristocracies are better adapted for peace and order, and accordingly were most admired by ancient writers; but they are jealous and oppressive. In a large government, which is modelled with masterly skill, there is compass and room enough to refine the democracy, from the lower people, who may be admitted into the first elections or first concoction of the commonwealth, to the higher magistrates, who direct all the movements. At the same time, the parts are so distant and remote, that it is very difficult, either by intrigue, prejudice, or passion, to brand loyalty research papers, hurry them into any measures against the public interest.
It is needless to enquire, whether such a government would be immortal. I allow the justness of the poet’s exclamation on the endless projects of human race, Man and for loyalty ever! 10 The world itself probably is not immortal. Such consuming plagues may arise as would leave even a perfect government a weak prey to its neighbours. We know not to what length [ 529 ] enthusiasm, or other extraordinary movements of the human mind, may transport men, to the neglect of all order and public good.
Where difference of interest is removed, whimsical and unaccountable factions often arise, from personal favour or enmity. Perhaps, rust may grow to the springs of the research papers most accurate political machine, and essay disorder its motions. Brand Loyalty Research Papers! Lastly, extensive conquests, when pursued, must be the ruin of every free government; and of the identity more perfect governments sooner than of the imperfect; because of the very advantages which the former possess above the brand loyalty research papers latter. And though such a state ought to establish a fundamental law against conquests; yet republics have ambition as well as individuals, and present interest makes men forgetful of their posterity. Loyalty Research! It is papers a sufficient incitement to human endeavours, that such a government would flourish for many ages; without pretending to bestow, on brand papers any work of man, that immortality, which the Almighty seems to have refused to his own productions.
Week 10: On the research Brink of Independence. Week 13: The Declaration of Independence. Hume, Essays Copyright © 2017 by John Zumbrunnen. All Rights Reserved.
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The Beginner’s Guide to Writing a Perfect Software Testing Resume (with Free Sample Resume) A commonly asked question, mostly by newcomers into loyalty papers, IT, is- “Do you have a sample software testing resume that I can use?” Sure, we all learn by seeing. To begin with we need to establish a point of reference, so there is no harm in checking out someone else’s resume. However, relying completely on it and trying to tailor it to suit our needs is not always the best way to create our own resume. How would it be if I took a picture of a perfect looking person and photo shopped my face to it – it just would not be right, would it? The same rationale applies here.
Each of us come from different educational backgrounds, different professional exposure and are at different proficiency levels – our resume has to be a snap shot of everything that is maya angelou essays, uniquely us. Brand Loyalty. The piece of paper (or electronic document) is a representation of ourselves when we could not be there in person. Therefore it is the oval portrait questions, of utmost important to let your resume capture the essence of who you are as a professional. In this article I tried to put together a few simple pointers that will help ease this software testing QA resume preparation process , especially for first timers. To start with, these are some of the pre-activities that should go into resume preparation: #1. Try to make a list of all skills, education, work experience, platforms, technologies, projects, etc. #2. For a start, forget about the format and template. Sticky notes, piece of paper, notepad on your computer – all are perfectly good starting points. #3.
The list could look something like this: #4. Pick up the technical skills section and try to sort them in the order of your proficiency. I generally, use the rating method on my skills. On a scale of brand papers, 1-5, 5 being the the oval portrait, expert and 1 being just familiar- try to assign a rating to your list. #5. Take a moment to review your readiness with respect to skill acquisition required to apply the job of your choice. For example: From the above list, it is clear that I am not at the required skill level to apply for a QTP position.
That is ok. To enhance our strengths we always need to know our weaknesses. This method helps us with that. There are 2 options at this stage: a) If QTP is not my area of interest, I just move on and apply for a manual testing job that better suits my skill. b) But if I want to pursue automation testing I could take a few days time, work on building the papers, skill. Once I move to anywhere between 3-5 rating level, I may reconsider a QTP career. Once listing, rating and self evaluating is through, the next step is to ellen eischen thesis, think of a template.
Every IT resume has the following sections. Of course, the order in which these sections appear is a personal choice. As for me, I find the below order very effective, so stick to it if you think so too. a) The header – basic information about how to reach you – Name, Address, Email ID, Phone number, link to your profile on loyalty, a professional network, certifications etc. b) Objective – Optional section, especially useful to ammu velutha, explain your choice of brand research, getting into IT- QA field if you have not been from a computer science background and have a different career prior to now, or if you have been from a certain branch of IT and questions, want to transition to another one. c) Professional summary – a gist of your skills, your strengths, roles performed technologies you know, achievements awards, certifications if any, etc.
Start with the points that are most significant in the list. d) Certifications – Include this section, if you have been certified in any areas. Brand. Note: I have come across some new comers who include – “preparing for ISQTB” or something to that effect in ammu this section. This is generally not apt. Include only the loyalty research, ones that you have already been certified. For multiple certifications use a table. e) Work experience – list all the organizations you worked for until now. Ammu Essay. A table works best for this.
Order the brand, columns in brand loyalty research this table by keeping your most recent experience as the brand loyalty research, first row. f) Technical Skills – List all your skills acquired on-job and off-job according to categories. g) Educational information – Tabular format works best for this too. Start with your highest education as the first row. Provide the depletion, P.G/ graduation/10+2/10 standard, year of passing, institution/city you went to next. Brand Loyalty Research Papers. It is optional to include the score you received. h) Projects – Projects is a main section in on ozone depletion itself. This is where specific information about the kind of brand loyalty, work you have performed during the course of your previous employment leading up to now.
In case of the oval portrait essay questions, multiple projects start with your most recent project and move to the next. For each project include: Client: (optional and wherever relevant) Duration: Start Month/Year – End Month/Year. Description: (A small paragraph about the application that was worked on. Detailed functionality is not necessary) Roles and Responsibilities: Use bulleted points to loyalty papers, describe what your day to day activities on job were. i) References – Provide names and eischen, contact information of your previous managers and/or colleagues whose feedback can be sought. Alternately, you can choose to provide it on brand research, request by saying “References will be provided on request”. Now that we have the information gathered during the maya poem essays, pre-resume step and the template, all it takes is to organize the loyalty research papers, information into a template. Use the template attached for more clarity.
This software testing CV template can be used by experienced as well as beginner level professional. All the sections are given in self paper here. Brand Loyalty Papers. All you need to do is fill in maya essays your information. Loyalty. The samples for how to define roles and responsibilities, professional summary, project description etc. Self Paper. are provided too. Important Points in Resume Creation Process. To summarize these are the brand papers, steps in resume creation process: 1. Ellen Eischen. Try not to create a huge resume. 3-4 pages are optimum for brand research papers, a beginner level professional. For experienced personnel, try not to run over 5 pages.
2. Essay. Do not include personal information like – passport numbers. 3. You could include information regarding your marital status, Date of birth etc, but it is not necessary. 4. MS word or PDF are the standard formats for a resume. 5. If you are a newcomer and have no prior employment, you can still include project information. These projects are going to be off-job, self initiated. For example: pick gmail.com or amazon.com and test it thoroughly following a testing process that is close to real-time project. Brand Loyalty Papers. Document your results and include that as your experience. 6. Ammu Velutha. If you are from a non-IT background and want to include that experience, keep it to a minimum. 7. Resumes nowadays are being picked by search engines. So include as many keywords as possible and include them repetitively.
Although, use them with caution. I have come across many resumes that include every skill available in the market. A resume is your entry ticket into a job interview not into brand loyalty, a job. Including skills that you are not good will put you in essay questions a compromising situation when you can’t explain them in an interview. 8. Do not circulate your resume flippantly. Brand. Do not post/circulate your resume just to get a feel of the market or to understand how much pay you might receive. Do it only when you are ready for an interview. Ammu. You do not want to miss a chance at brand papers, landing a job due to unpreparedness. Be prepared to attend an interview from the velutha, minute your resume is brand loyalty papers, out there.
9. Avoid writing huge paragraphs. Stick to brand loyalty papers, bullet points. 10. Check for spelling and loyalty research, grammatical errors. 11. Once you are complete, save your doc with an appropriate name. Typically, “Name_Role/tile_years of experience.doc- (Name-QA Analyst-8 Years.doc)” is recommended. Tip: You can also use the Naukri.com resume search option to brand loyalty, search their database for resumes related to software testing skills. Using keyword and other advanced search options you can find the best profiles of papers, professionals with matching skills and experience. You can even search resumes using the ’employer’ and ‘years of experience’ search options. But don’t copy their resume.
Just use it as a reference. You can refer the template we provided in portrait essay questions this articles along with other live samples to write a perfect resume for you. Now, the resume making process does not seem so daunting, does it? Let us know what tips and guidelines you find most useful. Thanks a lot. I am fresher in testing and was looking for a template. :) Thank you for the template. Brand Loyalty Research. it is very useful. Very nice template. A very helpful post… Thank you. Really very useful….. Thanks a lot.
I done one project on velutha, EBanking, please send me 1yr experiance Resume. wow thanks vijay and swati this one is brand research, perfect…. The idea to save the essays on ozone depletion, resume as “Name_Role/tile_years of experience.doc is really great… thank you. Thanks for this article. its so helpful for us.. but i have question. what if you are QA in one company but they dont have any testing tools that used and also manual testing.. just test and test the software until done and ok to implement.. i hope you understand my question. Thanks for this useful info. @jyothi: This article is to get you started on creating your own resume in your own unique way. Instead of looking for brand, a 1 year old experience resume, why dont you try following the ellen eischen, steps here and try to write it. It is easier than you would think.
Also, please feel free to get in touch with us in case you run into any issues. @karuvarasan: Glad that you found the naming convention tip useful. You are one of our most valued readers and brand loyalty research papers, we do appreciate your readership. Thank you. @mica: I do understand you situation. Maya Poem. For a manual testing project without usage of loyalty papers, tools, you would like to know how to make it more fetching for you. Ammu. Is that right?
Our careers are partly shaped by the opportunities we via projects but mostly by brand research our personal interest. If tools are what you would want to focus on try to create a resume in a way that emphasizes more on eischen, skills than experience. The first step would be to learn the tools of your choice. The next would be to incorporate your learning experience into research, your resume as a skill you have acquired as opposed to be it being a tool experience. An example: 2 years experience using JIRA- focus is on experience here. An expert at papers, JIRA user operation with familiarity in Agile- This is skill based. This could have a positive impact on your resume. I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing Vijay. Well, I do not agree about mentioning projects in the CV.
Mentioning projects will definitely make the CV very long (I have seen CVs which consist of 12 pages. Loyalty Papers. ). Rather, I would recommend to mention the skills you gained from the projects and to leave the projects to the interview itself. @Anwar: Sure, when there are lots of projects and a few considerable number of ammu, years of experience, the project information might make the papers, resume bulky. We are trying to give out the most basic template that is fit for the majority of our readership. Hence, the generalization. Thanks for letting us know your opinion. We do appreciate it a lot.
thanks @swati for such a good reply of ammu velutha essay, @Mica,query , that how to write good Resume if u don,t have knowledge of many tools . Hi,Really thanks to you.Whatever points you suggested to improve the brand research papers, resumeis really impressive and rocking.It will definately help the jobseekers like me to get the job as resume is like mirror of the employee.Thanks again. Thanks for thesis, this valuable info! nice article with detailed information. Hi..i seen your tips and sample resume..really good very use full..can u provide me performance testing resume on 3+ just sample please. Hi! I was badly looking for a project to fill my resume . Thank you so much for your valuable information. Sir, I worked as s software tester for three years from 2006-2009 but after that i have got a break of four years due to some restrictions of brand loyalty, my visa. Self Identity Essay Paper. now its all ok with the visa and whats the best way to get back to testing career again.
Pls help me. @Rob: Glad to hear that your legal status permits you to loyalty research, get back to essays on ozone, work. Research. I think, the essay, first step is to evaluate your readiness. Take a look at brand loyalty papers, QA job postings(for your relevant experience and skills) and poem, make an assessment about where you stand. If you feel its necessary, take some time to brush up your skills(if needed, consider taking an online class). Remember, you might be rustic at the beginning, but we rarely unlearn what we learned. It might just take a little bit of time to come back to you is all, so please be patient with yourself. After you feel like you are ready(this might not take a lot of time), make your resume and circulate it. We all do not live in a perfect world, so pauses in professional life are normal. Brand Loyalty Research. Do not think of it as a set back. Be confident.
Wish you the best! Please feel free to reach out to essays, us for any further help. Thanks a lot was looking for tips to make a resume got what I needed. I am regular reader of software testing help articles. currently i am working in loyalty research papers Telecom Domain with no any knowledge of testing from ammu velutha last 5 years. from last 1 month i gained all knowledge of manual testing with the help of your forum. i have one question related to job change from non IT background to IT domain. what you suggest me in writing my resume to switch job from loyalty research telecom to IT. Many thanks for ellen eischen, this useful article :) Thanks a lot for loyalty papers, this article. It is very useful to all the testing engineers.Keep on posting such articles.
This article is really useful for preparing effective resume. Thank you vijay. Thanks for the sample, it helped me a lot and keep up the good work. my problem is explaining a project to a interviewer? can u please email to me how do we explain about a project to an interviewer in a sequencial order . can u please email me with a real time project how to explain. i tried to explain it but it always ends up like what we learned from the book. i am not bale to loyalty, explain theproject with real time experience. please do help me. Loyalty Research Papers. thanks. i am looking for best testing profile for velutha essay, fresher. please provide me. Thank you for your work!
It is a perfect document for resumes. I am loking for Testing 3 yrs experince resume. I am loking for Testing 3 yrs experince resume. plz send me the profilr for experience. Download FREE eBooks, Videos and Best Software Testing Articles..
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3 Oracle Text CONTAINS Query Operators. This chapter describes operator precedence and provides description, syntax, and examples for every CONTAINS operator. The following topics are covered: Operator precedence determines the order in which the papers, components of maya angelou poem a query expression are evaluated. Text query operators can be divided into two sets of operators that have their own order of evaluation. These two groups are described later as Group 1 and brand loyalty research papers, Group 2. Research Papers. In all cases, query expressions are evaluated in order from left to right according to the precedence of their operators. Operators with higher precedence are applied first. Operators of equal precedence are applied in order of their appearance in the expression from left to research papers right. Within query expressions, the Group 1 operators have the following order of ellen eischen thesis evaluation from highest precedence to lowest:
Within query expressions, the Group 2 operators have the following order of evaluation from highest to lowest: Other operators not listed under Group 1 or Group 2 are procedural. These operators have no sense of precedence attached to them. They include the SQE and thesaurus operators. Table 3-1 Query Expression Precedence Examples. Loyalty Papers. In the first example, because AND has a higher precedence than OR , the self essay paper, query returns all documents that contain w1 and all documents that contain both w2 and brand loyalty papers, w3 . In the second example, the maya angelou poem, query returns all documents that contain both w1 and w2 and all documents that contain w3 . Research. In the third example, the ammu velutha essay, fuzzy operator is first applied to w1 , then the AND operator is applied to arguments w3 and w4 , then the OR operator is papers applied to maya poem term w2 and the results of the AND operation, and finally, the score from the fuzzy operation on w1 is added to the score from the OR operation. The fourth example shows that the equivalence operator has higher precedence than the AND operator. The fifth example shows that the AND operator has lower precedence than the WITHIN operator. Brand Papers. Precedence is altered by grouping characters as follows: Within parentheses, expansion or execution of essays depletion operations is resolved before other expansions regardless of operator precedence.
Within parentheses, precedence of operators is maintained during evaluation of brand research expressions. Self Essay Paper. Within parentheses, expansion operators are not applied to expressions unless the operators are also within the brand loyalty, parentheses. Angelou Poem Essays. Use the ABOUT operator to brand loyalty research papers return documents that are related to a query term or phrase. Brand Loyalty Research Papers. In English and French, ABOUT enables you to query on concepts, even if a concept is not actually part of a query. For example, an ABOUT query on brand loyalty papers heat might return documents related to temperature, even though the term temperature is not part of the query. In other languages, using ABOUT will often increase the number of returned documents and may improve the sorting order of results. Eischen. For all languages, Oracle Text scores results for an ABOUT query with the most relevant document receiving the highest score. English and French Behavior.
In English and French, use the ABOUT operator to query on concepts. The system looks up concept information in the theme component of the index. You create a theme component to your index by setting the INDEX_THEMES BASIC_LEXER attribute to YES . You need not have a theme component in the index to brand papers issue ABOUT queries in English and French. On Ozone Depletion. However, having a theme component in the index yields the best results for ABOUT queries. Oracle Text retrieves documents that contain concepts that are related to your query word or phrase. For example, if you issue an ABOUT query on California , the system might return documents that contain the terms Los Angeles and San Francisco , which are cities in papers California.The document need not contain the term California to be returned in this ABOUT query. Ellen. The word or phrase specified in loyalty your ABOUT query need not exactly match the themes stored in the index. Portrait Essay. Oracle Text normalizes the research, word or phrase before performing lookup in eischen thesis the index. You can use the ABOUT operator with the loyalty, CONTAINS and CATSEARCH SQL operators. In the case of CATSEARCH , you must use query templating with the CONTEXT grammar to on ozone query on brand research the indexed themes.
See ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH in the Examples section. In English and brand, French, returns documents that contain concepts related to phrase , provided the BASIC_LEXER INDEX_THEMES attribute is brand loyalty research set to YES at index time. The score returned is a relevance score. Maya Angelou Essays. Oracle Text ignores any query operators that are included in phrase . If your index contains only theme information, an ABOUT operator and operand must be included in your query on the text column or else Oracle Text returns an error. The phrase you specify cannot be more than 4000 characters. ABOUT queries give the best results when your query is research formulated with proper case. This is because the normalization of your query is based on the knowledge catalog which is case-sensitive. However, you need not type your query in exact case to ammu velutha essay obtain results from an ABOUT query.
The system does its best to interpret your query. For example, if you enter a query of CISCO and the system does not find this in brand loyalty research the knowledge catalog, the system might use Cisco as a related concept for look-up. Improving ABOUT Results. The ABOUT operator uses the supplied knowledge base in English and French to interpret the phrase you enter. Your ABOUT query therefore is limited to knowing and brand loyalty research papers, interpreting the concepts in loyalty research papers the knowledge base. You can improve the ellen thesis, results of your ABOUT queries by adding your application-specific terminology to the knowledge base. The phrase you specify in an ABOUT query cannot be more than 4000 characters. To search for documents that are about soccer, use the following syntax: You can further refine the query to include documents about loyalty research papers soccer rules in ammu international competition by loyalty research, entering the phrase as the query term: In this English example, Oracle Text returns all documents that have themes of soccer , rules , or international competition . In terms of scoring, documents which have all three themes will generally score higher than documents that have only one or two of the themes. Brand. You can also query on unstructured phrases, such as the following: You can use other operators, such as AND or NOT , to research papers combine ABOUT queries with word queries. For example, you can issue the following combined ABOUT and word query: You can combine an ABOUT query with another ABOUT query as follows: You cannot combine ABOUT with the WITHIN operator, as for example 'A BOUT (xyz) WITHIN abc' . Essays On Ozone. ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH.
You can issue ABOUT queries with CATSEARCH using the query template method with grammar set to brand loyalty papers CONTEXT as follows: Use the ACCUM operator to search for essay paper documents that contain at least one occurrence of any query terms, with the brand research papers, returned documents ranked by a cumulative score based on on ozone how many query terms are found (and how frequently). Brand Loyalty. term1 ACCUM term2. ACCUMulate first scores documents on how many query terms a document matches. A document that matches more terms will always score higher than a document that matches fewer terms, even if the terms appear more frequently in the latter. In other words, if you search for dog ACCUM cat , you'll find that. scores higher than. Scores are divided into ranges. In a two-term ACCUM , hits that match both terms will always score between 51 and brand papers, 100, whereas hits matching only one of the terms will score between 1 and 50.
Likewise, for brand papers a three-term ACCUM , a hit matching one term will score between 1 and eischen thesis, 33; a hit matching two terms will score between 34 and 66, and a hit matching all three terms will score between 67 and 100. Within these ranges , normal scoring algorithms apply. (See Appendix F, The Oracle Text Scoring Algorithm for more on how scores are calculated.) You can assign different weights to different terms. For example, in a query of the form. the term Brazil is weighted three times as heavily as soccer . Therefore, the document. will score lower than. but both documents will rank below. Note that a query of soccer ACCUM Brazil*3 is equivalent to soccer ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil . Since each query term Brazil is considered independent, the brand papers, entire query is scored as though it has four terms, not two, and thus has four scoring ranges. The first Brazil-and-soccer example document shown above will score in the first range (1-25), the second will score in the third range (51-75), and the third will score in the fourth range (76-100). (No document will score in the second range, because any document with Brazil in it will be considered to match at least three query terms.) This produces the following output. Note that the ammu essay, document with both dog and cat scores highest.
Use the AND operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of each of the query terms. term1 and term2. To obtain all the documents that contain the loyalty papers, terms blue and black and red , issue the following query: In an AND query, the score returned is the score of the lowest query term. In this example, if the three individual scores for the terms blue, black, and red is 10, 20 and 30 within a document, the document scores 10. Self Identity Paper. The AND operator returns documents that contain all of the query terms, while OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms. See OR (|). Use the loyalty, broader term operators ( BT , BTG , BTP , BTI ) to eischen thesis expand a query to include the term that has been defined in a thesaurus as the broader or higher level term for a specified term. Loyalty Research. They can also expand the query to include the broader term for the broader term and maya essays, the broader term for that broader term, and research papers, so on up through the thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the operand for the broader term operator. Oracle Text expands term to self identity essay include the broader term entries defined for the term in the thesaurus specified by thes . For example, if you specify BTG(dog) , the expansion includes only those terms that are defined as broader term generic for dog . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. The number of broader terms included in research the expansion is determined by the value for essay level . Specify a qualifier for term , if term is brand loyalty a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in ammu essay two or more nodes in the same hierarchy branch of thes . Loyalty Papers. If a qualifier is brand loyalty not specified for loyalty a homograph in a broader term query, the query expands to include the broader terms of all the homographic terms.
Specify the number of eischen thesis levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the broader terms for the specified term. For example, a level of 1 in a BT query returns the broader term entry, if one exists, for the specified term. A level of 2 returns the broader term entry for the specified term, as well as the broader term entry, if one exists, for loyalty the broader term. The level argument is optional and has a default value of one (1). Zero or negative values for ellen the level argument return only the original query term. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of brand loyalty research DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain the term tutorial or the BT term defined for tutorial in the DEFAULT thesaurus: When you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: Broader Term Operator on Homographs. If machine is a broader term for crane (building equipment) and bird is a broader term for crane (waterfowl) and loyalty, no qualifier is specified for brand research papers a broader term query, the query. If waterfowl is brand loyalty specified as a qualifier for crane in a broader term query, the query. expands to the query: When specifying a qualifier in a broader or narrower term query, the qualifier and its notation (parentheses) must be escaped, as is shown in this example. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package.
For more information on loyalty research browsing the ammu velutha essay, broader terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.BT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Papers. Use the EQUIV operator to self paper specify an acceptable substitution for a word in a query. Brand Loyalty Research. term1 equiv term2. The following example returns all documents that contain either the phrase alsatians are big dogs or labradors are big dogs : The EQUIV operator has higher precedence than all other operators except the expansion operators (fuzzy, soundex, stem). Use the fuzzy operator to expand queries to include words that are spelled similarly to the specified term. This type of expansion is helpful for finding more accurate results when there are frequent misspellings in essays on ozone your document set.
The fuzzy syntax enables you to rank the result set so that documents that contain words with high similarity to the query word are scored higher than documents with lower similarity. You can also limit the number of expanded terms. Unlike stem expansion, the number of words generated by research papers, a fuzzy expansion depends on what is in the index. Maya Angelou Essays. Results can vary significantly according to the contents of the index. Oracle Text supports fuzzy definitions for English, German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Japanese, OCR, and auto-language detection. If the fuzzy expansion returns a stopword, the papers, stopword is essay questions not included in papers the query or highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP . If base-letter conversion is enabled for a text column and the query expression contains a fuzzy operator, Oracle Text operates on self paper the base-letter form of the brand papers, query.
Specify NOWEIGHT or N for no weighting of results. Consider the CONTAINS query: This query expands to the first six fuzzy variations of government in the index that have a similarity score over eischen thesis 70. Brand. In addition, documents in the result set are weighted according to their similarity to maya angelou poem government . Documents containing words most similar to government receive the highest score. You can skip unnecessary parameters using the brand research, appropriate number of ammu essay commas. Papers. For example: Backward Compatibility Syntax. The old fuzzy syntax from previous releases is still supported. This syntax is as follows: Use this operator to find all XML documents that contain a specified section path. You can also use this operator to velutha essay do section equality testing. Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for this operator to work. Using Special Characters with HASPATH and INPATH.
The following rules govern the use of special characters with regard to both the HASPATH and INPATH operators: Left-brace ( ) characters are not allowed inside HASPATH or INPATH expressions unless they are inside the equality operand enclosed by double quotes. Brand. So both ' HASPATH( ) ' and ' HASPATH(/A/ ) ' will return errors. However, ' HASPATH(/A[B= ]) ' will be parsed correctly. With exception of the backslash (), special characters, such as dollar sign ($), percent sign (%), underscore (_), left brace ( ), when inside the equality operand enclosed by portrait essay questions, double or single quotes, have no special meaning. (That is, no stemming, wildcard expansion, or similar processing will be performed on them.) However, they are still subject to regular text lexing and will be translated to whitespace, with the exception of loyalty characters declared as printjoins. A backslash will still escape any character that immediately follows it. For example, if the hyphen (-) and the double quote character () are defined as printjoins in a lexer preference, then: The string B_TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B_TEXT) will be lexed as the ellen thesis, phrase B TEXT . The string B-TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B-TEXT) will be lexed as the word B-TEXT . The string B'TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B'TEXT) will be lexed as the word BTEXT . You must use a backslash to escape the double quote between B and TEXT , or you will get a parsing error.
The string inside HASPATH(/A[B= ) will be lexed as a phrase B TEXT . Loyalty Research Papers. finds and returns a score of 100 for ellen eischen thesis the document. without the query having to reference dog at all. Section Equality Testing. but it also finds. Brand Research. To limit the query to the term dog and nothing else, you can use a section equality test with the HASPATH operator. For example, finds and returns a score of 100 only for the first document, and not the second. Because of identity essay how XML section data is recorded, false matches might occur with XML sections that are completely empty as follows: A query of HASPATH(A/B/E) or HASPATH(A/D/C) falsely matches this document. This type of false matching can be avoided by inserting text between empty tags. Use this operator to do path searching in XML documents.
This operator is like the WITHIN operator except that the right-hand side is a parentheses enclosed path, rather than a single section name. Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for the INPATH operator to work. Brand. The INPATH operator has the following syntax: Top-Level Tag Searching. Ammu Velutha. Any-Level Tag Searching. Direct Parentage Path Searching. Brand Loyalty. For example, a document containing. Single-Level Wildcard Searching. For example a document containing.
Multi-level Wildcard Searching. Any-Level Descendant Searching. Descendant/Attribute Existence Testing. Attribute Value Testing. Tag Value Testing. AND and OR Testing. Combining Path and Node Tests. You can nest the entire INPATH expression in another INPATH expression as follows: When you do so, the two INPATH paths are completely independent. The outer INPATH path does not change the context node of the inner INPATH path. For example: never finds any documents, because the inner INPATH is looking for dog within the top-level tag A, and the outer INPATH constrains that to portrait questions document with top-level tag D. Brand Loyalty. A document can have only ammu velutha essay one top-level tag, so this expression never finds any documents.
Tags and attribute names in path searching are case-sensitive. That is, finds Adog/A but does not find adog/a . Instead use. Using Special Characters with INPATH. Brand Loyalty Papers. See Using Special Characters with HASPATH and INPATH for research information on using special characters, such as the percent sign (%) or the backslash (), with INPATH . Top-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the brand research papers, term dog in the top-level tag A: Any-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in the A tag at any level: This query finds the following documents: Direct Parentage Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in eischen thesis a B element that is brand loyalty research papers a direct child of a top-level A element: This query finds the following XML document: but does not find: Tag Value Testing. You can test the value of tags. For example, the self identity, query: Finds the following document: But does not find: You can search the content of brand papers attributes.
For example, the query: Finds the portrait essay questions, document. Attribute Value Testing. You can test the value of attributes. For example, the query. Finds the document: But does not find: You can test if a path exists with the HASPATH operator. For example, the query: finds and returns a score of 100 for the document. without the query having to reference dog at all. Testing for Equality. The following is an example of an INPATH equality test. The following limitations apply for brand these expressions: Only equality and inequality are supported. Range operators and functions are not supported.
The left hand side of the essay, equality must be an attribute. Tags and brand loyalty, literals here are not enabled. The right hand side of the equality must be a literal. Tags and attributes here are not allowed. The test for essay equality depends on your lexer settings. With the brand loyalty research, default settings, the query. matches the following sections: because lexer is case-insensitive by default. because of and is are default stopwords in English, and a stopword matches any stopword word. because the underscore character is not a join character by default. Use the MDATA operator to query documents that contain MDATA sections. MDATA sections are metadata that have been added to documents to speed up mixed querying. MDATA queries are treated exactly as literals. Maya Poem. For example, with the query. the $ is not interpreted as a stem operator, nor is the . (period) transformed into whitespace.
A right (close) parenthesis terminates the MDATA operator, so that MDATA values that have close parentheses cannot be searched. The name of the MDATA section(s) to search. Loyalty Research Papers. The value of the MDATA section. For example, if an MDATA section called Booktype has been created, it might have a value of paperback . Suppose you want to on ozone depletion query for books written by the writer Nigella Lawson that contain the word summer . Assuming that an MDATA section called AUTHOR has been declared, you can query as follows: This query will only be successful if an AUTHOR tag has the exact value Nigella Lawson (after simplified tokenization). Nigella or Ms. Nigella Lawson will not work. MDATA query values ignore stopwords. The MDATA operator returns 100 or 0, depending on whether the document is a match. Loyalty Papers. The MDATA operator is not supported for CTXCAT , CTXRULE , or CTXXPATH indexes.
Table 3-2 shows how MDATA interacts with some other query operators: Table 3-2 MDATA and Other Query Operators. Essay. When MDATA sections repeat, each instance is a separate and independent value. For instance, the document. can be found with any of the following queries: but not any of the following: Use the MINUS operator to loyalty research lower the score of documents that contain unwanted noise terms. MINUS is ellen eischen thesis useful when you want to search for documents that contain one query term but want the presence of a second term to research cause a document to be ranked lower. term1 minus term2. Suppose a query on the term cars always returned high scoring documents about Ford cars . You can lower the scoring of the Ford documents by using the expression: In essence, this expression returns documents that contain the term cars and brand research, possibly Ford. Brand Research. However, the score for velutha a returned document is the brand loyalty research, score of maya angelou cars minus the score of Ford . Use the narrower term operators ( NT , NTG , NTP , NTI ) to expand a query to include all the terms that have been defined in a thesaurus as the narrower or lower level terms for a specified term.
They can also expand the query to include all of the narrower terms for each narrower term, and so on down through the thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the operand for the narrower term operator. term is loyalty research papers expanded to include the narrower term entries defined for the term in research the thesaurus specified by thes . The number of narrower terms included in the expansion is brand loyalty research determined by the value for level . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Ellen Eischen. Specify a qualifier for term , if term is a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in two or more nodes in the same hierarchy branch of thes . If a qualifier is not specified for a homograph in a narrower term query, the loyalty research papers, query expands to include all of the narrower terms of all homographic terms. Specify the number of levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the narrower terms for ammu velutha essay the specified term. For example, a level of 1 in an NT query returns all the narrower term entries, if any exist, for the specified term. A level of 2 returns all the narrower term entries for the specified term, as well as all the brand, narrower term entries, if any exist, for each narrower term.
The level argument is optional and the oval portrait essay questions, has a default value of one (1). Zero or negative values for the level argument return only the original query term. Specify the name of the loyalty, thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. Self Identity. If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain either the brand research, term cat or any of the NT terms defined for cat in the DEFAULT thesaurus: If you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: The following query returns all documents that contain either fairy tale or any of the self identity essay paper, narrower instance terms for fairy tale as defined in the DEFAULT thesaurus: That is, if the terms cinderella and snow white are defined as narrower term instances for research fairy tale , Oracle Text returns documents that contain fairy tale, cinderella, or snow white. Research. Each hierarchy in a thesaurus represents a distinct, separate branch, corresponding to the four narrower term operators. In a narrower term query, Oracle Text only expands the query using the branch corresponding to the specified narrower term operator. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the narrower terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.NT in research papers Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the NEAR operator to return a score based on brand loyalty research the proximity of two or more query terms. Oracle Text returns higher scores for terms closer together and lower scores for terms farther apart in loyalty papers a document.
The NEAR operator works with only word queries. You cannot use NEAR in ABOUT queries. Backward compatibility syntax: word1 ; word2. Specify the terms in the query separated by commas. The query terms can be single words or phrases and may make use of other query operators (see NEAR with Other Operators).
Optionally specify the thesis, size of the biggest clump. The default is 100. Oracle Text returns an loyalty papers, error if you specify a number greater than 100. Maya Angelou Essays. A clump is the smallest group of words in research papers which all query terms occur. All clumps begin and end with a query term. For near queries with two terms, max_span is the maximum distance allowed between the two terms. For example, to self query on dog and cat where dog is within 6 words of cat , issue the following query: Specify TRUE for brand Oracle Text to search for terms in the order you specify. Velutha. The default is FALSE . For example, to search for the words monday , tuesday , and wednesday in that order with a maximum clump size of brand research 20, issue the following query: To specify order , you must always specify a number for on ozone depletion the max_span parameter. Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you use identical query expressions that have the order flag set differently.
For example, Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you issue the following queries: The scoring for research papers the NEAR operator combines frequency of the terms with proximity of terms. For each document that satisfies the query, Oracle Text returns a score between 1 and velutha, 100 that is proportional to the number of clumps in the document and inversely proportional to the average size of the clumps. This means many small clumps in a document result in higher scores, since small clumps imply closeness of research terms. The number of terms in a query also affects score. Queries with many terms, such as seven, generally need fewer clumps in a document to score 100 than do queries with few terms, such as two. A clump is the smallest group of brand research words in which all query terms occur. All clumps begin and end with a query term. Loyalty Research Papers. You can define clump size with the max_span parameter as described in this section. The size of a clump does not include the query terms themselves. Angelou Poem. So for the query NEAR((DOG, CAT), 1) , dog cat will be a match, and dog ate cat will be a match, but dog sat on cat will not be a match. NEAR with Other Operators.
You can use the brand loyalty papers, NEAR operator with other operators such as AND and OR . Scores are calculated in the regular way. For example, to find all documents that contain the terms tiger , lion , and cheetah where the maya poem, terms lion and tiger are within 10 words of each other, issue the brand loyalty research, following query: The score returned for each document is the lower score of the near operator and essays on ozone, the term cheetah . You can also use the equivalence operator to substitute a single term in a near query: This query asks for papers all documents that contain the phrase stock crash within twenty words of Japan or Korea . The following operators also work with NEAR and ; : All expansion operators that produce words, phrases, or EQUIV . These include: Backward Compatibility NEAR Syntax. You can write near queries using the syntax of previous Oracle Text releases. For example, to find all documents where lion occurs near tiger , you can write: or with the semi-colon as follows: This query is equivalent to the following query: Only the syntax of the NEAR operator is backward compatible. In the example, the score returned is calculated using the clump method as described in brand loyalty this section. Highlighting with the NEAR Operator.
When you use highlighting and your query contains the near operator, all occurrences of all terms in the query that satisfy the proximity requirements are highlighted. Highlighted terms can be single words or phrases. For example, assume a document contains the following text: If the query is near((chocolate, vanilla)), 100, FALSE), the following is highlighted: However, if the query is near((chocolate, vanilla)), 4, FALSE), only the following is highlighted: For more information about the procedures you can use for highlighting, see Chapter 8, CTX_DOC Package. Section Searching and NEAR. You can use the NEAR operator with the WITHIN operator for section searching as follows: When evaluating expressions such as these, Oracle Text looks for clumps that lie entirely within the given section. In this example, only brand research those clumps that contain dog and ammu velutha, cat that lie entirely within the section Headings are counted. That is, if the term dog lies within Headings and the term cat lies five words from dog , but outside of Headings , this pair of words does not satisfy the expression and is not counted. Use the NOT operator to search for documents that contain one query term and not another. term1 not term2. To obtain the loyalty research papers, documents that contain the term animals but not dogs , use the following expression: Similarly, to on ozone depletion obtain the research, documents that contain the term transportation but not automobiles or trains , use the following expression: The NOT operator does not affect the scoring produced by the other logical operators. Use the velutha, OR operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of any of the query terms.
For example, to obtain the documents that contain the term cats or the brand loyalty research papers, term dogs , use either of the following expressions: In an OR query, the score returned is the brand papers, score for the highest query term. In the example, if the research, scores for cats and loyalty research papers, dogs is 30 and 40 within a document, the document scores 40. Research Papers. The OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms, while the AND operator returns documents that contain all query terms. See AND (). Use the preferred term operator ( PT ) to loyalty replace a term in a query with the preferred term that has been defined in a thesaurus for the term. Specify the operand for the preferred term operator. term is replaced by the preferred term defined for the term in the specified thesaurus. However, if no PT entries are defined for the term, term is brand loyalty research papers not replaced in the query expression and term is the result of the expansion. Maya Angelou. You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument.
Specify the brand loyalty, name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in essays depletion the thesaurus tables before using any of the thesaurus operators. The term automobile has a preferred term of car in a thesaurus. A PT query for papers automobile returns all documents that contain the word car . Documents that contain the word automobile are not returned. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on the oval portrait essay browsing the preferred terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.PT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the related term operator ( RT ) to expand a query to include all related terms that have been defined in a thesaurus for the term. Specify the operand for the related term operator. term is expanded to include term and all the brand research papers, related entries defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the ammu velutha, name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for brand loyalty the specified term. The thes argument is optional and ammu velutha, has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before using any of the thesaurus operators. The term dog has a related term of wolf . A RT query for dog returns all documents that contain the word dog and wolf . You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in brand papers the CTX_THES package.
For more information on maya angelou essays browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.RT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the soundex (!) operator to expand queries to include words that have similar sounds; that is, words that sound like other words. This function enables comparison of words that are spelled differently, but sound alike in research papers English. Soundex works best for identity essay paper languages that use a 7-bit character set, such as English. Brand Loyalty. It can be used, with lesser effectiveness, for the oval portrait essay questions languages that use an 8-bit character set, such as many Western European languages. Research. If you have base-letter conversion specified for a text column and the query expression contains a soundex operator, Oracle Text operates on the base-letter form of the brand loyalty papers, query. Use the stem ($) operator to search for terms that have the same linguistic root as the query term. If you use the BASIC_LEXER to index your language, stemming performance can be improved by using the index_stems attribute.
The Oracle Text stemmer, licensed from brand loyalty research papers Xerox Corporation's XSoft Division, supports the following languages with the BASIC_LEXER: English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, and Dutch. Japanese stemming is supported with the poem essays, JAPANESE_LEXER. You can specify your stemming language with the BASIC_WORDLIST wordlist preference. Behavior with Stopwords. If stem returns a word designated as a stopword, the stopword is not included in the query or highlighted by brand loyalty research, CTX_QUERY.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_QUERY.MARKUP . Ammu Essay. For more information about enabling the stem operator with BASIC_LEXER, see BASIC_LEXER in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements.
Use the brand loyalty research, SQE operator to ellen call a stored query expression created with the CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE procedure. Stored query expressions can be used for creating predefined bins for organizing and categorizing documents or to perform iterative queries, in which an initial query is refined using one or more additional queries. To create an SQE named disasters , use CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE as follows: This stored query expression returns all documents that contain either hurricane , earthquake or blizzard . Brand Loyalty Papers. This SQE can then be called within a query expression as follows: Use the synonym operator ( SYN ) to expand a query to include all the paper, terms that have been defined in a thesaurus as synonyms for brand loyalty the specified term. The Oval Essay Questions. Specify the operand for the synonym operator. term is expanded to brand include term and all the synonyms defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value.
The following query expression returns all documents that contain the essays on ozone depletion, term dog or any of the synonyms defined for dog in brand the DEFAULT thesaurus: Compound Phrases in Synonym Operator. Depletion. Expansion of compound phrases for a term in a synonym query are returned as AND conjunctives. For example, the compound phrase temperature + measurement + instruments is defined in a thesaurus as a synonym for the term thermometer . In a synonym query for thermometer , the query is expanded to: You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in brand loyalty papers the CTX_THES package. For more information on ammu browsing the synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.SYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the threshold operator () in two ways: at the expression level. at brand loyalty research the query term level. The threshold operator at eischen the expression level eliminates documents in the result set that score below a threshold number. The threshold operator at the query term level selects a document based on how a term scores in the document. Within an expression, returns documents that contain the loyalty research, query term with score of at least n . At the velutha, expression level, to search for documents that contain relational databases and to return only documents that score greater than 75, use the following expression: At the query term level, to select documents that have at least a score of 30 for lion and contain tiger, use the brand, following expression: Use the translation term operator ( TR ) to essays on ozone depletion expand a query to include all defined foreign language equivalent terms.
Specify the operand for the translation term operator. term is expanded to include all the foreign language entries defined for term in thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in the expansion. The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . (You may specify only one language at research papers a time.) If you omit this parameter or specify it as ALL , the system expands to use all defined foreign language terms. Optionally, specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. Angelou. The thes argument has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the thesaurus operators. Brand Papers. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the following entries for cat : To search for all documents that contain cat and the spanish translation of cat , issue the the oval essay, following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TR in papers Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the translation term operator ( TR ) to expand a query to include all the defined foreign equivalents of the query term, the synonyms of query term, and the foreign equivalents of the synonyms. Specify the portrait, operand for brand loyalty papers this operator. term is expanded to maya angelou essays include all the foreign language entries and synonyms defined for term in thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in the expansion.
The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . If you omit this parameter, the system expands to brand use all defined foreign language terms. Optionally, specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for ellen the specified term. The thes argument has a default value of loyalty research papers DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the angelou poem, thesaurus operators. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the loyalty papers, following entries for cat : To search for all documents that contain cat , the spanish equivalent of cat , the synonym of cat , and the spanish equivalent of lion , issue the portrait questions, following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the translation and synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TRSYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the top term operator ( TT ) to replace a term in a query with the top term that has been defined for the term in the standard hierarchy (Broader Term [ BT ], Narrower Term [ NT] ) in a thesaurus. A top term is the broadest conceptual term related to a given query term. Papers. For example, a thesaurus might define the following hierarchy: The top term for dog in this thesaurus is animal . Top terms in the generic ( BTG , NTG ), partitive ( BTP , NTP ), and instance ( BTI , NTI ) hierarchies are not returned. Specify the operand for the top term operator. term is replaced by portrait, the top term defined for the term in the specified thesaurus.
However, if no TT entries are defined for term , term is not replaced in the query expression and term is the result of the expansion. You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to loyalty papers return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of maya angelou poem DEFAULT . Papers. A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. The term dog has a top term of animal in the standard hierarchy of a thesaurus. A TT query for dog returns all documents that contain the essay questions, phrase animal . Documents that contain the word dog are not returned. You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on brand papers browsing the top terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TT. The weight operator multiplies the eischen thesis, score by the given factor, topping out at 100 when the score exceeds 100. For example, the loyalty papers, query cat, dog*2 sums the score of cat with twice the score of dog , topping out at self paper 100 when the score is greater than 100. In expressions that contain more than one query term, use the weight operator to brand loyalty adjust the relative scoring of the query terms.
You can reduce the score of poem essays a query term by loyalty research papers, using the weight operator with a number less than 1; you can increase the score of a query term by using the on ozone, weight operator with a number greater than 1 and less than 10. The weight operator is useful in ACCUMulate ( , ), AND (), or OR (|) queries when the expression has more than one query term. With no weighting on individual terms, the score cannot tell you which of the query terms occurs the loyalty research papers, most. With term weighting, you can alter the scores of individual terms and hence make the overall document ranking reflect the terms you are interested in. You have a collection of ellen sports articles.
You are interested in the articles about soccer, in particular Brazilian soccer. It turns out that a regular query on soccer or Brazil returns many high ranking articles on US soccer. To raise the ranking of the articles on Brazilian soccer, you can issue the following query: Table 3-3 illustrates how the weight operator can change the ranking of three hypothetical documents A, B, and C, which all contain information about soccer. The columns in the table show the loyalty papers, total score of four different query expressions on the three documents. Table 3-3 Score Samples. The score in the third column containing the query soccer or Brazil is the score of the highest scoring term. The score in the fourth column containing the query soccer or Brazil*3 is the larger of the score of the essay paper, first column soccer and of the score Brazil multiplied by three, Brazil*3 . Brand Research. With the initial query of thesis soccer or Brazil , the documents are ranked in the order C B A. With the query of soccer or Brazil*3 , the documents are ranked B C A, which is the preferred ranking. Weights can be added to brand loyalty multiple terms. The query Brazil OR (soccer AND Brazil)*3 will increase the maya angelou essays, relative scores for documents that contain both soccer and loyalty research, Brazil . Brand Research Papers. Wildcard characters can be used in query expressions to expand word searches into loyalty papers pattern searches. The wildcard characters are: The total number of wildcard expansions from all words in a query containing unescaped wildcard characters cannot exceed the brand research, maximum number of expansions specified by the BASIC_WORDLIST attribute WILDCARD_MAXTERMS . For more information, see BASIC_WORDLIST.
When a wildcard expression translates to a stopword, the stopword is not included in the query and loyalty research papers, not highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP. Right truncation involves placing the wildcard on the right-hand-side of the ellen, search string. For example, the following query expression finds all terms beginning with the pattern scal : Left- and Double-Truncated Queries. Research. Left truncation involves placing the poem essays, wildcard on the left-hand-side of the search string. To find words such as king , wing or sing , you can write your query as follows: For all words that end with ing , you can issue: You can also combine left-truncated and right-truncated searches to create double-truncated searches. Loyalty Research Papers. The following query finds all documents that contain words that contain the poem, substring %benz% Improving Wildcard Query Performance. Loyalty Research. You can improve wildcard query performance by adding a substring or prefix index.
When your wildcard queries are left- and double-truncated, you can improve query performance by creating a substring index. Substring indexes improve query performance for all types of left-truncated wildcard searches such as %ed , _ing , or %benz% . When your wildcard queries are right-truncated, you can improve performance by creating a prefix index. A prefix index improves query performance for wildcard searches such as to% . For more information about creating substring and prefix indexes, see BASIC_WORDLIST in Chapter 2. You can use the WITHIN operator to self identity essay narrow a query down into document sections. Document sections can be one of the following: special sections (sentence or paragraph) If section is brand research papers a zone, expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section. If section is velutha essay a field or attribute section, expression cannot contain another WITHIN operator. The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section. The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section.
The WITHIN operator has the following limitations: You cannot embed the loyalty, WITHIN clause in identity essay a phrase. For example, you cannot write: term1 WITHIN section term2. Since WITHIN is a reserved word, you must escape the word with braces to brand papers search on it. WITHIN Operator Examples. Self Identity Essay Paper. Querying Within Zone Sections.
To find all the documents that contain the term San Francisco within the section Headings, write your query as follows: To find all the documents that contain the term sailing and contain the research papers, term San Francisco within the section Headings , write your query in one of two ways: Compound Expressions with WITHIN. To find all documents that contain the terms dog and cat within the essay, same section Headings , write your query as follows: This query is loyalty papers logically different from: This query finds all documents that contain dog and cat where the terms dog and cat are in the oval essay questions Headings sections, regardless of brand loyalty research whether they occur in the same Headings section or different sections. Near with WITHIN. To find all documents in which dog is near cat within the section Headings , write your query as follows: The near operator has higher precedence than the WITHIN operator so braces are not necessary in this example. This query is equivalent to the oval (dog near cat) WITHIN Headings . Nested WITHIN Queries. You can nest the within operator to loyalty papers search zone sections within zone sections. For example, assume that a document set had the zone section AUTHOR nested within the zone BOOK section. You write a nested WITHIN query to find all occurrences of scott within the AUTHOR section of the BOOK section as follows: Querying Within Field Sections. The syntax for querying within a field section is the same as querying within a zone section. The syntax for most of the examples given in the previous section, Querying Within Zone Sections, apply to field sections.
However, field sections behave differently from maya essays zone sections in terms of. Visibility: You can make text within a field section invisible. Repeatability: WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections. Nestability: You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with a field section. The following sections describe these differences. Visible Flag in Field Sections. When a field section is created with the brand research, visible flag set to the oval portrait essay FALSE in CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION , the text within a field section can only be queried using the WITHIN operator. For example, assume that TITLE is brand loyalty papers a field section defined with visible flag set to FALSE. Essay. Then the research papers, query dog without the WITHIN operator will not find a document containing: To find such a document, you can use the WITHIN operator as follows: Alternatively, you can set the visible flag to TRUE when you define TITLE as a field section with CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION . Essay Paper. For more information about creating field sections, see ADD_FIELD_SECTION in Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package. Loyalty Research Papers. Repeated Field Sections.
WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections in a document. For example, consider the document with the repeated section author : Assuming that author is defined as a field section, a query such as ( charles and martin) within author returns the document, even though these words occur in depletion separate tags. To have WITHIN queries distinguish repeated sections, define the sections as zone sections. Nested Field Sections. Brand Papers. You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with field sections. Doing so raises an on ozone, error. Querying Within Sentence or Paragraphs. Querying within sentence or paragraph boundaries is useful to find combinations of words that occur in the same sentence or paragraph. To query sentence or paragraphs, you must first add the special section to brand research papers your section group before you index.
You do so with CTX_DDL.ADD_SPECIAL_SECTION . To find documents that contain dog and cat within the ellen eischen, same sentence: To find documents that contain dog and cat within the same paragraph: To find documents that contain sentences with the research, word dog but not cat : Querying Within Attribute Sections. You can query within attribute sections when you index with either XML_SECTION_GROUP or AUTO_SECTION_GROUP as your section group type. Assume you have an XML document as follows: You can define the section title@book to on ozone depletion be the attribute section title . You can do so with the CTX_DLL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION procedure or dynamically after indexing with ALTER INDEX . When you use the AUTO_SECTION_GROUP to brand research index XML documents, the system automatically creates attribute sections and names them in the form attribute@tag . If you use the XML_SECTION_GROUP , you can name attribute sections anything with CTX_DDL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION . To search on Tale within the attribute section title , you issue the following query: Constraints for Querying Attribute Sections. The following constraints apply to querying within attribute sections: Regular queries on attribute text do not hit the document unless qualified in a within clause. Assume you have an XML document as follows: A query on Tale by itself does not produce a hit on the document unless qualified with WITHIN title@book . (This behavior is like field sections when you set the visible flag set to loyalty papers false.) You cannot use attribute sections in a nested WITHIN query. Phrases ignore attribute text.
For example, if the original document looked like: Then this document would hit on the regular query good men , ignoring the intervening attribute text. WITHIN queries can distinguish repeated attribute sections. This behavior is like zone sections but unlike field sections. For example, you have a document as follows: Assume that book is a zone section and loyalty research, book@author is an attribute section. Consider the query: This query does not hit the self, document, because tale and bondage are in different occurrences of the brand research, attribute section book@author . The WITHIN operator requires you to the oval portrait questions know the brand research, name of the section you search. A list of research defined sections can be obtained using the CTX_SECTIONS or CTX_USER_SECTIONS views. For special and loyalty research papers, zone sections, the terms of the query must be fully enclosed in a particular occurrence of the section for the document to satisfy the query.
This is not a requirement for field sections. Ellen Eischen Thesis. For example, consider the query where bold is loyalty papers a zone section: This query finds: but it does not find: This is essays because dog and cat must be in the same bold section. This behavior is especially useful for special sections, where. means find dog and cat within the same sentence. Field sections on the other hand are meant for non-repeating, embedded metadata such as a title section. Queries within field sections cannot distinguish between occurrences. All occurrences of a field section are considered to be parts of a single section. For example, the query: can find a document like this:
In return for research papers this field section limitation and for the overlap and nesting limitations, field section queries are generally faster than zone section queries, especially if the section occurs in angelou essays every document, or if the search term is loyalty research common.
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Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study. Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for brand, increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the portrait guidance of an loyalty research papers intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in ammu velutha essay a 4-day food and activity diary.
Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day -1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and brand loyalty papers, day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and ammu velutha, unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for loyalty research, increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.
Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-127 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to identity paper, authorized users. Insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for numerous health disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. While methodological differences make it difficult to compare secular trends in children's free-living physical activity, there is evidence that organised physical activity is declining in many countries [ 2 ]. Similarly, sedentary behaviours, such as television watching and brand loyalty research papers, computer use, have increased rapidly in children over the past five years [ 3 ]. It is generally believed that such trends have contributed to the widespread increases in childhood overweight and obesity [ 4 ]; however, physical activity is only one side of the energy balance equation. Poor nutrition undoubtedly contributes to the onset of obesity in children, although the mechanisms responsible for this association remain indistinct. Some studies have demonstrated a link between under-consumption of fruit and vegetables and child obesity [ 5 , 6 ], while others show no relationship [ 7 ]. Likewise, the over-consumption of eischen thesis, energy-dense foods and drinks has been associated with child obesity in some [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] but not all studies [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Regardless of the specific pathways to chronic disease, physical activity and dietary patterns tend to track across the lifespan [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]; therefore, it makes sense to correct unhealthy habits before they have a lasting impact. The development of effective and sustainable programmes that encourage young people to lead healthy, active lives is a key priority in this regard. The majority of brand loyalty research, lifestyle interventions for children have focused on the promotion of healthy behaviours while children are at school; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that children are more likely to be inactive and ammu essay, consume unhealthy foods when at home. Brand? Our previous research showed that New Zealand children were considerably less active on weekends than on weekdays [ 20 ], and that active children achieve a significantly greater proportion of their activity outside of school than inactive children [ 21 ]. This is consistent with international data that support the promotion of self paper, physical activity in the home environment [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Brand Loyalty Papers? Although we know that the majority of children's dietary intake is consumed at home [ 25 ], research investigating the differences in dietary intake between the school and angelou poem essays, home environments has been equivocal. A recent study reported that New Zealand children are more likely to consume high cholesterol foods and soft drinks on non-school days than on school days [ 26 ]. Another study indicated that American children consume a relatively high amount of energy from brand loyalty fat on weekends [ 27 ]. Self Identity Paper? Two other studies showed no difference in dietary intake between school and brand papers, non-school days [ 28 , 29 ]. In any case, reviews of interventions to promote physical activity [ 30 , 31 ] and correlates of dietary behaviour [ 32 ] in children and adolescents concluded that programmes that involve families are more likely to be effective than those that do not.
Nonetheless, exclusively home-based initiatives are logistically impractical and tend to be unsustainable. A more feasible approach is to essay questions, use schools to access children for the purpose of encouraging healthy behaviour in the home environment. Several studies have endeavoured to brand papers, promote physical activity and/or healthy eating outside of school by incorporating homework components into school-based interventions. Results have been mixed, with some showing positive effects [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and essays, others showing no effect [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. Research Papers? However, it is difficult to ellen thesis, determine the contributions of homework given that all studies employed multiple approaches, and many were limited by low statistical power [ 33 ], self- or proxy-reporting of research papers, physical activity [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 43 , 45 ], or relatively minor homework components [ 33 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 40 , 44 , 45 ]. In all cases, the homework element assumed secondary importance to the school-based components. We are unaware of on ozone, any studies that have investigated the effects of brand loyalty research, a compulsory homework syllabus on maya angelou essays health outcomes. The aim of this pilot study was to loyalty papers, examine the efficacy of essays, a compulsory homework programme for research papers, increasing physical activity and essays, healthy eating in brand loyalty research children. Description of velutha, behaviour change techniques and brand loyalty research, strategies implemented in the Healthy Homework Pilot Study.
Behaviour Change Technique. Key behavioural determinant. Provide information about behaviour-health link. Children were provided with information about the positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the programme. Provide information on consequences. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. The beneficial consequences of specific physical activity and healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the maya angelou programme. Prompt intention formation. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. At the completion of the programme, children were encouraged to make long-term behavioural resolutions related to loyalty papers, the tasks they had accomplished during the programme.
Prompt barrier identification. Several topics required the children to portrait, identify common barriers to loyalty research, healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in the context of their lives. Set graded tasks. Children were required to complete at maya least one out of three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of a given topic. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to loyalty, complete all of the remaining tasks to supplement their knowledge. Availability of information (environmental) Detailed instruction for each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and via the homework booklets. Prompt specific goal setting. Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. Tasks provided guidance about where, when, how, and with whom the task could be completed. Prompt review of behavioural goals.
Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the teacher was required to review each child's homework tasks from the previous week (individually) and identity paper, discuss any facilitators or barriers to completion (as a group). Brand Loyalty Papers? Children were given advice about how to complete any unfinished tasks. Provide feedback on performance. At the completion of the programme, children and their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the evaluation. Provide contingent rewards. Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for a given week (at least one physical activity and one nutrition task).
A black-coloured band was reserved for children who completed all six tasks on a given week. The majority of brand loyalty papers, homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of a behaviour. Provide opportunities for social comparison. Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on practical group tasks that required children to observe and brand papers, compare their behaviour against others.
Children were encouraged to support each other to complete tasks. Plan social support or social change. Social support theories. Family support (social) A large number of self identity paper, homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Messages for the parents reinforcing the benefits of family support were embedded in papers homework tasks. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of reasoned action; TPB = theory of the oval essay questions, planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning. The final programme consisted of brand loyalty research papers, a six-week homework schedule complemented by an in-class teaching resource, and was designed to support the achievement objectives associated with Level 3 of the ammu New Zealand Health and Physical Education Curriculum [ 48 ]. Each child received a homework booklet organised into loyalty papers five physical activity and five nutrition topics: Week 1, walking and fruit/vegetables; Week 2, television and breakfast; Week 3, sports and essay, drinks; Week 4, fun games and food shopping; Week 5, fitness and research papers, cooking. Week 6 consisted of the completion of the on ozone previous week's homework in addition to brand papers, group presentations about key aspects of the programme. Maya Angelou Poem Essays? Three homework options were provided for each topic, and the children were required to research, complete at least one task per topic (i.e., at least two tasks per week).
Examples of the physical activity tasks include family walks around the neighbourhood, walking to and from school, limiting television time, coaching parents in a particular sport, inventing a fun game (individual or team), testing the fitness of the family, and swimming at the local pool (subsidised entry was organised). Examples of the nutrition tasks include eating at least five servings of ellen eischen thesis, fruit or vegetables, preparing and eating a healthy breakfast, using a water bottle throughout the day, reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks, comparing food labels when shopping, helping to research, prepare a healthy dinner, and preparing a healthy lunch box. Many of the tasks were designed to encourage parental participation and family involvement. Essays Depletion? Each task was accompanied by a related question designed to encourage independent inquiry and knowledge formation. Colourful rubber wristbands were provided each week for children who completed their homework obligations, with a special colour reserved for loyalty papers, those who completed all six tasks on a given week. Other resources included soft throwing disks (fun games topic), a food advertising educational DVD (television topic), fitness test sheets (fitness topic), recipe cards (cooking topic), guides to reading food labels (shopping topic), and drink bottles (drinks topic). In addition, a password-protected Healthy Homework website was developed so that participating children from both schools could interact with each other through blogs, photos, and wikis. The Healthy Homework teaching resource was designed to complement the ellen homework activities by providing sufficient educational content and in-class exercises for three 1.5 hour sessions each week (including one session reviewing the previous week's homework).
Theoretical and practical approaches were combined to enhance the children's understanding of each topic. Teachers were free to use the in-class resource as much or as little as required. Two Auckland primary schools participated in the pilot study: School A had a socioeconomic status (SES) rating in the lowest decile of New Zealand primary schools, whereas School B was in the highest SES decile. Eight classes of Year 5-6 children (aged 9-11 years) were randomised into four intervention and four control classes. All children in the intervention classes completed the brand research papers Healthy Homework module as part of school policy; however, parental consent was required before children were able to participate in the evaluation of the intervention. Consent was obtained for maya angelou poem, 100 of the 216 children initially selected (46.3%). Three children were excluded due to brand, incomplete data, resulting in a final sample size of 97 (intervention: 22 boys, 35 girls; control: 13 boys, 27 girls).
The ethnic composition of the sample was 48.5% European, 32.0% Pacific Island, 8.2% Maori, 6.2% Asian, and 5.2% from other ethnicities. The institutional ethics committee provided ethical approval for the study (07/177). Daily physical activity levels were measured with sealed pedometers over four consecutive days (two weekdays and ammu, two weekend days). This monitoring period was chosen as the brand loyalty research ideal balance between practicality and reliability requirements [ 49 ]. Pedometers provide an objective, cost-effective assessment of physical activity that can be easily compared among different time periods, demographic groups, and/or locations. The NL-2000 pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee's Summit, MO) has a multiday memory function that automatically stores step counts according to the day of the week for thesis, up to seven days, enabling the comparison of weekday and weekend step counts [ 20 ]. Our previous research has established the validity of the NL-2000 for loyalty papers, measuring steps in on ozone children [ 50 ]. Prior to use, all pedometers were checked for faults using five repetitions of the 100-step walking test described by Vincent and Sidman [ 51 ]. Instrumental error did not exceed 3% in any of the pedometers. Before receiving their sealed pedometers, children were given an explanation of the pedometer's function and a demonstration by a researcher. Participants were asked to brand loyalty, attach the pedometer to their waistline all day except when swimming, showering, or sleeping.
To assess participant compliance outside of the school environment, children maintained a 4-day diary in which they were asked to note how many hours they did not wear the brand loyalty research papers pedometer each day. Non-compliance during school hours was considered negligible due to active teacher assistance. Data were excluded if participants removed the pedometer for more than one hour on a given day. Daily step counts below 1,000 or above 30,000 were regarded as outliers and brand research papers, were removed [ 52 ]. The 4-day pedometer compliance diary also contained fields for children to record daily screen time (television, gaming consoles, and personal computers), sports participation, and active transport to and from school.
In addition, a food diary was issued for children to record the type and quantity of all foods and portrait questions, drinks consumed over research papers, the four-day period. A food diary is a daily record of research papers, all the food and fluid consumed over brand loyalty, a specified time; a blank template for the required days is provided. While food diaries have been validated for ammu velutha, accuracy against measures of brand loyalty research, energy expenditure, outcomes in the literature are varied, with underestimation of energy intake sometimes reported [ 53 , 54 ]. Despite this, we chose to use food diaries so that we could compare both the essay quality and quantity of brand loyalty papers, food and fluid intake on weekdays and weekend days. Alternative instruments, such as food frequency questionnaires, generally do not represent a full day's food or fluid intake and therefore would fail to capture such a complete dataset. All participants were given a detailed explanation about how to correctly fill in the diaries, and portrait questions, parents were given written instructions to assist their child in brand loyalty research completing the diaries accurately and to paper, a sufficient level of detail.
Dietary information from the diaries was extracted and brand loyalty research, grouped into four categories: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption. Food and drinks were defined as unhealthy in accordance with the 'occasional foods' tier of the three-tiered New Zealand Food and Beverage classification system. Food and drinks that fall into the oval portrait questions this category are those that are energy dense and research, nutrient poor, and include confectionery and chocolate, deep-fried food, full-sugar soft drinks, and high-fat pastry products. Ellen Thesis? All measurements (diaries and pedometers) were taken once during the week preceding the intervention (baseline) and once during the week following the completion of the intervention (follow-up). Both schools were assessed over the same time period (May-June 2009). Medians and interquartile ranges for all variables were generated with weekday and weekend data presented separately along with an loyalty papers overall weighted mean (five weekdays to two weekend days). Differences between treatment groups were examined using independent samples Mann-Whitney's U tests, and initial pre- and post-intervention comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched pairs signed-rank tests (with the data split by intervention group).
A normal generalized estimating equation (GEE) model on square-root transformed step counts was used to detect an ellen intervention effect after accounting for day type, school year, school, class, sex, and loyalty research, ethnicity. The latter two variables were included given the essay identification of differences between groups in our previous work [ 20 ]. A binary GEE model was used to determine whether there was a differential pattern of loyalty papers, missing pedometer counts for participants between intervention groups. Treatment group effects for all other variables (screen time, sports participation, active transport, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) were examined using analysis of covariance adjusted for essay questions, regression to the mean. All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and ? = 0.05 defined statistical significance for papers, all tests. Median and self identity essay, interquartile range of the physical activity and dietary variables for loyalty research, the intervention and control groups.
Physical activity (steps.day -1 ) 10,700 (8,420, 12,150) 12,290 (9,990, 16,270) ‡ 11,460 (9,110, 13,660) 10,100 (7,670, 14,160) 7,940 (5,760, 11,770) 8,670 (6,460, 11,960) 8,160 (6,410, 11,470) 10,790 (8,200, 12,160) 11,790 (9,670, 15,680) † 11,240 (9,420, 12,860) 9,910 (7,500, 12,700) Screen time (h.day -1 ) Sports participation (h.day -1 ) Active transport to/from school (h.day -1 ) Fruit consumption (servings.day -1 ) Vegetable consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy food consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy drink consumption (servings.day -1 ) *Significantly different from intervention (P 0.05). † Significantly different from baseline (P 0.05); ‡ Significantly different from baseline (P 0.01).
Summary of the ammu velutha adjusted multivariable model coefficients for square root step counts . Binary GEE model analyses of participants with missing pedometer count values revealed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of missing step count values post-intervention compared with pre-intervention (P = 0.006); however, there were no significant differences in the proportion of brand loyalty, missing values between intervention and on ozone, control groups either pre-intervention (P = 0.905) or post-intervention (P = 0.481). This indicates that the loss of data is brand loyalty research papers, not differentially related to the intervention group. Intervention effects (± 95% CI) for angelou, selected physical activity and dietary behaviours . Brand Loyalty Research? *Significant intervention effect for weekends and overall (P 0.05). In this study, we developed, implemented, and evaluated the first compulsory homework syllabus for promoting children's physical activity outside of school. A key strength of the study was the use of an objective measure (pedometer) to brand loyalty research, accurately monitor changes in physical activity. The results showed that the Healthy Homework pilot had positive effects on the daily step counts of both boys and girls. The intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day -1 corresponds to over 25% more activity each day (based on the sample mean pre-intervention).
This effect was driven by both an increase of 1,100 steps.day -1 in the intervention group and a decrease of papers, 1,480 steps/day -1 in the control group. While the essay questions reasons for papers, the decrease in the control group are unknown, it appears the programme had a protective effect that precluded a similar decrease in the intervention group. Furthermore, the proportion of children achieving step count targets directly related to loyalty research papers, the prevention of excess body fat (16,000 steps.day -1 for boys, 13,000 steps.day -1 for girls [ 55 ]) increased from 8.6% to 31.3% in the intervention group, whereas children in the control group increased from 14.3% to loyalty papers, 16.7%. We also found that the effects of the intervention on physical activity were similar for ammu velutha, both weekdays and weekends. Brand Loyalty Papers? This is a noteworthy finding given that children's activity levels tend to diminish during the weekend [ 20 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Self Identity Essay Paper? Applied homework that encourages home-based activity appears to brand research, be an effective way of targeting this problem area. The positive effect of the Healthy Homework programme on physical activity is relatively unusual given the outcomes of previous intervention research. In a comprehensive review of physical activity interventions in children, van Sluijs et al [ 30 ] found that only four of 19 education-based interventions reported significantly positive effects on physical activity.
In a similar review, Salmon et al [ 31 ] noted that only maya poem, one of five 'curriculum only' interventions successfully increased physical activity. However, the success rate was higher in studies that were implemented through the school but involved the family (seven out of 13). It appears that a focus on the home environment increases the probability of brand loyalty research papers, meaningful effects. Our promising results may have been due to the emphasis that was placed on increasing physical activity outside of school, including on ellen thesis the weekends. Only two other behaviours showed significantly different pre-post changes between intervention and control participants. On weekends, vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings.day -1 and unhealthy food consumption decreased by 0.56 servings.day -1 as a result of programme participation. The increase in vegetable consumption is noteworthy as it is brand loyalty research, equivalent to approximately 28% of the daily vegetable recommendation of three servings a day.
In addition, an increase of 0.83 servings.day -1 compares favourably with previous interventions that focus solely on fruit and vegetable intake. Two reviews of successful fruit and vegetable interventions in children found that the majority of increases were between 0.2 and 0.6 daily servings [ 56 , 57 ]. Papers? In contrast to our findings, increases in brand loyalty fruit intake were generally more frequent and portrait essay, substantial than increases in brand loyalty papers vegetable intake. Ammu Essay? The decrease in unhealthy food consumption we observed on weekends, while relatively small, is a step in loyalty the right direction. Changes in both vegetable and unhealthy food consumption were key priorities in the Healthy Homework programme, and maya, may represent positive shifts in the home environment that could potentiate other healthy lifestyle patterns. Whether or not a longer or more intensive homework intervention augments these improvements remains to be seen. Non-significant effects in the remaining variables targeted in the intervention (screen time, sports participation, active transport to brand papers, and from school, fruit consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) suggest that the materials or approaches for these topics may have been insufficient. The absence of improvements in screen time and unhealthy drink consumption were particularly disappointing given that both were dedicated topics. It is possible that more than one week of exposure to these topics is required to generate change. Perhaps not enough realistic alternatives were provided to prompt children to modify their screen time or fluid consumption.
On the other hand, the small sample size may have obscured real effects in these behaviours. Clearly, a larger sample would allow these factors to be examined with greater precision. Another important discovery was that the intervention yielded benefits for boys and girls from essays on ozone depletion a range of brand loyalty research papers, socioeconomic backgrounds. The two participating schools were deliberately chosen to represent opposite ends of the papers socioeconomic spectrum. The similarity of the intervention effects in both schools suggests that it is likely to be beneficial for other primary-level schools, regardless of the socioeconomic rating. The majority of loyalty papers, previous studies that have implemented physical activity or nutrition interventions with home-based elements have not included SES in the analysis. Self Identity Essay? Of those that did, two reported smaller effects in low SES compared with high SES groups [ 38 , 39 ], while two reported no noticeable differences [ 37 , 40 ]. Brand Research Papers? Nonetheless, it is possible that in the latter studies (and the present one) the similar overall effects on physical activity and/or dietary patterns between SES groups were generated through different pathways.
Indeed, there is evidence that families from different socioeconomic backgrounds support their children to self essay, be active in different ways [ 58 ]. Loyalty Papers? A qualitative comparison of the essay questions preferences of homework activities and resources among children and parents from diverse socioeconomic regions could be beneficial in brand research papers this regard. The question remains whether the positive changes observed in this pilot study are maintained beyond the completion of the programme. A potential criticism of the programme was the use of wristbands as rewards to research, increase compliance: a viewpoint common among educators is that the desired behaviour will cease once the research reward is removed. We contend that the rewards, in this instance, were used to engage children for the purpose of learning how to be active on their own. While this approach leans towards constructivism - the identity essay theory that individuals will generate their own knowledge and understanding from experience - it maintains enough structure that children with little or no understanding of the brand research selected topics are guided towards discovery. The programme aims to create functional knowledge that is taken with the child beyond the ammu velutha completion of the programme, resulting in brand loyalty greater opportunities to be active and promoting lifelong healthy behaviour. Clearly, we cannot comment on the success of this ambition in the present pilot study; however, future studies should consider taking long-term follow-up measures to assess the maya poem sustainability of loyalty, any positive outcomes. Assessment of the effects on health knowledge would also contribute to a better understanding of the precursors to behaviour change in children. A key facet of the present study is its foundation in the education system. While the goals of the paper programme are clearly health-related, there are several advantages of operating within the education environment: (1) it is relatively cost-effective to loyalty, introduce applied homework activities into an existing curriculum, (2) the vast majority of the population can be accessed (all children are required to attend school), and essays on ozone depletion, (3) the loyalty expertise of trained teachers can be utilised to velutha, effectively deliver health-related educational material and loyalty papers, instruction.
In this study, we developed a homework programme that contributed to all four strands of the Health and Physical Education achievement objectives stated in the New Zealand Curriculum [ 48 ]: (1) personal health and physical development, (2) movement concepts and motor skills, (3) relationships with other people, and (4) healthy communities and environments. Ammu Velutha? This strategy enabled teachers to implement the loyalty programme without sacrificing their formal teaching obligations. Aligning health promotion initiatives with national education guidelines is also likely to increase buy-in from senior school staff and parents. Another important element of the study was its compulsory nature. Essay? As with conventional homework, children were required to complete the minimum number of tasks each week, obtain approval from their parents, and report back to their teacher. This approach was chosen to maximise the loyalty research level of engagement in the programme, which may explain why significant effects on physical activity and diet were observed in a relatively small sample. To our knowledge, no previous physical activity or nutrition interventions have adopted a compulsory approach to identity essay paper, home-based components. The primary limitation of research papers, this study was the small sample size. While this is a pilot study, we were disappointed by the low consent rate for the evaluation (46.3%).
Clearly, the eischen thesis lower the consent rate the greater the chance of sample bias, whereby only the children most likely to engage in the programme are evaluated. Research Papers? In addition, there were 77% more girls than boys in velutha the final sample, and brand research, 43% more intervention than control participants. These atypical proportions make it more difficult to generalise the findings to the wider population. Brand Research Papers? Nevertheless, the detection of significant effects even in our restricted sample with relatively wide confidence intervals suggests that there may be other effects that could be detected in a larger sample with tighter intervals. Another limitation was the brand loyalty research papers necessity to randomise at the class level. It is probable that a certain amount of ammu velutha, class contamination occurred, such that the behaviour of the control participants was affected by the experiences of the intervention participants as they progressed through the programme. Indeed, certain behaviours showed significant improvements pre- and post-intervention in the control sample.
While the loyalty papers probability of class contamination does not negate the observed effects of the programme (true effects would be dampened rather than enhanced), it would be preferable for future studies to randomise at the school level. Also, we decided not to request the return of the children's booklets at the completion of the study (in case they were used in essays future), and consequently we had no record of homework compliance. Brand Papers? While all participating teachers assured us that almost all of the children completed their homework each week, it is not known if some children completed more tasks than others. Future studies should consider asking the teacher to maintain a log of completed homework tasks to enable compliance to be monitored more closely. Identity Paper? Finally, the brand papers effects of the homework programme on family members of essays depletion, participating children were not assessed in this study. Many of the tasks were designed to foster family involvement, with the intended side effect of improving relationships and promoting healthier lifestyles throughout the family. Further research is needed to elucidate these factors. Compared with the control group, the Healthy Homework pilot study resulted approximately 25% more physical activity each day in brand loyalty research both boys and girls, and was effective at angelou poem encouraging activity on both weekdays and weekends. Promising improvements to other important behaviours, such as vegetable and brand loyalty research, unhealthy food consumption, suggest that compulsory health-related homework offers multiple benefits for children. Implementation in a larger sample over a longer assessment period would enable the short- and long-term effects of this approach to questions, be determined.
This study was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (08/384). Brand Research Papers? The authors would like to thank the identity essay paper children, parents, and school staff who participated in the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SD conceived and brand loyalty research, designed the study, developed the intervention, contributed to maya poem, the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. JCM collected and research papers, entered the data and poem, helped to draft the manuscript. PJS participated in the design of the brand research study and performed the statistical analysis. CZ assisted with the ammu development of the intervention and the data preparation. RS participated in the development of the intervention. GS helped design the brand research papers study and develop the intervention. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
This article is published under license to self identity essay paper, BioMed Central Ltd. Loyalty Research Papers? This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the eischen thesis Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and loyalty, reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Scott Duncan 1 Email author Julia C McPhee 1 Philip J Schluter 2 3 4 Caryn Zinn 1 Richard Smith 5 Grant Schofield 1 1. Ammu Essay? Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition AUT University New Zealand 2. Department of brand loyalty papers, Public Health and General Practice University of loyalty research, Otago Christchurch New Zealand 3. School of Public Health and loyalty, Psychosocial Studies AUT University New Zealand 4. School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Queensland Australia 5. National Institute of depletion, Education Singapore. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at brand loyalty your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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