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Book Report Alternative: Writing Resumes for collection, Characters in Historical Fiction. Historical fiction transports its readers back in time with the essay on killing animals, characters. Readers can feel as if they are experiencing life vicariously with the characters in these novels. Invite your students to engage even more with the characters and setting of the edited, historical fiction that they read by essay introduction, helping a character from their reading choose and apply for a job. What would it be like to search for of essays, a job in the past? What qualifications would be needed? Students explore help wanted ads, in print and essay, online, to see what employers want. Edited Collection! Then, students draft a resume so their characters can apply for thesis for renting, jobs. Historical Fiction Novels : This sheet features a list of dozens of historical fiction novels.
The traditional book report rarely gives students the opportunity to move beyond summary to engage with the edited of essays, book and respond analytically or in any detail. Chris Crowe warns teachers: Forget traditional book reports. Kids hate them, and you'll hate reading them, in part because they're inherently boring and in part because it is impossible to tell whether or not your students actually read the books they will have written their reports on (151). Diana Mitchell offers similar advice: Students tire of responding to novels in the same ways. They want new ways to think about persuasive essay on killing animals a piece of literature and collection of essays, new ways to dig into it (92). What teachers need, Mitchell suggests, are book report alternatives that whet the interest of students in exploring new directions and in responding with greater depth to the books they read (92). Crowe, Chris. Young Adult Literature. English Journal 90.1 (September 2000): 149-51. NCTE/IRA NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS. Students read a wide range of letter for study, print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and edited of essays, the workplace; and for personal fulfillment.
Among these texts are fiction and essay or west, nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an edited of essays, understanding of the many dimensions #40;e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic#41; of human experience. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and application for study leave, writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features #40;e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics#41;. Edited Collection Of Essays! Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language #40;e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary#41; to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions #40;e.g., spelling and punctuation#41;, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts. Students use a variety of technological and essay on killing, information resources #40;e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video#41; to gather and edited collection of essays, synthesize information and to thesis president lincoln, create and communicate knowledge. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and edited of essays, critical members of a variety of thesis statement, literacy communities. Edited Collection! Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes #40;e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information#41;. The Resume Handbook: How to Write Outstanding Resumes Cover Letters for thesis statement vs buy, Every Situation (Resume Handbook, 4th Ed) by Arthur D. Rosenberg, et al. Resume for Sarah Elisabeth Wheaton. Before this lesson, students will read a book independently, in literature circles, or as a whole class. analyze a historical fiction novel for explicit and implicit information about a character. Introduce the assignment to students: What if a character from your book came to you and asked you to help write a resume so he or she could apply for a job? What would you need to know to edited of essays, help that character? You would need to know that character’s skills, knowledge, and overpopulation essay, personality traits.
You would also need to know the specifics about the job they are looking for. Share additional details about the assignment using the interactive Writing Resumes for Fictional Characters. Use books, Web resources, and collected resumes to share more details about the edited of essays, different types of persuasive on killing, resumes. Edited Of Essays! If desired, go over the components of a resume in more detail, using the overpopulation in china essay, Resume Workshop, from Purdue OWL. Invite students to explore the sites further on their own, but note that the resources are geared toward an older audience.
The resources include sample resumes. Distribute the Resume Component Checklist. Have students mark out any components that they wish to omit from edited collection of essays their characters’ resumes. Have the students write a resume to get promoted to the next grade level. Application For Study! Have teachers from the edited, next level provide feedback.
Informal feedback can come from students who respond to the character resumes and then search out the essay on east, related book is excellent feedback for students. You might make arrangements with your school library to display copies of the resumes in a notebook. Students looking for something to read can then browse through the notebook for suggestions. Students celebrate a novel they have read and get hands-on experience with technical writing by creating a board game based on the novel and of essays, writing the instructions for it. In this alternative book report, students identify the elements of fiction in books they have read by creating glogs, interactive multimedia posters, and then share their glogs. In this alternative to the traditional book report, students report on their novel choices using Facebook-like pages.
In this alternative to the traditional book report, students respond to a play they have read by creating a resume for one of its characters. Application For Study Leave! To prepare for literature circles featuring historical novels, students research the decades of the 1930s to the 1990s and share their information using Prezi, a web application for creating multimedia presentations. Students identify the elements of fiction in a book they have read and share summaries of them by writing and illustrating their own mini-book. Students respond to a book they have read by thinking symbolically to collection, create a business card for one of the characters. Students make bookmarks on statement vs buy, computers and collection of essays, share their ideas with other readers at their school, while practicing summarizing, recognizing symbols, and writing reviews—all for an authentic audience. Students select a book to read based only on its cover art. After reading the book, they use an interactive tool to create a new cover for it. Thesis Statement Vs Buy! Students explore book covers of a variety of books then create a new cover for edited collection of essays, a book they have read.
Students must think critically to create comic strips highlighting six important scenes from a book they have read. Students explore familiar literary characters, usually first encountered as adults, but whose childhood stories are only thesis president lincoln, told later. Students then create childhoods for adult characters from books of their choice. Students write a persuasive letter to the editor of a newspaper from a selected fictional character#039;s perspective, focusing on a specific issue or situation explored in edited of essays the novel. Students select a job listing for a character in a book they have read, then create a resume and application letter for that character. Comic frames are traditionally used to on killing, illustrate a story in a short, concise format. In this lesson, students use a six-paneled comic strip frame to collection, create a story map, summarizing a book or story that they#039;ve read. Each panel retells a particular detail or explains a literary element #40;such as setting or character#41; from the story.
Grades 9 12 | Student Interactive | Organizing Summarizing. This tool guides students through the thesis statement, creation of a resume that can be saved and edited. Written and audio tips provide extra support. Edited! Grades 7 12 | Calendar Activity |nbsp August 29. Students write original short works of historical fiction in verse format, modeling the style Hesse used to write Out of the Dust . Students explore the genre of historical fiction by writing original works and comparing all of the finished pieces.
Offers 50 diverse suggestions intended to offer students new ways to think about a piece of literature, new directions to explore, and ways to overpopulation in china, respond with greater depth to the books they read. Professional Library | Journal. Collection! In this article, Versaci details the many merits of using comics and graphic novels in the classroom, suggests how they can be integrated into historical and social issues units, and recommends several titles. © 2017 IRA/NCTE. All rights reserved.
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Valuation of Brand “Coca-Cola” Essay Sample. The global beverage industry consists of the total revenues generated through the sale of soft drinks, beers, ciders, flavored alcoholic beverages (FABS), spirits and edited wines. For the purpose of this report we are concentrating only on the soft drinks sectors as that is thesis statement president where coca cola deals in. Edited Collection Of Essays. The global beverages industry had total revenues of $1749.4 billion in thesis president lincoln 2010, representing a CAGR of 1.9% for 5 year period of 2006-2010. The industry forecast is that the industry will decelerate and will have an anticipated CAGR of 1.8% for five year period of 2010-2015.
A report by Rabobank, global financial services says that industry consolidation will take place in 2012-2013 and will be driven by edited collection, the five mega trends such as volatility, emerging market demand, bifurcation of value, convergence of distribution and sustainable sourcing. Soft drinks have been a custom of passage among the youth of modern generations which sets up this category for future generations. With margins getting slim, it is important that brands continue to attract new customers and patronize them towards their brand. Consumer conversations are increasingly driving the perception of the essay brands which implies that the soft drinks and beverages brands will have to focus more on customer engagement and look for new entry points. The soft drinks segment contributed revenue of collection of essays $559.8 billion in essay or west is the 2010 having a share of around 32% in the overall beverage industry. The Coca-Cola Company is the leading player in the global beverages industry, generating 16.3% share of the industry’s value and edited collection of essays next is PepsiCo, Inc, which accounts for 9.2% of the letter leave industry. Coca-Cola turned 125 years young in of essays 2011 and has set a 2020 vision with focus and intensity along the 6Ps of thesis statement for renting Profit, People, Portfolio, Partners, Planet and Productivity. Coca-Cola continues to occupy a unique place in the hearts of the people worldwide.
It is also investing billions of dollars in India to edited collection of essays increase presence and preference and outpace competitors and envisages China to tourism essay introduction become its biggest market eventually. We have carried out edited collection of essays a valuation of the “Coca-Cola” brand and have used generally accepted brand valuation methodologies viz Income based valuation method (Dividend Discount Approach), Market base brand valuation methods (Relative Valuation), Cost based Brand valuation method (Historical Method). We have provided a rationale for the various methodologies pointing out the pros and cons of the various methodologies. The brand valuation has been carried out based on the consolidated financials and forecasts provided by the company on on east india is the public sources. The brand valuation is based on edited collection of essays 2011 data available in Annual Report FY 2012. The valuation of the brand as per the above methods is estimated at around 100 bn$ based on our analysis of the thesis statement lincoln brand and the company and subject to the assumptions and limitations described in this report. COCA-COLA Company. The Coca-Cola Company engages in the manufacturing, distribution and marketing of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. Edited Collection. The company owns the world’s most valuable brand: Coca-Cola and is sold in essay introduction more than 200 countries worldwide. Most of the of essays Coca-Cola’s products are manufactured and sold by bottling partners, who convert them into finished packaged products for sale to distributors and other customers.
Its major beverage products include Coca-Cola, caffeine free Coca-Cola, Cherry Coke, Diet Coke, caffeine free Diet Coke, Diet Coke Sweetened, Coca-Cola Zero etc. It operates its business through six business segments: North America, Eurasia and Africa, Europe, Latin America, Pacific and Bottling investments. The company has divided its operations into essay segments based on geographic operations. The Coca-Cola system is not a single entity from a legal or managerial perspective and the Company doesn’t own or control the edited collection of essays bottling plants. The company common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, traded under the ticker KO. The company has been one of the 30 companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1987. As of December 31, 2011 there were approximately 2.3 billion shares outstanding and on east or west india is the 252,197 shareowners of record. The company had net operating revenues of $46,542 mn in 2011 with an collection operating income of 10,154 mn $ which is a significant growth vis-a-vis 2001 which had revenues of 35,119 mn $ and operating income of 8,449 mn $. Per capita consumption – the average number of 8 ounce servings (250 ml) servings of on east or west best beverages people consume each year in a given market is a key indicator of the growth potential.
2011 Per Capita Snap Shot (Source: 2011 Annual Review, www.coca-colacompany.com) Consumers often prefer products that have a strong, positive image. Edited Collection. Brand Association plays an important part when people think and feel the brand both on conscious and subconscious level. Thus it is essay animals imperative that any brand should create the right image in the minds of the consumer. Coca-Cola has been a global sponsor of sports by means of collection of essays associating at the international level to introduction the local level so that is exposed to of essays consumers at maximum touch points. It thus positions itself as an icon and leading brand that mentally and physically boosts consumer associations.
Awards received by Coca-Cola in tourism introduction 2011:- 1. Topped Interbrand’s ranking of the collection of essays 100 Best Global Brands for the 12th consecutive year. The estimated brand value of Coca-Cola increased 2% to essay is the best 71.9 bn $ in 2011 as per Interbrand. 2. Edited Collection Of Essays. Ad Age saluted this brand for marketing excellence and identified it to be the Marketer of the Year. Moreover, Coca-Cola remains the number one consumer product fan page on application letter leave Facebook.
3. Advanced to number 6 on FORTUNE magazine’s 2011 list of the edited World’s 50 most admired companies. 4. Moved up to thesis for renting vs buy no 8 on collection of essays Barron’s ranking of the World’s most respected companies 5. Moved up five spots to number 12 on Diversity Inc magazine’s top 50 companies for animals, Diversity list for edited collection of essays, 2011 The company’s efficient brand management system has successfully established a global brand. At present, Coca-Cola possesses a strong brand identity in the global market for which its sales are rapidly increasing. Thesis Statement Vs Buy. Relevance of the Study. One of the collection of essays critics of valuation has been that it fails to persuasive on killing capture the value of brand names and other intangibles. Edited Collection. Brand name is one of the thesis for renting vs buy assets which strike immediately when intangible assets are talked about. Brand names are powerful enough that it allows a premium to be charged for exactly the same product without the brand leading to greater profit margins and higher earnings. A brand name company will have higher value than an otherwise similar company without the brand name. Having a world renowned brand has its benefits. Edited Collection. Some of them are: * Allows to essay on east is the best charge a premium for exactly the same product * A brand name company will have higher value than an collection of essays otherwise similar company without the brand name * If we accept the intention that brand names have values it is animals logical to follow up and going ahead in estimating them * Effects of brand are multi-bound as it affects all the 4P’s of Marketing as coke in collection of essays the late 1980s made the mistake of thinking that their brand name come from taste and started experimenting with the product putting entire company to risk. * Sales.
* Brand names represent one of the long lasting competitive advantages to businesses. * Top brand names in 1925 were still alive in 2000 as per a marketing journal The best way to on east india is the think about how much a brand adds value to the company is to think about what will happen to of essays the firm’s value if it loses the or west is the best brand. Edited Collection Of Essays. This is very difficult to calculate as a brand is an integral part of the firm affecting sales to finances. In this project we confront this problem and lay down a methodology of letter for study valuing brand values which generate cash flows for businesses but are difficult to isolate. Edited Collection Of Essays. Why Coca-cola. Brand valuation is clearly brought out letter leave when:- * There are no quality differences between a company’s product and those of its competitors * There is at least one company in the sector that is truly generic We cannot think of edited any reason why one Soda should sell for a price higher than another, based on attributes like price and quality. Thus we feel any differences in margins between coke and a generic soda is due to the BRAND NAME that coke has built up over the period of time. Also, Coca Cola was ranked number 1 brand name in the world by Business Week magazine.
Thus it is not surprising that various valuations in the past have assumed 80% of thesis statement vs buy Coca Cola’s value coming from its brand name. Also the approaches that we adopt while valuation assumes that a generic company exists and we have access to its financial statements. Moreover, brand name is the only reason for edited collection of essays, differences in earnings of the two companies. Hence this approach is more appropriate in valuing brand name such as Coca Cola but less in valuing say Sony or Goldman. Objective of the Study. How much can Coca Cola bargain due to its brand name? What is the Valuation of the Brand “Coca Cola”? The approaches used by analysts to value brand names are often ad-hoc and may significantly overstate or understate their value. Firms with well – known brand names often sell for higher multiples than lesser-known firms.
The standard practice of adding on application a ‘brand name premium’, often set arbitrarily, to discounted cash flow value, can lead to erroneous estimates. Collection. One of the benefits of having a well-known and respected brand name is that firms can charge higher prices for the same products, leading to higher profit margins and application letter leave hence to higher price-sales ratios and edited of essays firm value. The larger the price premium that a firm can charge, the greater is the value of the brand name. Literature Review. We studied the following papers in thesis statement this field:- * Valuation of brands and intellectual capital by collection of essays, Pablo Fernandez: – This paper basically is a revision of various brand valuation methodologies used worldwide.
In particular, the paper has gone deep in to study the overpopulation in china valuations of Kellogg’s and Coca-Cola performed by Damodaran and the method proposed by Interbrand. * Papers by Damodaran: – Damodaran has considered price to sales ratio to collection value a brand. Specifically, he has taken the price to application letter for study leave sales ratio for a branded company and edited another price to statement president sales ratio for collection of essays, an unbranded company, that is, with private labels or generic products. On Killing. The difference when multiplied with the actual sales of the company gives the brand value of the company. * Houlihan Valuation Advisors: – The brand’s value is the present value of the company’s free cash flow less the assets employed multiplied by the required return. Observe that the free cash flow attributable to edited collection the brand is somewhat similar to the EVA. This method does not make much sense.
It replaces the cash flow attributable to a generic product company with the assets employed by the branded company multiplied by the assets’ required return. * Roos J, G. Roos, L Edvinsson and L Dragonnett: – In the first part of the article, they describe and analyze the “first-generation” intellectual capital practices, the systematic visualization and thesis statement measurement of the different forms of intellectual capital. The “second-generation” intellectual capital practices expand on the “first generation” by consolidating the edited collection of essays measurements in an aggregate intellectual capital index. According to application letter leave these authors, “intellectual capital” (IC) can be described as the difference between a company’s market value and its book value. * + numerous other secondary resources available. Data sources are the accounting statements of the company for the last many years which are available in the Annual Reports available publicly on the website. Edited Collection. The data on the brand name expenditure is on east india is the collected for each year, going back historically for the amortizable life of the collection of essays brand name.
We chose 31 years as our amortizable life, we collect data for or west is the best, each year for the last 31 years (1980 onwards) for the brand name expenditures (under historical cost approach). One of the generic companies identified is edited collection of essays a Canadian beverage manufacturer call Cott Corporation and its financials are also sources of important data available publically. Valuation Methodologies. The standard of in china essay value used is the one which a buyer could be expected to edited collection pay for the brand or seller can expect to accept if the brand was put on sale in an open market with both parties having access to all the appropriate information. Also we have assumed the business to thesis president lincoln be a going concern for the valuation. Brands are more than just the name of a company. It is edited a concept which creates value for the business or the company as an organization delivering economic values, shareholder wealth, prosperity and culture. Brand if successful is one of the most valuable and rare assets that are recognized and due care must be taken to exploit it to an organizations own advantage. Due to its wide aspects brand is tourism introduction considered to be a very valuable asset and edited collection of essays it influences the choice of thesis customers, employees, investors and government authorities. Brands have a unique durability and in edited a commoditized market, it provides the application letter organization with a sustained competitive advantage which cannot be compared to any other asset in the balance sheet. Of Essays. Based on the information available for the brand Coca-Cola and a generic company also available as Cott beverage, we have used the following methods for our valuation:- 1. Income based valuation method (Dividend Discount Model), 2. Market base brand valuation methods (Relative Valuation), 3. Cost based Brand valuation method.
Date of persuasive essay Valuation: Updated last on 09th Dec 2011, based on financials ending 31 Dec 2011 Income based valuation methods (Dividend Discount Approach) Price premium method: based on capitalization of future profit stream premiums attributable to a business’ brand above the revenues of a generic business, without a brand. Edited Collection Of Essays. Simply put, how much extra do I get which is attributable to the brand To quantify this difference, we used the discounted cash flow approach and try and tourism essay introduction isolate the brand name on the cash flows of the firm. Here we try to measure the brand value by comparing the cash flows of Coca-Cola with Cott Corporation. Market Base Brand Valuation Methods (Relative Valuation Approach) In this model of relative valuation, we try to estimate the brand value by looking at collection of essays how the market prices behave with and lincoln without the of essays brand name. We again make use of the generic firm and calculate the EV multiple as the statement president lincoln aggregate value doesn’t make much sense as Cott is a very small firm as compared to coca-cola. Mathematically, The V/S ratio ensures that the edited of essays difference of president lincoln size between the branded product and the generic product is edited of essays taken care of. Letter Leave. We also used the multiple EV/EBITDA and both resulted in different brand values.
Cost based Brand Valuation Method (Historical Approach) Creation costs method: this brand valuation methodology estimates the amount that has been invested in creating the edited collection of essays brand. Valuation Description. Method 1: 3 stage Dividend Discount Model approach. Here we basis is that Coca-Cola, the branded company and the generic company (Cott Corporation) are publicly traded. Since it is difficult to statement compare the aggregate market value because the collection of essays generic company is very small as compared to Coca-Cola Company. Thus we compared the key statistics for Coca-Cola and Cott Corporation for year ending Dec 2011:- | Coca- Cola| Cott| Revenues (USDm)| 46,542| 2335| Operating margin(after-tax)| 15.79%| 4.28%| Return on Capital (after-tax)| 17.90%| 2.80%|
We can clearly see the benefits of the thesis president brand name. Edited. Coca-Cola generates more revenues and is substantially more profitable than Cott. So to get the value of the brand we used the essay is the operating margin approach, where we changed Coke’s operating margin to make it equal to of essays Cott holding revenues constant and Sales to capital ratio at current level. We assumed a 3 stage growth period with a stable growth rate of g (which would be a bit higher than the economic growth rate) Here we tried to incorporate the impact if Coca- Cola goes for a brand extension and say comes up with T-shirts. Essay. This is done in the growth rate estimated STEP 2: Cash flows are estimated as per of essays, the growth rate. Expenses are similarly calculated based upon certain assumptions.
We have calculated FCFF in this case STEP 3: Generic Product. We tried to create a scenario by taking different values for application letter leave, the growth and operating profit percentage of the generic product. The generic company here is Cott Corporation which is a leading supplier of private label carbonated soft drinks headquartered in Canada. Snapshot: | Value of Coca-Cola|
| With Current Margin| With Cott’s Margin| Tax Rate| 24.50%| 24.50%| Revenues| 46,542| 46,542| Length, years| 10| 10| Reinvestment Rate| 0.35| 0.35| Operating Margin (after-tax)| 15.79%| 4.28%| Sales/Capital (Turnover Ratio)| 1.13| 1.13|
Return on edited collection of essays Capital (After-tax)| 17.84%| 4.84%| Growth rate during period (g1)| 6.24%| 1.69%| Cost of Capital during period| 7.10%| 7.10%| Length, years| 5| 5| Growth Rate| 5.0%| 5.0%| Return on Capital| 12.0%| 12.0%| Reinvestment Rate| 41.7%| 41.7%|
Cost of capital in steady state| 7.1%| 7.1%| Payout Ratio| 52.0%| 52.0%| Growth Rate| 1.4%| 1.4%| Return on Capital| 7.1%| 7.1%| Reinvestment Rate| 19.7%| 19.7%| Pn (Payout ratio for the next period)| 80.3%| 80.3%| Value of firm| 134621| 29629| Brand Value| 104 bn $| | This helped us to analyze the brand value spread for different growth rates and the value of brand name we got is 104 bn $ The attached excel shows the calculations associated with the for renting valuation. Method 2: Relative Valuation Approach.
We would calculate the EBIT for the company which is from the branded part by subtracting the EBIT of the generic company A multiple would be calculated on the basis of certain parameters and then earnings of the various brands in the same sector (like Pepsi, Coca cola) would be multiplied to get the brand value. The multiple we used here are EV/sales and EV/EBITDA. Valuing any brand using this method seems highly subjective, not only because of the parameters used but also because of the methodology itself. However, analyzing the strength factors for each brand/geographical area/format enables comparisons to collection be made and may provide guidelines for identifying the president lincoln brand’s and company’s main value drivers, increasing the brand’s strength and, therefore, its value. 2011| Coca-Cola| Cott Corporation| EV/Sales| 3.67| 0.55|
Brand Value| 145037| 145 bn $| EV/EBITDA| 14.10| 6.34| Brand Value| 93933| 93 bn $| Details are in of essays the excel attached. Method 3: Cost Based Approach. In this we analyzed the thesis statement president amount that has been invested in building the brand. We begin by assuming that around 40% of the selling, general and administrative expenses are spent in brand building and then we try to capitalize this expense.
We collect data going back to collection of essays 1980 and thus we have 31 years data. We choose 31 years as the animals amortizable life using a straight line schedule. As a result, we calculate the amount invested till date in collection brand building which we say as the value of the brand. On Killing. Year| Total Selling Advertising| Brand Name Related Expense| Amortization this year| Unamortized expense| 1980| 1121| 448| 14.46| 0|
1981| 1189| 476| 15.34| 15| 1982| 1221| 488| 15.75| 32| 1983| 1376| 550| 17.75| 53| 1984| 1543| 617| 19.91| 80| 1985| 1579| 632| 20.37| 102| 1986| 1631| 652| 21.05| 126| 1987| 1777| 711| 22.93| 161|
1988| 2025| 810| 26.13| 209| 1989| 2235| 894| 28.84| 260| 1990| 2717| 1087| 35.06| 351| 1991| 3069| 1228| 39.60| 436| 1992| 3499| 1400| 45.15| 542| 1993| 3797| 1519| 48.99| 637| 1994| 4765| 1906| 61.48| 861| 1995| 5231| 2092| 67.50| 1012|
1996| 5597| 2239| 72.22| 1156| 1997| 5535| 2214| 71.42| 1214| 1998| 5699| 2280| 73.54| 1324| 1999| 5963| 2385| 76.94| 1462| 2000| 6016| 2406| 77.63| 1553| 2001| 6149| 2460| 79.34| 1666| 2002| 7001| 2800| 90.34| 1987| 2003| 7488| 2995| 96.62| 2222| 2004| 8146| 3258| 105.11| 2523|
2005| 8739| 3496| 112.76| 2819| 2006| 9431| 3772| 121.69| 3164| 2007| 10945| 4378| 141.23| 3813| 2008| 12124| 4850| 156.44| 4380| 2009| 11358| 4543| 146.55| 4250| 2010| 13158| 5263| 169.78| 5093| 2011| 17440| 6976| 225.03| 6976| Total| | | 2316.95| 50477.08| Value of Brand Name| 50 bn $| 1. 40% of collection of essays SGA each year are associated with building up the brand name with the balance used to generate revenues in the current year 2. Amortization over 31 years using straight line amortization 3. In China Essay. Costs before 1980 are not taken into account due to lack of data and information Conclusion Uniqueness about this study.
We have tried to estimate the of essays value of vs buy brand coca-cola by various methods and there are significant differences in the value that have been estimated by different methods Method| Value of brand| Income based valuation methods (Dividend Discount Approach)| 104 bn $| Market Base Brand Valuation Methods (Relative Valuation Approach)| 145bn$(EV/Sales); 93bn$ (EV/EBITDA)| Cost based Brand Valuation Method (Historical Approach)| 50 bn $| The income based valuation method gives us an intrinsic value of the brand and that we believe is the most reliable given that the inputs are chosen appropriately and with due care. Collection Of Essays. As it approaches from the company fundamentals, we assume the on east india value of the Coca-Cola brand to be within 20% of the value calculated from this taken into account various approximation parameters due to lack of time and data. Collection. The market based valuation is a method of relative valuation and is the most commonly used method in the market today. It carries with itself the disadvantages of what a typical relative valuation does. The choice of multiple as we have seen gives a range of brand value and it may sometimes be difficult which one to choose for. Thesis Statement Lincoln. However, this is one of the easiest methods to calculate the brand value.
The cost based or the historical method is another estimation which gives us a very low value. This is due to the fact that we have taken into edited account data from 1980 onwards only while the essay company is existing since 1886. So, a large amount of edited collection value is lost because of the non availability of data. We believe the actual brand value to thesis statement be definitely higher than this value of 50 bn $. Collection Of Essays. However, the brand valuation process is very useful, since it helps identify and assess brand value drivers. Statement For Renting Vs Buy. This assessment consists of comparing a brand’s value drivers with those of other brands/companies, with the brand’s previous drivers and with the proposed goals. The brand valuation process increases the amount of information held by the company about its brand and it should be developed so that it can be used as a management tool for value creation. A good brand valuation process is a tool that helps maintain a coherent strategy over time and assign marketing resources consistently.
In our analysis we have assumed that the edited collection brand grows in a stage wise manner, but in reality the statement president lincoln brand may grow at different rates throughout the horizon and thus the brand value calculated here is only a reflection of actual value. To accommodate these changes, we carried out sensitivity analysis with our variables being profitability (to explain the dynamic business) and stable growth regime (to explain the dynamic business environment) which can be seen in the attached excel. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Valuation of Brand “Coca-Cola” essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Valuation of of essays Brand “Coca-Cola” The Coca Cola Company is a big company that carries different products that a lot of people like.
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Alexander Pushkin Pushkin, Alexander (Short Story Criticism) - Essay. Pushkin, Alexander 1799-1837. Edited Collection. (Full name Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin; also transliterated as Alexsandr Puskin) Russian short story writer, poet, novelist, dramatist, essayist, and critic. See also Alexander Pushkin Criticism . An outstanding figure of lincoln nineteenth-century Russian culture, Alexander Pushkin greatly influenced poetry and edited collection, prose in his native language and set the foundation for the writings of the great Russian novelists—Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Ivan Turgenev. Known primarily for his narrative poems, particularly Yevgeny Onegin (1833; Eugene Onegin ) and Medny vsadnik (1837; The Bronze Horseman), Pushkin absorbed many of the structural and on east india best, stylistic characteristics of European writers—notably Francois Voltaire, Lord Byron, William Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Scott—and recast them in a uniquely Russian mold. With his short fiction, including several novellas, a few short stories, and many incomplete prose pieces, Pushkin sought to free Russian literature from the domination of edited eighteenth-century European classicism, arguing that prose should be simple and direct, clear and precise. Persuasive Essay On Killing. His finished stories and incomplete experiments—particularly after 1827—mark his efforts to move Russian fiction away from the sentimental mode and set the literary course for the nineteenth century.
Born into edited collection of essays the Russian aristocracy in 1799, Pushkin was brought up in a heavily European-influenced environment. From his early years in Moscow, Pushkin had easy access to tourism essay French and British literature—Voltaire, Byron, and Scott would become his early literary models. After graduating from a government lycee at Tsarskoe Selo in 1817, he obtained an edited collection, appointment to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in St. Petersburg. While there he alternated between periods of reckless dissipation and intense writing, finishing his first full-length work Ruslan i Lyudmila (Ruslan and Lyudmila ) in 1820.
Just prior to its publication, however, Czar Alexander I exiled Pushkin to southern Russia for the allegedly revolutionary political sentiments expressed in his poetry. During the first four years of his six-year exile, he retained his civil service position and lived in various towns in essay is the, the Caucasus and Crimea. Despite bouts of gambling and drinking, he was productive during his years in southern Russia and wrote prolifically. Pushkin was eventually pardoned by Nicholas I in 1826, though the czar appointed himself the poet's personal censor, keeping him under strict observation and edited, forbidding him to travel freely or leave Russia. In 1831 Pushkin married Natalia Nikolaevna Goncharova, and in the final ten years of statement his life he lived primarily in St. Petersburg, producing his most enduring poetic works, including Eugene Onegin and all of his shorter fiction. In 1837 he was severely wounded in a duel with George d'Anthes, an Alsatian nobleman who had openly made sexual advances toward Pushkin's wife. Pushkin died two days later. Edited Collection Of Essays. Major Works of Short Fiction. Povesti Belkina (1831; The Tales of Belkin ) represents Pushkin's major contribution to the short story form. The volume consists of five tales—The Shot, The Snowstorm, The Stationmaster, The Undertaker, and Mistress into Maid (or The Lady Turned Peasant)—all of them framed by the commentary of a fictitious editor, Ivan Petrovich Belkin.
The austere prose of this work, bereft of poetic embellishment, moves rapidly and with little psychological commentary. Demonstrative of these tales, The Shot is a story of revenge occasioned by application letter for study leave the conflict of youthful brazenness with a more mature reflection. Edited Collection. The piece is overpopulation essay, recounted by three different narrators, including Belkin, and its hero, Silvio, who returns to edited of essays finish a yearsold duel with a count. For Renting Vs Buy. Once indifferent to edited the possibility of on killing death, the count, now married, values his life and reacts with cowardice to Silvio's sudden arrival. Critics agree, however, that the novella Pikovaya dama (1834; The Queen of collection of essays Spades ) is Pushkin's finest prose story. Lincoln. In it he blends the tightly-plotted narrative technique and spare style of the Tales with a Gothic sensibility. Three successive games of cards, the curse of collection of essays a dead countess, and the hero's eventual descent into madness all figure prominently in this supernatural tale that critics have found reminiscent of the or west is the best, stories of E. T. A. Hoffmann.
Relatively less attention has been devoted to Kapitanskaya dochka (1836; The Captain's Daughter ), a largely realistic novella drawn from the historical events of the Pugachev peasant uprising, though it remains an important example of Pushkin's late work. Pushkin is considered by of essays most critics the greatest and most influential Russian writer of the early nineteenth century. As many commentators have noted, Eugene Onegin's realistic presentation of scene and character provided the model for the modern Russian novel. In his prose, scholars observe, Pushkin rejected a stagnant literary tradition that counted fiction as an inferior genre; his ventures away from the sentimental fiction of the late eighteenth century thus signaled a new direction for Russian literature. Among his admirers, Dostoevsky and Nikolai Gogol singled out The Stationmaster as an early influence in letter, their own work. Of Essays. Early critics in the west who read Pushkin outside of the context of his predecessors, however, often simply noted—as Gustave Flaubert did—the flatness of his prose. Despite such appraisals, interest in Pushkin's fiction in best, the twentieth century has remained strong, with contemporary scholars tending to rely on edited collection psychological analysis to in china re-examine his short stories, often highlighting the elements of edited of essays irony and parody that they contain and evaluating Pushkin's experiments in narrative structure and technique. Access our Alexander Pushkin Study Guide for Free.
Povesti Belkina [ The Tales of thesis president lincoln Belkin ] 1831. Pikovaya dama [ The Queen of Spades ] (novella) 1834. Kapitanskaya dochka [ The Captain's Daughter ] (novella) 1836. Arap Petra Velikogo [ The Negro of Peter the Great ] (unfinished novel) 1837. Istoriya sela Goryukhino [ History of the Village of Goryukhino ] (unfinished novel) 1837. Dubrovski [ Dubrovsky ] (unfinished novel) 1841. Other Major Works. Edited Collection Of Essays. Ruslan i Lyudmila [ Ruslan and Lyudmila ] (poetry) 1820. *Gavriiliada [ Gavriliada ] (poetry) 1821. Kavkazski plennik [ The Captive of the Caucasus ] (poetry) 1822. Bakhchisaraiski fontan [ The Bakchesarian Fountain ] (poetry) 1824. Stansy (poetry) 1826.
Bratya razboiniki [ The Robber Brothers ] (poetry) 1827. Essay On East India Best. Graf Nulin [ Count Nulin ] (poetry) 1827. Edited Collection Of Essays. Tsygany [ The Gypsies ] (poetry) 1827. Poltava [ Poltava ] (poetry) 1829. Thesis President Lincoln. Boris Godunov [ Boris Godunoff ] (drama) 1831. †Mosart i Sal'eri [ Mozart and Salie ri ] (drama) 1831. † Pir vo vremya chumy [ A Feast during the Plague ] [first publication] (drama) 1832. Domik v Kolomne [ The Little House in Kolomna ] (poetry) 1833. Yevgeny Onegin [ Eugene Onegin ] (poetry) 1833. Shazki (poetry) 1834. Collection Of Essays. Istoriya Pugacheva (history) 1835. Persuasive Essay On Killing. Puteshestvie v Arzrum [ A Journey to Arzrum ] (travel essay) 1836. †Skupoi rytsar [ The Covetous Knight ] (drama) 1836.
Medny vsadnik [ The Bronze Horseman ] (poetry) 1837. †Kammeny gost [ The Stone Guest ] (drama) 1839. Rusalka [ The Water Nymph ] (unfinished drama) 1841. Table Talk (essays) 1857. Pushkin's Poems (poetry) 1945. The Letters of edited collection Alexander Pushkin (letters) 1963. The Critical Prose of Alexander Pushkin (criticism) 1969. Persuasive Essay On Killing Animals. Pushkin on Literature (letters, journals, and edited of essays, essays) 1971. *This work was circulated widely in manuscript form but never published by Pushkin. †These works are collectively referred to thesis for renting as The Little Tragedies. SOURCE: Pushkin's Prose, in Pushkin: A Collection of Articles and Essays on the Great Russian Poet, A. S. Edited. Pushkin, The U. S. S. R. Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, 1939, pp. 106-15. [ In the following essay, Shklovski praises Pushkin's prose and describes his historical narratives of Russian life. ] In Pushkin's days Russian prose was chiefly imitative. In 1834 Pushkin wrote an article of which the title alone The Paltriness of Russian Literature—is sufficient to overpopulation essay show how matters stood.
In this article he wrote: Voltaire and the titans have not a single disciple in Russia, but ungifted pygmies, fungi that grew up at the roots of the of essays, oaks: Dorat, Florian, Marmontel, Guichard, Madame de Genlis, hold sway over Russian literature. Sterne is overpopulation, alien to us all except Karamzin. Collection Of Essays. Pushkin strove to be a philosophical and literary influence in the country. He wrote for tourism essay introduction his readers and he was not content with writing poetry only. In an anonymous article published in the third issue of Sovremennik (The Contemporary) Pushkin wrote in the name of Reader from of essays Tver. You say that of essay on killing late an edited of essays, indifference on the part of the statement for renting vs buy, public towards poetry, and a preference for novels, stories and collection of essays, the like has been noticeable. But is not poetry always an enjoyment for a few chosen ones while stories and novels are read by all kinds of people everywhere? Pushkin began his prose work with an historical novel. The first notes for The Negro of introduction Peter the collection, Great were jotted down in 1827. It was the age of the great historical novels of Walter Scott, and also the age of is the new ideas on history.
The different countries in their struggles against one another during the epoch of the Napoleonic wars were becoming conscious of themselves as nations. The great struggle was giving rise to edited a feeling for history. Statement President. In our days, wrote Pushkin, the word 'novel' means an historical epoch developed in the form of an edited collection of essays, imaginary story. Walter Scott gave rise to essay introduction a whole throng of collection of essays imitators. Persuasive On Killing Animals. Novels were written by collection of essays Bestuzhev, Polevoi and Zagoskin. The biography of one of Pushkin's ancestors lies at the basis of Pushkin's unfinished historical novel The Negro of Peter the Great.
Peter I bought a Negro called Hannibal. The boy came from letter Northern Abyssinia. Peter sent him to Paris where the young man studied and served as an officer in the sappers. The tsar had a high opinion of him and wished to collection of essays establish a position for him among the snobbish aristocracy. In the fragments of his novel Pushkin described his great-grandfather's life in Paris as that of a young man of society.
In actual fact Hannibal, while in France, lived the on east is the best, hard life of an impecunious officer. In taking this subject Pushkin wished to tell a somewhat remarkable story. The fact is edited collection, that Pushkin's great-great-grandfather on his mother's side was also a Pushkin and in the novel he apparently wished to represent the rivalry between his two great-grandfathers, the Negro and the Russian, over a Russian woman. Thesis Statement Lincoln. The novel is written quite realistically. Pushkin avoided the danger of giving a conventional picture of the edited collection, past. Instead he gave an exact description of essay Peter's society assemblies, contrasting the life of old Russia with the edited, semi-Europeanised court of Peter. In The Negro of Peter the Great Pushkin strove for a new understanding of history. He brought history nearer to himself and to his reader by making it, as it were, part of his own biography. Pushkin's serene and tourism essay, objective art is always deeply personal.
Tales of Belkin begin with an introduction giving the edited, biography of an imaginary character, Ivan Petrovich Belkin. Belkin is overpopulation in china essay, described as an unassuming man of no great education who acquired what learning he had from a village deacon. Edited Collection. All the stories of Belkin were written by Pushkin in the autumn of 1830. They include The Station-master, Mistress into Maid, The Shot, The Snowstorm, and The Undertaker. There was to have been another story of the series called Notes of a Young Man. In this unwritten story Pushkin wanted to give a picture of the mutiny of the Chernigov regiment in 1825.
But he was obliged to choose more innocent subjects. The Tales were coldly received by the critics. People even spoke of Pushkin's decline. However, the story called The Station-master influenced Gogol and Dostoyevsky. Pushkin does not tell the reader what his attitude should be toward the station-master. He does not make a hero of him nor does he solicit tears.
The station-master's daughter, seduced by the hussar does not come to grief. And yet the reader's sympathy is wholly with the old man and not with the hussar. Pushkin contrived not to humiliate his hero with pity and it was for overpopulation essay this reason that Dostoyevsky ranked The Station-master higher than Gogol's The Greatcoat. The Snowstorm and The Shot belonging to the same series are more traditional but are remarkable for collection their skillful plot. The author of overpopulation History of the Village of Goryukhino is, like Ivan Petrovich Belkin, a native of this village. Edited. In the guise of the history of the village, written by a landowner, Pushkin parodied The History of the State of Russia by Karamzin. By reducing the scale of history, he depicted the peasant perfectly naturally. The realistic presentation of the muzhik destroyed the conventionality of the usual presentation of the State. Pushkin strove to give the picture of a village being ruined by the land-steward under the persuasive essay, owner's instructions.
This is how the history ends: The meetings of the peasants were abolished. Edited Of Essays. He (the land-steward) collected the quit rent in small installments all the thesis statement lincoln, year 'round. In addition he collected unforeseen levies. Collection. The peasants did not seem to persuasive essay be paying very much more than formerly but however hard they tried they could not earn or save enough money. In three years Goryukhino became entirely destitute. Goryukhino was a dismal sight, the market place empty, the collection, songs of Arkhip the Bald were heard no more and the children went out begging. One half of the peasants was busy in the fields and persuasive essay animals, the others became farm hands.
The day of the patron saint became in the words of the edited of essays, records 'not a day of rejoicing but an anniversary of sorrows and of prayers of distress.' It was impossible to persuasive essay on killing animals continue in this strain. This would have been still more unacceptable to collection the censor than the overpopulation in china, story of a mutiny in the army. The work was abandoned. Many years later our great satirist Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote The History of a Certain Town which clearly echoes Pushkin's History of the Village of Goryukhino. Of all Pushkin's prose works the one that was most popular during his lifetime was the story entitled The Queen of Spades. People wrote enthusiastically about edited of essays it and declared that in it the thesis for renting vs buy, Russian literary language had been created.
This was perhaps the only one of Pushkin's later works that met with success. Pushkin wrote: My The Queen of collection of essays Spades is in great fashion. Card players punt on the three, the seven and the ace. At court a resemblance has been detected between the old countess and princess Natalia Petrovna, and apparently no offense is taken. This story has a perfectly worked-out plot and is remarkable for its economy of words and the range of its dramatic action. It cannot be doubled that when he wrote it Pushkin knew Stendhal's Red and Black. The type of the young man out for success was bound up in those days with the figure of Napoleon.
The idea of the Napoleon who considers himself above good and evil is met with again in Raskolnikov in essay on killing animals, Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment. Napoleonism as an exaggerated thirst for personal success was a typical phenomenon in Pushkin's time as well. Pushkin makes Hermann resemble Napoleon and at edited collection the same time describes him as a mean character. The Queen of Spades is an independent solution of those problems with which European art was then concerned. Thesis For Renting Vs Buy. The solution of these problems and the method of edited collection solving them differs profoundly from those resorted to by Stendhal and application for study, Balzac. In The Queen of Spades Pushkin attained the edited collection of essays, greatest simplicity of language. He uses the shortest possible sentences and hardly ever resorts to the use of adjectives. The following is a passage from application letter leave this story: It was a terrible night.
The wind howled, wet snow fell in large flakes; the street lamps burned dimly; the edited collection, streets were deserted. From time to time a sleigh driver, looking out for a belated fare, went slowly by, urging on his wretched nag. Statement. Hermann stood there without his overcoat, feeling neither the wind nor the snow. At last the Countess's carriage drew up. He saw the old woman in collection, a sable coat being lifted into the carriage by two footmen; then Lizaveta, in a light cloak, with fresh flowers in her hair, flitted by.
The carriage door banged. Thesis. The carriage rolled heavily, over collection of essays the wet snow. India Is The Best. The porter closed. Edited Collection Of Essays. (The entire section is 3895 words.) Get Free Access to this Alexander Pushkin Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to thesis vs buy ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the edited of essays, chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Russian Genius, in Spectator, Vol. 200, No. 6783, June 27, 1958, p. 844. [ In the following review, Conquest observes that Pushkin did not produce a literature of extreme situations, but rather explored the circumstances of man as a passive object. ] The Captain's Daughter is one of the stories in which Pushkin created Russian prose. Like that of Lermontov, it is true poet's prose, absolutely clear, objective, unpretentious and penetrating. The fictionalised account of his own Negro great-grandfather at the court of Peter the overpopulation, Great is less important in the canon. Though Pushkin was indirectly involved in the Decembrist plot, and. (The entire section is 370 words.) Get Free Access to this Alexander Pushkin Study Guide.
Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Preface to 'The Queen of Spades,' in Reflections on Literature and Morality, Meridian Books, 1959, pp. 275-77. [ In the following essay, Gide notes that the clarity, balance, [and] harmony of Pushkin's prose works set them apart from other Russian fiction of the same period. ] French connoisseurs already know Pushkin's The Queen of edited of essays Spades in Merimee's translation. It might appear impertinent to essay india is the best offer now a new version, and I do not doubt that the of essays, earlier one will appear more elegant than this one, which has no merit other than its scrupulous exactness. That is its justification.
A preoccupation with explaining and rounding off induced Merimee to. Overpopulation In China Essay. (The entire section is 742 words.) SOURCE: Puskin's The Shot', in Indiana Slavic Studies, Vol.111, 1963, pp. 113-29. [ In the of essays, following essay, Shaw argues that The Shot offers two points of application letter leave view — youth and maturity — and that Pushkin does not choose a privileged vantage for the reader. ] Puskin's short story, The Shot, one of The Tales of Belkin, is often anthologized as one of the masterpieces in the art of the short story. However, it has received astonishingly little critical and scholarly attention; one usually finds only brief comment in the broader context of Puskin's prose in general or of The Tales of edited collection of essays Belkin. Apparently there exists only one fairly detailed. (The entire section is 7882 words.) SOURCE: A Scapegoat for All Seasons: The Unity and the Shape of The Tales of Belkin, in Slavic Review, Vol. 30, No.
4, December, 1971, pp. 748-61. [ In the persuasive, following essay, Gregg analyzes the individual stories of Pushkin's Tales of Belkin, noting structural and thematic elements in the tales that unify the work as a whole. ] Pushkin's Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin are five in number, and four of edited collection them (The Shot, The Blizzard, The Stationmaster, and The Lady-Peasant) belong to the same literary species. The narrative features binding this quartet of stories together are, in the main, conventional. Each relates—among other. (The entire section is 5273 words.) SOURCE: The Queen of Spades, in persuasive, New Literary History, Vol. IX, No. 2, Winter, 1978, pp. 315-32.
[ In the following essay, Bocharov examines Pushkin's narrative technique and use of differing modes of speech in The Queen of Spades.] In the same way that two bodies cannot occupy the same place in the physical world, neither can two fixed ideas coexist in the moral world. The three, the seven, and the ace were soon overshadowed in edited collection of essays, Hermann's mind by the image of the dead countess. Thus Pushkin in on east india is the, the last catastrophic chapter of edited of essays The Queen of Spades reveals Hermann's fatal mistake. Critics concerned with the significance of numbers have. (The entire section is thesis president lincoln, 7432 words.) SOURCE: Grinev's Dream: The Captain's Daughter and a Father's Blessing, in Slavic Review, Vol. 40, No.
1, Spring, 1981, pp. 60-76. [ In the following essay, Emerson deploys Freudian analysis to interpret and explore the thematic significance of edited collection Grinev's dream in The Captain's Daughter.] In his historical drama Boris Godunov, Pushkin gives the persuasive, novice Grigorii a dream. The young man climbs a winding staircase to a tower, from which Moscow seems an anthill; the milling crowd below looks up and laughs; Grigorii is ashamed, terrified, falls headfirst, and edited of essays, awakes. On East India Best. The monk Pimen interrupts the writing of his chronicle to recommend fasting and prayer to calm. Collection. (The entire section is 8708 words.) SOURCE: Introduction, in Alexander Pushkin: Complete Prose Fiction, Stanford University Press, 1983, pp. 1-7. [ In the following essay, Debreczeny places Pushkin's prose within the context of European-influenced Russian fiction and essay introduction, suggests that even Pushkin's incomplete prose fragments were influential. ] Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin, widely acknowledged the progenitor of modern Russian literature, was born in 1799 and of essays, died of a wound received in a duel in 1837. His greatest achievement was in poetry—lyrical, epic, dramatic—and he did not turn to prose in essay on killing, a serious way until the end of the 1820's, but the fiction he wrote in edited, the last decade of his life was to have. For Renting Vs Buy. (The entire section is 2768 words.) John Mersereau, Jr. (essay date 1983) SOURCE: Pushkin's Belkin Tales, in Russian Romantic Fiction, Ardis Publishers, 1983, 127-41. [ In the following essay, Mersereau analyzes Pushkin's prose fiction—particularly the Tales of Belkin— tracing influences of the tales and viewing them as part of a story cycle. ] The best authors of the Romantic period began their careers as poets, and among them only Perovsky-Pogorelsky was exclusively a prose fictionist.
Not surprisingly, Alexander Pushkin displayed an extraordinary gift for prose, although his talent in that area was hardly recognized during his lifetime—Marlinsky was more to the public taste. It was in the later twenties that Pushkin. (The entire section is 7806 words.) SOURCE: Pushkin's 'Queen of Spades': A Displaced Mother Figure, in American Imago, Vol. 41, No. Collection. 2, Summer, 1984, pp. 201-09. [ In the following essay, Barker argues that Hermann's actions in The Queen of Spades are the result of an unresolved Oedipal fixation. ] Alexander Pushkin's story The Queen of thesis statement lincoln Spades, written in edited of essays, 1833, deals with a young officer named Hermann, who is obsessed with obtaining the secret of three cards which will bring him fabulous wealth. Hermann's single-mindedness in extracting the secret from a rich old countess leads him to court her ward, Lizaveta Ivanovna. As the young officer stands in the countess' boudoir one night. Thesis Lincoln. (The entire section is 2878 words.) SOURCE: Alexander Pushkin: Stories, in A Man of Letters: Selected Essays, Chatto Windus, 1985, pp.
264-68. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1984, Pritchett briefly surveys developments in Pushkin 's short fiction, characterizing his early prose style as expository and scholarly, but praising his later works, especially The Queen of Spades.] The reader who knows no Russian is cut off from Pushkin as a lyrical poet and yet can respond to a narrative poem like Eugene Onegin in, say, Sir Charles Johnston's recent Byronic version and to the volatile wordplay of Nabokov's translation. Like Byron, Pushkin is one of the world's greatest. (The entire section is 2224 words.) SOURCE: Pushkin's Tales, in Partisan Review, Vol. LIX, No. Edited Collection Of Essays. 2, Spring, 1992, pp. 197-215.
[ In the following essay, Bayley places Pushkin's tales within a biographical context and explains the thesis statement, difficulty Westerners often have in detecting the originality of his works .] Pushkin is not only Russia's primary and archetypal author but her most astonishingly versatile one. He was himself fascinated by edited collection of essays Mozart, whose music he deeply admired, and there is essay or west, something Mozartian about his genius, which is in the same manner with variety, gaiety and depth. In one of his Little Tragedies—brief dramas of investigation as he called them—he contrasted the temperament of Mozart. (The entire section is 9234 words.) SOURCE: Prose Writings, in Alexander Pushkin, revised edition, Twayne Publishers, 1992, 122-29. [ In the following excerpt, Vickery presents an overview of Pushkin's short fiction and edited of essays, concludes that his integral contribution to essay the Russian short story lies in his use of narrative technique rather than in the content of his writings .] Pushkin, along with some of his contemporaries, realized early in his literary career that Russian prose had lagged far behind Russian poetry in its achievements. Furthermore, the flowery characteristics of much Russian poetry had infiltrated prose. As early as 1822 he comments, Voltaire may be regarded as an excellent example of. (The entire section is 2982 words.) Bayley, John. Prose. In Pushkin: A Comparative Commentary, pp. Edited. 306-54.
London: Cambridge University Press, 1971. Thesis Statement. Extensive discussion of Pushkin's short stories and other prose works, finished and collection, incomplete. Burgin, Diana Lewis. The Mystery of 'Pikovaja Dama': A New Interpretation. Tourism Essay. Mnemozina: Studia Litteraria Russica 15 (1974): 46-56. Emphasizes the role of mystification, irony, parody, and the supernatural in The Queen of Spades. Collection. Davydov, Sergei. Pushkin's Merry Undertaking and 'The Coffinmaker.' Slavic Review 44, No. 1 (Spring 1985): 30-48. Semantic study of The Coffinmaker that uses. Overpopulation In China Essay. (The entire section is 533 words.) Alexander Pushkin Homework Help Questions. In his introduction to The Complete Prose Tales of Alexandr Sergeyevitch Pushkin, Gillon R. Aitkin makes a number of points about the nature of Pushkin’s short fiction, including the following.
I think that Pushkin was important to Russian literature by being a type of edited collection intellectual bridge to the West. When we examine the growth and statement president, emergence of Romanticism or Neoclassicism in the 17th. Ask a question.
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What is edited, Critique? An Essay on application leave, Foucault’s Virtue. What is it to offer a critique? This is something that, I would wager, most of us understand in some ordinary sense. But matters become more vexing if we attempt to distinguish between a critique of this or that position and edited of essays critique as a more generalized practice, one that might be described without reference to essay or west is the, its specific objects. Can we even ask such a question about the edited collection of essays, generalized character of critique without gesturing toward an essence of critique?
And if we achieved the overpopulation in china essay, generalized picture, offering something which approaches a philosophy of critique, would we then lose the very distinction between philosophy and critique that operates as part of the definition of critique itself? Critique is always a critique of some instituted practice, discourse, episteme, institution, and it loses its character the moment in edited of essays, which it is abstracted from its operation and made to essay on east india best, stand alone as a purely generalizable practice. But if this is true, this does not mean that no generalizations are possible or that, indeed, we are mired in particularisms. On the contrary, we tread here in edited collection of essays, an area of constrained generality, one which broaches the philosophical, but must, if it is to remain critical, remain at a distance from that very achievement. The essay I offer here is about Foucault, but let me begin by suggesting what I take to thesis president, be an interesting parallel between what Raymond Williams and Theodor Adorno, in different ways, sought to accomplish under the name of edited collection of essays, “criticism” and what Foucault sought to understand by “critique.” I maintain that something of Foucault’s own contribution to, and alliance with, a progressive political philosophy will be made clear in the course of the comparison. Raymond Williams worried that the notion of criticism has been unduly restricted to the notion of “fault-finding” and proposed that we find a vocabulary for the kinds of responses we have, specifically to president lincoln, cultural works, “which [do] not assume the habit (or right or duty) of judgment.” And what he called for was a more specific kind of response, one that did not generalize too quickly: “what always needs to be understood,” he wrote, “is the specificity of the response, which is not a judgment, but a practice.”(76) I believe this last line also marks the of essays, trajectory of essay, Foucault’s thinking on this topic, since “critique” is precisely a practice that not only suspends judgment for of essays, him, but offers a new practice of essay or west india is the, values based on that very suspension. So, for Williams, the practice of critique is not reducible to arriving at judgments (and expressing them). Significantly, Adorno makes a similar claim when he writes of the “danger. of judging intellectual phenomena in a subsumptive, uninformed and administrative manner and assimilating them into the prevailing constellations of power which the intellect ought to edited, expose.” So, the task of exposing those “constellations of power” is impeded by the rush to “judgment” as the essay on east best, exemplary act of critique. For Adorno, the very operation of judgment serves to separate the edited collection of essays, critic from the social world at hand, a move which deratifies the results of its own operation, constituting a “withdrawal from praxis.” (23) Adorno writes that the critic’s “very sovereignty, the claim to a more profound knowledge of the object, the overpopulation, separation of the idea from its object through the independence of the edited collection of essays, critical judgment threatens to succumb to the thinglike form of the object when cultural criticism appeals to a collection of ideas on display, as it were, and fetishizes isolated categories.”(23) For critique to operate as part of a praxis, for Adorno, is for it to apprehend the ways in which categories are themselves instituted, how the field of statement for renting vs buy, knowledge is ordered, and how what it suppresses returns, as it were, as its own constitutive occlusion. Judgments operate for both thinkers as ways to subsume a particular under an collection, already constituted category, whereas critique asks after the occlusive constitution of the field of categories themselves. What becomes especially important for Foucault in essay, this domain, to of essays, try to on east india is the, think the problem of freedom and, indeed, ethics in general, beyond judgment: critical thinking constitutes this kind of effort.
In 1978, Foucault delivered a lecture entitled, “What is Critique?”, a piece that prepared the collection of essays, way for his more well-known essay, “What is Enlightenment?” (1984). He not only asks what critique is, but seeks to understand the kind of question that critique institutes, offering some tentative ways of circumscribing its activity. What remains perhaps most important about thesis that lecture, and the more developed essay that followed, is the question form in which the edited collection of essays, matter is put. For the very question, “what is letter for study leave, critique?” is an instance of the critical enterprise in edited collection, question, and so the question not only poses the problem—what is this critique that we supposedly do or, indeed, aspire to do?—but enacts a certain mode of questioning which will prove central to the activity of critique itself. Indeed, I would suggest that what Foucault seeks to do with this question is something quite different from what we have perhaps come to expect from critique. Habermas made the operation of statement president lincoln, critique quite problematic when he suggested that a move beyond critical theory was required if we are to edited of essays, seek recourse to norms in making evaluative judgments about social conditions and social goals.
The perspective of critique, in his view, is able to call foundations into question, denaturalize social and political hierarchy, and even establish perspectives by which a certain distance on the naturalized world can be had. Application! But none of these activities can tell us in what direction we ought to move, nor can they tell us whether the activities in which we engage are realizing certain kinds of normatively justified goals. Hence, in his view, critical theory had to edited, give way to a stronger normative theory, such as communicative action, in order to supply a foundation for critical theory, enabling strong normative judgments to be made, and for politics not only to essay, have a clear aim and normative aspiration, but for us to edited, be able to evaluate current practices in terms of their abilities to for renting, reach those goals. In making this kind of criticism of critique, Habermas became curiously uncritical about the very sense of edited collection, normativity he deployed. Introduction! For the question, “what are we to do?” presupposes that the “we” has been formed and that it is known, that its action is possible, and the field in which it might act is delimited. But if those very formations and delimitations have normative consequences, then it will be necessary to ask after the collection, values that set the application letter, stage for action, and this will be an important dimension of any critical inquiry into normative matters. And though the edited collection, Habermasians may have an answer to this problem, my aim today is not to overpopulation essay, rehearse these debates nor to answer them, but to mark the distance between a notion of critique that is characterized as normatively impoverished in some sense, and edited another, which I hope to application letter leave, offer here, which is not only edited, more complex than the usual criticism assumes but which has, I would argue, strong normative commitments that appear in forms that would be difficult, if not impossible, to read within the current grammars of normativity.
Indeed, in statement president, this essay, I hope to show that Foucault not only makes an important contribution to edited, normative theory, but that both his aesthetics and his account of the thesis statement, subject are integrally related to both his ethics and politics. Whereas some have dismissed him as an edited collection, aesthete or, indeed, as a nihilist, I hope to suggest that the foray he makes into the topic of self-making and, by presupposition, into poiesis itself is central to the politics of desubjugation that he proposes. Paradoxically, self-making and desubjugation happen simultaneously when a mode of existence is risked which is letter for study leave, unsupported by what he calls the regime the truth. Foucault begins his discussion by collection of essays, affirming that there are various grammars for persuasive, the term, “critique,” distinguishing between a “high Kantian enterprise” called critique as well as “the little polemical activities that are called critique” (24) Thus, he warns us at the outset that critique will not be one thing, and that we will not be able to collection of essays, define it apart from the various objects by which it itself is india is the, defined. “By its function,” he writes “[critique] seems to be condemned to dispersion, dependency and pure heteronomy.” “It only exists in edited, relation to something other than itself.” Thus, Foucault seeks to define critique, but finds that only essay india best, a series of approximations are possible. Collection Of Essays! Critique will be dependent on statement president, its objects, but its objects will in turn define the very meaning of critique. Further, the primary task of critique will not be to evaluate whether its objects —social conditions, practices, forms of knowledge, power, and discourse—are good or bad, valued highly or demeaned, but to bring into relief the very framework of evaluation itself.
What is the relation of knowledge to power such that our epistemological certainties turn out to support a way of structuring the world that forecloses alternative possibilities of ordering? Of course, we may think that we need epistemological certainty in order to state for sure that the world is and ought to collection of essays, be ordered a given way. To what extent, however, is that certainty orchestrated by forms of knowledge precisely in order to overpopulation in china essay, foreclose the possibility of thinking otherwise? Now, one might wisely ask, what good is thinking otherwise, if we don’t know in of essays, advance that thinking otherwise will produce a better world? If we do not have a moral framework in which to in china, decide with knowingness that certain new possibilities or ways of thinking otherwise will bring forth that world whose betterness we can judge by edited, sure and already established standards? This has become something of a regular rejoinder to Foucault and the Foucaultian-minded. And shall we assume that the essay, relative silence that has greeted this habit of fault-finding in Foucault is a sign that his theory has no reassuring answers to give? I think we can assume that the answers that are being proffered do not have reassurance as their primary aim. This is, of course, not to say what withdraws reassurance is, by definition, not an answer. Indeed, the only rejoinder, it seems to me, is to return to edited of essays, a more fundamental meaning of “critique” in on east india, order to see what may well be wrong with the question as it is edited collection, posed and, indeed, to pose the question anew, so that a more productive approach to the place of ethics within politics might be mapped. Vs Buy! One might wonder, indeed, whether what I mean by collection, “productive” will be gauged by standards and measures that I am willing to thesis statement, reveal, or which I grasp in full at the moment in which I make such a claim.
But here I would ask for your patience since it turns out that critique is a practice that requires a certain amount of patience in the same way that reading, according to Nietzsche, required that we act a bit more like cows than humans and learn the art of slow rumination. Foucault’s contribution to what appears as an impasse within critical and post-critical theory of of essays, our time is precisely to ask us to essay on east or west, rethink critique as a practice in which we pose the question of the of essays, limits of our most sure ways of letter, knowing, what Williams referred to as our “uncritical habits of collection, mind” and what Adorno described as ideology (where the “unideological thought is introduction, that which does not permit itself to be reduced to ‘operational terms’ and instead strives solely to help the things themselves to that articulation from which they are otherwise cut off by the prevailing language.”) One does not drive to the limits for a thrill experience, or because limits are dangerous and sexy, or because it brings us into a titillating proximity with evil. One asks about the limits of edited, ways of knowing because one has already run up against overpopulation in china essay, a crisis within the epistemological field in which one lives. Collection Of Essays! The categories by which social life are ordered produce a certain incoherence or entire realms of unspeakability. On Killing! And it is from this condition, the tear in the fabric of our epistemological web, that the practice of critique emerges, with the awareness that no discourse is adequate here or that our reigning discourses have produced an impasse.
Indeed, the very debate in which the strong normative view wars with critical theory may produce precisely that form of discursive impasse from which the necessity and urgency of critique emerges. For Foucault, critique is “a means for a future or a truth that it will not know nor happen to be, it oversees a domain it would not want to police and is unable to regulate.” So critique will be that perspective on edited, established and ordering ways of knowing which is essay, not immediately assimilated into that ordering function. Significantly, for Foucault, this exposure of the limit of the collection of essays, epistemological field is linked with the practice of persuasive essay, virtue, as if virtue is counter to regulation and order, as if virtue itself is to be found in the risking of edited of essays, established order. He is not shy about the relation here. Introduction! He writes, “there is something in critique that is akin to virtue.” And then he says something which might be considered even more surprising: “this critical attitude [is] virtue in general.” (25) There are some preliminary ways we can understand Foucault’s effort to cast critique as virtue. Virtue is collection, most often understood either as an attribute or a practice of a subject, or indeed a quality that conditions and application letter leave characterizes a certain kind of action or practice. It belongs to an ethics which is edited of essays, not fulfilled merely by following objectively formulated rules or laws. And virtue is not only a way of complying with or conforming with preestablished norms.
It is, more radically, a critical relation to those norms, one which, for Foucault, takes shape as a specific stylization of application for study, morality. Foucault gives us an indication of what he means by virtue in of essays, the introduction to The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two.  At this juncture he makes clear that he seeks to move beyond a notion of ethical philosophy that issues a set of prescriptions. Just as critique intersects with philosophy without quite coinciding with it, so Foucault in that introduction seeks to make of his own thought an example of a non-prescriptive form of moral inquiry. In the same way, he will later ask about forms of for renting vs buy, moral experience that are not rigidly defined by a juridical law, a rule or command to which the self is said mechanically or uniformly to submit. The essay that he writes, he tells us, is itself the example of such a practice, “to explore what might be changed, in edited, its own thought, through the practice of persuasive on killing, a knowledge that is foreign to it.” (9) Moral experience has to of essays, do with a self-transformation prompted by a form of knowledge that is foreign to overpopulation, one’s own. And this form of moral experience will be different from the submission to a command. Indeed, to collection, the extent that Foucault interrogates moral experience here or elsewhere, he understands himself to be making an inquiry into moral experiences that are not primarily or fundamentally structured by prohibition or interdiction. In the first volume of The History of essay, Sexuality , he sought to show that the primary interdictions assumed by psychoanalysis and the structuralist account of cultural prohibitions cannot be assumed as historical constants. Moreover, historiographically considered, moral experience cannot be understood through recourse to a prevailing set of interdictions within a given historical time. Although there are codes to be studied, these codes must always be studied in relation to the modes of subjectivation to which they correspond. He makes the claim that the juridification of law achieves a certain hegemony within the edited collection, thirteenth century, but that if one goes back to tourism essay, Greek and Roman classical cultures, one finds practices, or “arts of existence” (10) which have to do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself.
Introducing the notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also reintroduces and reemphasizes “intentional and voluntary actions,” specifically, “those actions by which men not only set themselves rules of conduct, but also seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to edited collection, make their life into an oeuvre.” Such lives do not simply conform to thesis statement president, moral precepts or norms in such a way that selves, considered preformed or ready-made, fit themselves into a mold that is set forth by the precept. On the edited collection, contrary, the self fashions itself in terms of the norm, comes to inhabit and incorporate the norm, but the norm is overpopulation in china essay, not in this sense external to the principle by which the self is formed . What is at issue for him is not behaviors or ideas or societies or “ideologies,” but “the problematizations through which being offers itself to be, necessarily, thought—and the practices on the basis of which these problematizations are formed.”(11) This last claim is hardly transparent, but what it suggests is that certain kinds of practices which are designed to handle certain kinds of problems produce, over time, a settled domain of ontology as their consequence, and this ontological domain, in turn, constrains our understanding of what is possible. Only with reference to this prevailing ontological horizon, itself instituted through a set of practices, will we be able to understand the kinds of relations to moral precepts that have been formed as well as those that are yet to be formed. For instance, he considers at length various practices of edited collection of essays, austerity, and he ties these to the production of a certain kind of masculine subject. The practices of austerity do not attest to a single and abiding prohibition, but work in the service of crafting a certain kind of self.
Or put in a more precise way, the self, incorporating the rules of conduct that represent the virtue of austerity, creates itself as a specific kind of thesis vs buy, subject. This self-production is “the elaboration and stylization of an activity in the exercise of its power and the practice of its liberty.” This was not a practice that opposed pleasure pure and simple, but a certain practice of pleasure itself (24), a practice of pleasure in the context of moral experience. Thus, in edited collection, section 3 of that same introduction, Foucault makes clear that it will not suffice to offer a chronicled history of moral codes, for overpopulation in china, such a history cannot tell us how these codes were lived and, more specifically, what forms of subject-formation such codes required and facilitated. Here he begins to sound like a phenomenologist. But there is, in addition to the recourse to the experiential means by which moral categories are grasped, a critical move as well, for the subjective relation to those norms will be neither predictable nor mechanical. The relation will be ‘critical’ in the sense that it will not comply with a given category, but rather constitute an interrogatory relation to collection of essays, the field of categorization itself, referring at least implicitly to thesis statement, the limits of the epistemological horizon within which practices are formed. The point will not be to refer practice to a pregiven epistemological context, but to edited collection of essays, establish critique as the very practice that exposes the limits of that epistemological horizon itself, making the contours of the horizon appear, as it were, for the first time, we might say, in relation to its own limit. Moreover, the critical practice in thesis vs buy, question turns out to entail self-transformation in relation to a rule of conduct.
How, then, does self-transformation lead to the exposure of this limit? How is self-transformation understood as a “practice of collection, liberty,” and how is this practice understood as part of Foucault’s lexicon of virtue? Let us begin first by understanding the essay on east, notion of edited collection, self-transformation at stake here, and then consider how it is statement lincoln, related to edited collection, the problem called “critique” which forms the focus of our deliberations here. It is, of course, one thing to conduct oneself in relation to a code of conduct, and it is another thing to form oneself as an ethical subject in on east india, relation to a code of conduct (and it will be yet another thing to form oneself as that which risks the orderliness of the code itself). The rules of chastity provide an collection, important example for Foucault. Or West Is The Best! There is a difference, for instance, in not acting on edited collection, desires that would violate a precept to which one is overpopulation, morally bound and developing a practice of desire, so to speak, which is informed by a certain ethical project or task.
The model according to which submitting to a rule of law is required would involve one in not acting in certain ways, installing an effective prohibition against the acting out of certain desires. But the model which Foucault seeks to understand and, indeed, to incorporate and exemplify takes moral prescription to participate in the forming of of essays, a kind of action. Foucault’s point here seems to be that renunciation and proscription do not necessarily enjoin a passive or non-active ethical mode, but form instead an ethical mode of conduct and a way of stylizing both action and pleasure. I believe this contrast that Foucault lays out between a command-based ethics and the ethical practice which centrally engages the essay on killing, formation of the self sheds important light on the distinction between obedience and virtue that he offers in his essay, “What is Critique?” Foucault contrasts this yet to be defined understanding of “virtue” with obedience, showing how the possibility of this form of virtue is collection, established through its difference from an thesis for renting, uncritical obedience to authority. The resistance to authority, of course, constitutes the hallmark of the Enlightenment for Foucault. And he offers us a reading of the collection of essays, Enlightenment which not only establishes his own continuity with its aims, but reads his own dilemmas back into the history of the Enlightenment itself. The account he provides is one that no “Enlightenment” thinker would accept, but this resistance would not invalidate the characterization at hand, for overpopulation in china, what Foucault seeks in the characterization of the Enlightenment is precisely what remains “unthought” within its own terms: hence, his is a critical history. In his view, critique begins with questioning the demand for absolute obedience and subjecting every governmental obligation imposed on subjects to a rational and reflective evaluation. Although Foucault will not follow this turn to reason, he will nevertheless ask what criteria delimit the edited collection of essays, sorts of essay on killing animals, reasons that can come to bear on the question of obedience. He will be particularly interested in the problem of how that delimited field forms the subject and how, in turn, a subject comes to form and reform those reasons.
This capacity to form reasons will be importantly linked to the self-transformative relation mentioned above. To be critical of an authority that poses as absolute requires a critical practice that has self-transformation at edited collection of essays, its core. But how do we move from understanding the reasons we might have for consenting to a demand to forming those reasons for thesis for renting vs buy, ourselves, to transforming ourselves in the course of producing those reasons (and, finally, putting at risk the of essays, field of reason itself)? Are these not distinct kinds of problems, or does one invariably lead to the other? Is the on east or west is the, autonomy achieved in forming reasons which serve as the basis for accepting or rejecting a pregiven law the collection, same as the transformation of the self that takes place when a rule becomes incorporated into the very action of the subject? As we shall see, both the transformation of the self in relation to ethical precepts and the practice of critique are considered forms of “art,” stylizations and repetitions, suggesting that there is no possibility of accepting or refusing a rule without a self who is essay, stylized in response to the ethical demand upon it.
In the context where obedience is required, Foucault locates the desire that informs the question, “how not to be governed?” (28) This desire, and the wonderment that follows from it, forms the central impetus of collection, critique. It is of course unclear how the desire not to be governed is linked with virtue. He does make clear, however, that he is not posing the leave, possibility of radical anarchy, and that the question is not how to become radically ungovernable. Edited Of Essays! It is a specific question that emerges in relation to a specific form of government: “how not to be governed like that , by that, in the name of those principles, with such and such an objective in persuasive essay on killing, mind and by means of such procedures, not like that, not for that, not by them.” This becomes the signature mark of “the critical attitude”(28) and its particular virtue. For Foucault, the question itself inaugurates both a moral and collection political attitude, “the art of on east or west india is the, not being governed or, better, the art of not being governed like that and at that cost.”(29) Whatever virtue Foucault here circumscribes for us will have to do with objecting to that imposition of power, to edited collection of essays, its costs, to the way in which it is administered, to those who do that administering. One might be tempted to think that Foucault is simply describing resistance, but here it seems that “virtue” has taken the place of that term, or becomes the means by which it is or west india, redescribed. We will have to ask why.
Moreover, this virtue is described as well as an “art,” the art of not being governed “quite so much,” so what is the edited collection, relation between aesthetics and ethics at work here? He finds the origins of critique in the relation of resistance to ecclesiastical authority. In relation to church doctrine, “not wanting to be governed was a certain way of refusing, challenging, limiting (say it as you like) ecclesiastical rule. It meant returning to the Scriptures. it meant questioning what kind of truth the Scriptures told.” (30). Essay Or West Is The! And this objection was clearly waged in collection of essays, the name of an essay, alternative or, minimally, emerging ground of truth and of justice. This leads Foucault to formulate a second definition of “critique”: “Not to want to be governed. not wanting to accept these laws because they are unjust because. they hide a fundamental illegitimacy.”(30)
Critique is that which exposes this illegitimacy, but it is not because critique has recourse to a more fundamental political or moral order. Foucault writes that the critical project is “confronted with government and collection of essays the obedience it stipulates” and for renting vs buy that what “critique means” in collection, this context is “putting forth universal and indefeasible rights to which every government, whatever it may be, whether a monarch, a magistrate, an educator or a pater familias, will have to submit.”(30). The practice of critique, however, does not discover these universal rights, as Enlightenment theorists claim, but it does “put them forth.” However, it does not put them forth not as positive rights. The “putting forth” is an letter for study, act which limits the collection, power of the law, an act which counters and rivals the workings of power, power at the moment of its renewal. This is the thesis, positing of limitation itself, one that takes form as a question and which asserts, in its very assertion, a “right” to question. Edited Collection Of Essays! From the thesis for renting, sixteenth century on, the question “how not to be governed” becomes specified as “What are the limits of the right to govern?”(31) “‘To not want to be governed’ is of course not accepting as true. Edited! what an authority tells you is true, or at least not accepting it because an authority tells you that it is true, but rather accepting it only if one considers valid the reasons for doing so.” There is of course a fair amount of ambiguity in this situation, for what will constitute a ground of validity for accepting authority? Does the president lincoln, validity derive from the collection of essays, consent to accept authority? If so, does consent validate the reasons offered, whatever they are? Or is it rather the case that it is only on for renting, the basis of a prior and discoverable validity that one offers one’s consent? And do these prior reasons, in their validity, make the consent a valid one? If the first alternative is correct, then consent is the criterion by which validity is judged, and it would appear that Foucault’s position reduces to a form of voluntarism.
But perhaps what he is offering us by edited collection, way of “critique” is an act, even a practice of application letter, freedom, which cannot reduce to voluntarism in any easy way. For the practice by which the limits to absolute authority are set is one that is fundamentally dependent on the horizon of knowledge effects within which it operates. Edited Collection Of Essays! The critical practice does not well up from the innate freedom of the soul, but is formed instead in the crucible of a particular exchange between a set of rules or precepts (which are already there) and a stylization of acts (which extends and reformulates that prior set of rules and precepts). This stylization of the essay on east or west, self in relation to the rules comes to count as a “practice.” In Foucault’s view, following Kant in an attenuated sense, the of essays, act of consent is a reflexive movement by persuasive animals, which validity is attributed to or withdrawn from authority. But this reflexivity does not take place internal to a subject. For Foucault, this is an act which poses some risk, for the point will not only be to object to this or that governmental demand, but to ask about the order in which such a demand becomes legible and possible. And if what one objects to are the epistemological orderings that have established the rules of governmental validity, then saying “no” to edited collection of essays, the demand will require departing from the established grounds of its validity, marking the animals, limit of that validity, which is something different and edited far more risky than finding a given demand invalid.
In this difference, we might say, one begins to essay introduction, enter a critical relation to such orderings and the ethical precepts to which they give rise. The problem with those grounds that Foucault calls “illegitimate” is not that they are partial or self-contradictory or that they lead to hypocritical moral stands. The problem is precisely that they seek to edited, foreclose the critical relation, that is, to extend their own power to essay animals, order the entire field of moral and political judgment. They orchestrate and exhaust the field of certainty itself. Of Essays! How does one call into question the exhaustive hold that such rules of ordering have upon certainty without risking uncertainty, without inhabiting that place of wavering which exposes one to the charge of immorality, evil, aestheticism. The critical attitude is not moral according to persuasive, the rules whose limits that very critical relation seeks to interrogate. But how else can critique do its job without risking the denunciations of collection, those who naturalize and render hegemonic the very moral terms put into question by critique itself? Foucault’s distinction between government and governmentalization seeks to show that the apparatus denoted by the former enters into the practices of those who are being governed, their very ways of knowing, their very ways of statement, being. To be governed is not only to have a form imposed upon one’s existence, but to be given the terms within which existence will and will not be possible. A subject will emerge in relation to an established order of truth, but it can also take a point of collection of essays, view on that established order that retrospectively suspends its own ontological ground. If governmentalization is. this movement through which individuals are subjugated in the reality of tourism, a social practice through mechanisms of edited of essays, power that adhere to a truth, well, then!
I will say that critique is the essay on east india is the, movement by which the subject gives himself the right (le sujet se donne le droit) to question truth on its effects of power and question power on its discourses of of essays, truth. (my emphasis, English text, 32; French text, 39) Note here that the subject is said to “give himself that right,” a mode of self-allocation and selfauthorization that seems to foreground the reflexivity of the claim. Is this, then, a self-generated movement, one which shores up the subject over and against a countervailing authority? And what difference does it make, if any, that this self-allocation and self-designation emerges as an “art”? “Critique,” he writes, “will be the art of voluntary insubordination, that of in china essay, reflected intractability [ l’indocilite reflechie ].” If it is an “art” in his sense, then critique will not be a single act, nor will it belong exclusively to a subjective domain, for it will be the stylized relation to the demand upon edited of essays it. And the style will be critical to the extent that, as style, it is not fully determined in advance, it incorporates a contingency over time that marks the limits to the ordering capacity of the field in question. Thesis Vs Buy! So the edited collection, stylization of this “will” will produce a subject who is not readily knowable under the president lincoln, established rubric of truth.
More radically, Foucault pronounces: “Critique would essentially insure the desubjugation [ desassujetiisement ] of the subject in the context [ le jeu ] of what we could call, in edited, a word, the politics of overpopulation in china, truth.” (32, 39) The politics of truth pertains to those relations of power that circumscribe in advance what will and will not count as truth, which order the collection, world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and tourism essay which we come to accept as the edited, given field of knowledge. We can understand the animals, salience of this point when we begin to ask: What counts as a person? What counts as a coherent gender? What qualifies as a citizen? Whose world is legitimated as real? Subjectively, we ask: Who can I become in of essays, such a world where the meanings and limits of the subject are set out in advance for me? By what norms am I constrained as I begin to ask what I may become? And what happens when I begin to statement for renting vs buy, become that for collection of essays, which there is no place within the or west india best, given regime of truth? Is this not precisely what is meant by “the desubjugation of the subject in the play of. the politics of truth”(my translation)?
At stake here is the relation between the edited collection of essays, limits of ontology and epistemology, the link between the limits of what I might become and the limits of application, what I might risk knowing. Deriving a sense of critique from edited Kant, Foucault poses the question that is the question of critique itself: “Do you know up to what point you can know?” “Our liberty is at stake.” Thus, liberty emerges at the limits of what one can know, at the very moment in which the desubjugation of the subject within the introduction, politics of collection, truth takes place, the moment where a certain questioning practice begins that takes the following form: “‘What, therefore, am I’, I who belong to this humanity, perhaps to this piece of essay introduction, it, at this point in time, at this instant of humanity which is subjected to the power of truth in general and edited collection of essays truths in particular?”(46) Another way of putting this is the following: “What, given the contemporary order of being, can I be?” If, in posing this question, liberty is at stake, it may be that staking liberty has something to do with what Foucault calls virtue, with a certain risk that is essay, put into play through thought and, indeed, through language where the contemporary ordering of edited of essays, being is brought to thesis statement president, its limit. But how do we understand this contemporary order of being in which I come to stake myself? Foucault chooses here to edited collection of essays, characterize this historically conditioned order of being in a way that links him with the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, identifying “rationalization” as the governmentalizing effect on ontology. Allying himself with a Left critical tradition post-Kant, Foucault writes, From the Hegelian Left to the Frankfurt School, there has been a complete critique of positivism, rationalization, of techne and technicalization, a whole critique of the relationships between the fundamental project of science and techniques whose objective was to show the connections between science’s naive presumptions, on one hand, and the forms of domination characteristic of contemporary society, on tourism, the other. (39) In his view, rationalization takes a new form when it comes into the service of edited, bio-power. And what continues to be difficult for most social actors and critics within this situation is to statement for renting vs buy, discern the relationship between “rationalization and power.”(39) What appears to be a merely epistemic order, a way of edited, ordering the world, does not readily admit of the constraints by which that ordering takes place.
Nor does it eagerly show the way in which the intensification and totalization of rationalizing effects leads to an intensification of power. Foucault asks, “How is it that rationalization leads to the furor of power?”(42) Clearly, the capacity for rationalization to reach into the tributaries of life not only characterizes modes of scientific practice, “but also social relationships, state organizations, economic practices and perhaps even individual behaviors?”(43) It reaches its “furor” and its limits as it seizes and pervades the subject it subjectivates. Power sets the statement for renting vs buy, limits to what a subject can “be,” beyond which it no longer “is,” or it dwells in a domain of edited collection, suspended ontology. But power seeks to constrain the subject through the force of coercion, and the resistance to coercion consists in tourism essay introduction, the stylization of the self at the limits of established being. One of the first tasks of edited collection, critique is to discern the relation “between mechanisms of coercion and elements of knowledge.” (50) Here again we seem confronted with the limits of what is knowable, limits which exercise a certain force without being grounded in any necessity, limits which can only be tread or interrogated by risking a certain security within an available ontology: [N]othing can exist as an element of knowledge if, on the one hand, it . does not conform to a set of rules and constraints characteristic, for example, of a given type of scientific discourse in a given period, and if, on the other hand, it does not possess the thesis president, effects of coercion or simply the incentives peculiar to what is scientifically validated or simply rational or simply generally accepted, etc. (52) He then continues to show that knowledge and power are not finally separable, but work together to establish a set of subtle and explicit criteria for thinking the world: “It is edited collection of essays, therefore not a matter of describing what knowledge is and what power is and how one would repress the other or how the other would abuse the one, but rather, a nexus of knowledge-power has to be described so that we can grasp what constitutes the acceptability of essay, a system.” (52-53) The critic thus has a double task, to collection, show how knowledge and power work to constitute a more or less systematic way of ordering the world with its own “conditions of acceptability of a system,” but also “to follow the breaking points which indicate its emergence.” So not only is letter, it necessary to isolate and identify the peculiar nexus of power and knowledge that gives rise to the field of intelligible things, but also to track the way in which that field meets its breaking point, the moments of its discontinuities, the sites where it fails to constitute the intelligibility for which it stands. What this means is edited collection, that one looks both for the conditions by which the object field is constituted, but also for the limits of those conditions, the essay, moments where they point up their contingency and their transformability. In Foucault’s terms, “schematically speaking, we have perpetual mobility, essential fragility or rather the complex interplay between what replicates the same process and collection of essays what transforms it.” (58) Indeed, another way to talk about thesis statement for renting this dynamic within critique is to say that rationalization meets its limits in desubjugation.
If the desubjugation of the subject emerges at the moment in edited collection, which the episteme constituted through rationalization exposes its limit, then desubjugation marks precisely the fragility and transformability of the epistemics of power. Critique begins with the presumption of governmentalization and then with its failure to thesis statement president lincoln, totalize the subject its seeks to know and to subjugate. But the means by which this very relation is of essays, articulated is statement, described, in a disconcerting way, as fiction. Why would it be fiction? And in what sense is it fiction? Foucault refers to “an historical-philosophical practice [in which] one had to edited collection of essays, make one’s own history, fabricate history, as if through fiction [ de faire comme par fiction ], in terms of how it would be traversed by the question of the relationships between structures of rationality which articulate true discourse and the mechanisms of subjugation which are linked to it.” (45, 44) There is thus a dimension of the methodology itself which partakes of fiction, which draws fictional lines between rationalization and desubjugation, between the knowledge-power nexus and its fragility and limit.
We are not told what sort of fiction this will be, but it seems clear that Foucault is drawing on Nietzsche and, in thesis statement for renting, particular, the kind of fiction that genealogy is said to be. You may remember that although it seems that for Nietzsche the genealogy of morals is the attempt to locate the origins of values, he is actually seeking to find out how the very notion of the origin became instituted. And the means by which he seeks to of essays, explain the overpopulation, origin is fictional. Edited! He tells a fable of the nobles, another about a social contract, another about a slave revolt in morality, and yet another about creditor and debtor relations. None of these fables can be located in space or time, and overpopulation essay any effort to try to find the historical complement to Nietzsche’s genealogies will necessarily fail. Indeed, in edited, the place of an account that finds the origin to values or, indeed, the origin of the origin, we read fictional stories about the way that values are originated. A noble says something is the letter for study leave, case and it becomes the case: the speech act inaugurates the value, and becomes something like an edited, atopical and atemporal occasion for the origination of values.
Indeed, Nietzsche’s own fiction-making mirrors the very acts of inauguration that he attributes to those who make values. Application Letter For Study Leave! So he not only describes that process, but that description becomes an instance of value- production, enacting the very process that it narrates. How would this particular use of edited collection, fiction relate to Foucault’s notion of essay, critique? Consider that Foucault is trying to understand the possibility of desubjugation within rationalization without assuming that there is a source for resistance that is housed in the subject or maintained in some foundational mode. Where does resistance come from? Can it be said to be the upsurge of some human freedom shackled by the powers of rationalization?
If he speaks, as he does, of a will not to collection, be governed, how are we to understand the status of that will? In response to a query along these lines, he remarks. I do not think that the will not to be governed at all is something that one could consider an originary aspiration ( je ne pense pas en effet que la volonte de n’etre pas gouverne du tout soit quelque chose que l’on puisse considerer comme une aspiration originaire) . Essay Or West! I think that, in edited collection, fact, the will not to essay introduction, be governed is always the will not to be governed thusly, like that, by edited of essays, these people, at this price. (72) He goes on to warn against the absolutizing of lincoln, this will that philosophy is always tempted to perform. He seeks to avoid what he calls “the philosophical and theoretical paroxysm of something that would be this will not to be relatively governed.”(72-73) He makes clear that accounting for this will involves him in a problem of the origin, and he comes quite close to ceding the terrain, but a certain Nietzschean reluctance prevails.
He writes, I was not referring to something that would be a fundamental anarchism, that would be like an originary freedom ( qui serait comme la liberte originaire ), absolutely and wholeheartedly ( absolument et en son fond) resistant to collection, any governmentalization. I did not say it, but this does not mean that I absolutely exclude it ( Je ne l’ai pas dit, mais cela ne veut pas dire que je l’exclus absolument ). Thesis For Renting Vs Buy! I think that my presentation stops at this point, because it was already too long, but also because I am wondering ( mais aussi parce que je me demande ). if one wants to explore this dimension of critique that seems to me to edited of essays, be so important because it is both part of, and not part of, philosophy. it is supported by essay on east best, something akin ( qui serait ou ) to the historical practice of revolt, the non-acceptance of a real government, on one hand, or, on the other, the individual refusal of governmentality.”(72-73, 59) Whatever this is edited, that one draws upon as one resists governmentalization will be “ like an originary freedom” and “something akin to the historical practice of revolt” (my emphasis). Like them, indeed, but apparently not quite the same. As for Foucault’s mention of for study leave, “originary freedom,” he offers and withdraws it at once. “I did not say it,” he remarks, after coming quite close to saying it, after showing us how he almost said it, after exercising that very proximity in the open for us in what can be understood as something of a tease. What discourse nearly seduces him here, subjugating him to its terms?
And how does he draw from the very terms that he refuses? What art form is this in collection, which a nearly collapsible critical distance is performed for us? And is this the same distance that informs the practice of wondering, of overpopulation in china essay, questioning? What limits of collection of essays, knowing does he dare to broach as he wonders out essay or west is the best, loud for us? The inaugural scene of collection, critique involves “the art of voluntary insubordination,” and the voluntary or, indeed, “originary freedom” is given here, but in the form of a conjecture, in a form of essay on killing animals, art that suspends ontology and brings us into the suspension of edited collection, disbelief. Foucault finds a way to say “originary freedom,” and I suppose that it gives him great pleasure to utter these words, pleasure and thesis lincoln fear. He speaks them, but only through staging the words, relieving himself of an ontological commitment, but releasing the words themselves for a certain use. Does he refer to originary freedom here? Does he seek recourse to it? Has he found the well of originary freedom and drunk from it?
Or does he, significantly, posit it, mention it, say it without quite saying it? Is he invoking it so that we might relive its resonances, and collection of essays know its power? The staging of the thesis statement for renting vs buy, term is not its assertion, but we might say that the assertion is staged, rendered artfully, subjected to an ontological suspension, precisely so it might be spoken. And that it is this speech act, the one which for a time relieves the phrase, “originary freedom,” from the edited collection of essays, epistemic politics within which it lives which also performs a certain desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth. For when one speaks in that way, one is gripped and freed by the words one nevertheless says. Of course, politics is not simply a matter of speaking, and I do not mean to rehabilitate Aristotle in essay, the form of Foucault (although, I confess, that such a move intrigues me, and I mention it here to offer it as a possibility without committing myself to edited, it at thesis, once).
In this verbal gesture toward the end of his lecture, a certain freedom is exemplified, not by the reference to the term without any foundational anchor, but by the artful performance of its release from its usual discursive constraints, from the conceit that one might only utter it knowing in edited collection of essays, advance what its anchor must be. Foucault’s gesture is oddly brave, I would suggest, for it knows that it cannot ground the on east or west is the best, claim of original freedom. Collection! This not knowing permits for the particular use it has within his discourse. Thesis Lincoln! He braves it anyway, and so his mention, his insistence, become an collection, allegory for a certain risk-taking that happens at the limit of the epistemological field. And this becomes a practice of virtue, perhaps, and not, as his critics profess, a sign of moral despair, precisely to the extent that the practice of this kind of speaking posits a value which it does not know how to ground or to secure for overpopulation in china essay, itself, posits it anyway, and thereby shows that a certain intelligibility exceeds the limits on intelligibility that power-knowledge has already set. This is virtue in the minimal sense precisely because it offers the perspective by which the subject gains a critical distance on established authority. But it is edited collection, also an act of courage, acting without guarantees, risking the subject at for study leave, the limits of collection of essays, its ordering.
Who would Foucault be if he were to utter such words? What desubjugation does he perform for us with this utterance? To gain a critical distance from persuasive on killing animals established authority means for Foucault not only to recognize the ways in which the coercive effects of knowledge are at work in subject-formation itself, but to risk one’s very formation as a subject. Edited! Thus, in “The Subject and for study leave Power,” Foucault will claim “this form of power [that] applies itself to immediate, everyday life which categorizes the edited of essays, individual, marks him by his own individuality, attaches him to his own identity, imposes a law of truth on statement president lincoln, him which he must recognize and which others have to recognize in him.”(212) And when that law falters or is broken, the very possibility of recognition is imperiled. So when we ask how we might say “originary freedom,” and say it in the wondering, we also put into question the subject who is said to be rooted in edited collection of essays, that term, releasing it, paradoxically, for a venture which might actually give the term new substance and possibility. In concluding, I would simply return to the introduction to The Use of Pleasure where Foucault defines the practices that concern him, the “arts of existence” (10), as having to do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself. This kind of formulation brings us closer to the strange sort of virtue that Foucault’s antifoundationalism comes to application letter for study, represent. Indeed, as I wrote earlier, when he introduces the notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also refers to collection, such arts of existence as producing subjects who “seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” We might think that this gives support to the charge that Foucault has fully aestheticized existence at the expense of ethics, but I would suggest only that he has shown us that there can be no ethics, and no politics, without recourse to this singular sense of poiesis.
The subject who is formed by the principles furnished by the discourse of truth is statement president, not yet the subject who endeavors to form itself. Engaged in “arts of existence,” this subject is both crafted and crafting, and edited the line between how it is formed, and how it becomes a kind of forming, is not easily, if ever drawn. Tourism Essay Introduction! For it is not the case that a subject is formed and then turns around and begins suddenly to form itself. On the contrary, the formation of the subject is the of essays, institution of the very reflexivity that indistinguishably assumes the thesis, burden of formation. The “indistinguishability” of this line is precisely the juncture where social norms intersect with ethical demands, and where both are produced in the context of a self-making which is never fully self-inaugurated. Although Foucault refers quite straightforwardly to intention and deliberation in this text, he also lets us know how difficult it will be to understand this self-stylization in terms of any received understanding of collection of essays, intention and deliberation. For an understanding of the revision of terms that his usage requires, Foucault introduces the terms, “modes of subjection or subjectivation.” These terms do not simply relate the way a subject is formed, but how it becomes self-forming. This becoming of an ethical subject is not a simple matter of thesis statement president lincoln, self-knowledge or self-awareness; it denotes a “process in which the edited of essays, individual delimits that part of himself that will form the object of tourism essay, his moral practice.” The self delimits itself, and decides on the material for its self-making, but the delimitation that the self performs takes place through norms which are, indisputably, already in place. Thus, if we think this aesthetic mode of self-making is contextualized within ethical practice, he reminds us that this ethical labor can only edited of essays, take place within a wider political context, the politics of norms. He makes clear that there is no self-forming outside of a mode of subjectivation, which is to say, there is no self-forming outside of the norms that orchestrate the possible formation of the subject. (28)
We have moved quietly from the letter, discursive notion of the subject to collection, a more psychologically resonant notion of “self,” and it may be that for Foucault the latter term carries more agency than the former. The self forms itself, but it forms itself within a set of formative practices that are characterized as modes of subjectivations. That the range of its possible forms is delimited in advance by such modes of subjectivation does not mean that the self fails to form itself, that the self is president lincoln, fully formed. On the contrary, it is compelled to edited collection of essays, form itself, but to form itself within forms that are already more or less in operation and underway. Or, one might say, it is compelled to form itself within practices that are more or less in place. But if that selfforming is done in essay or west is the, disobedience to the principles by which one is formed, then virtue becomes the practice by which the self forms itself in desubjugation, which is to say that it risks its deformation as a subject, occupying that ontologically insecure position which poses the question anew: who will be a subject here, and what will count as a life, a moment of ethical questioning which requires that we break the habits of judgment in edited collection of essays, favor of a riskier practice that seeks to yield artistry from constraint.  This essay was originally delivered, in shorter form, as the Raymond Williams Lecture at Cambridge University in overpopulation in china, May of 2000, then published in longer form in David Ingram, ed., The Political: Readings in Continental Philosophy , London: Basil Blackwell, 2002. I am grateful to William Connolly and Wendy Brown for their very useful comments on of essays, earlier drafts.  Raymond Williams, Keywords , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 75-76.
 Theodor W. Essay Or West! Adorno, “Cultural Criticism and collection Society” in Prisms , (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1984), 30.  Michel Foucault, “What is Critique?” in The Politics of Truth , eds. Sylvere Lotringer and Lysa Hochroth, (New York: Semiotext(e), 1997), transcript by Monique Emery, revised by Suzanne Delorme, et al., translated into English by thesis for renting, Lysa Hochroth. Collection Of Essays! This essay was originally a lecture given at the French Society of Philosophy on 27 May 1978, subsequently published in Bulletin de la Societe francaise de la philosophie 84:2 (1990) 35-63; 21.  For an interesting account of this transition from critical theory to a theory of communicative action, see Seyla Benhabib, Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 1-13.  Michel Foucault, The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two (New York: Pantheon Press, 1985).
 Michel Foucault, The History of essay, Sexuality, Volume One (New York: Random House, 1978).  Michel Foucault, “The Subject and Power” in Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow, eds., Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 208-228.