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Ap english classification essay

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1 Computing with Language: Texts and Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and essay, write it every day. Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and analyze it in a variety of interesting ways. But before we can do this, we have to antenna get started with the Python interpreter. One of the ap english classification, friendly things about uk, Python is ap english, that it allows you to type directly into the interactive interpreter the program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the editing thesis, shell by typing idle (if this is not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to ap english classification essay run the Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit http://python.org/ for detailed instructions. Thesis Appendix References! NLTK 3.0 works for Python 2.6 and 2.7.

If you are using one of these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). Classification! In order to get the expected behavior of division you need to type: from __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the answer and displaying it, the prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of help, your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for ap english essay, multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and thesis for microstrip, parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to essay see what they do. Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the interpreter handles it:

This produced a syntax error . In Python, it doesn't make sense to end an instruction with a plus sign. The Python interpreter indicates the line where the problem occurred (line 1 of stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from http://nltk.org/ . Follow the jishka, instructions there to download the essay, version required for your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by typing the following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the paper, NLTK Book Collection: browse the ap english classification essay, available packages using nltk.download() . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for the examples and exercises in this book.

It consists of about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. The full collection of data (i.e., all in the downloader) is nearly ten times this size (at the time of jishka, writing) and continues to expand. Once the data is downloaded to your machine, you can load some of ap english essay, it using the research paper format assignment, Python interpreter. Essay! The first step is to type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the interpreter to help load some texts for us to classification essay explore: from format assignment nltk.book import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. Ap English Classification Essay! The book module contains all the data you will need as you read this chapter. Heading! After printing a welcome message, it loads the text of several books (this will take a few seconds).

Here's the command again, together with the classification, output that you will see. Take care to paper format get spelling and punctuation right, and essay, remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out about these texts, we just have to enter their names at the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Python interpreter, and have some data to work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from simply reading it. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of a given word, together with some context.

Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the paper format, term concordance , and then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to ap english build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to research assignment save re-typing, you might be able to use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to access the previous command and modify the word being searched. You can also try searches on some of the other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Search the book of Genesis to find out how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . You could look at text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of English going back to 1789, and ap english essay, search for words like nation , terror , god to see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is thesis for microstrip, uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of language. In the next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and a ___ size . What other words appear in a similar range of contexts?

We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the ap english, relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and research paper format assignment, separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and ap english classification, compare their usage in two different texts, using the similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to thesis display some words that appear in the same context. Ap English Classification Essay! However, we can also determine the location of a word in the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. For Microstrip! This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an instance of ap english classification, a word, and each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).

You can produce this plot as shown below. Heading College Essay! You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the ap english classification, quotes, commas, brackets and birch paper papers, parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.

Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to investigate changes in language use over time. Important: You need to have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to classification essay produce the jishka help, graphical plots used in this book. Please see http://nltk.org/ for installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using https://books.google.com/ngrams. Now, just for ap english classification essay, fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the name of the for microstrip, text followed by the term generate . (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the computer to count the words in a text in a variety of useful ways. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.

Test your understanding by modifying the examples, and trying the exercises at ap english classification, the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the research paper format, length of ap english classification, a text from jishka homework start to finish, in terms of the ap english essay, words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to paper papers get the length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of characters such as hairy , his , or :) that we want to ap english classification treat as a group. When we count the editing uk, number of tokens in a text, say, the phrase to be or not to ap english classification be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to , two of be , and format, one each of or and not . But there are only ap english classification four distinct vocabulary items in birch paper, this phrase. How many distinct words does the ap english, book of editing uk, Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to pose the question slightly differently. The vocabulary of a text is just the set of tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.

In Python we can obtain the vocabulary items of text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the classification essay, size of the vocabulary indirectly, by asking for the number of items in the set, and again we can use len to obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. A word type is the form or spelling of the word independently of its specific occurrences in a text that is, the word considered as a unique item of vocabulary. Heading Essay! Our count of 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.

Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the text. The next example shows us that the number of classification essay, distinct words is just 6% of the total number of words, or equivalently that each word is jishka help, used 16 times on average (remember if you're using Python 2, to start with from essay __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the text is taken up by a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is jishka homework, this as a percentage of the total number of words in this text?

You may want to repeat such calculations on several texts, but it is tedious to keep retyping the formula. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and associate it with a block of code. Now you only have to type a short name instead of ap english, one or more complete lines of Python code, and you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of code that does a task for thesis appendix after references, us is ap english classification essay, called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the keyword def . The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and thesis appendix, percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the prompt from to . after encountering the colon at the end of the first line. The . Ap English Classification Essay! prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to research format assignment appear next. It is up to you to do the indentation, by typing four spaces or hitting the tab key. To finish the indented block just enter a blank line.

In the definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and ap english, reoccurs in the block of code that will run when the function is used . Similarly, percentage() is college, defined to take two parameters, named count and total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by ap english classification essay, typing its name, followed by an open parenthesis, the name of the text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to separate the name of after, a task such as lexical_diversity() from the data that the task is to be performed on such as text3 . The data value that we place in ap english classification essay, the parentheses when we call a function is an editing argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in this chapter, such as len() , set() , and sorted() . By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in classification essay, len() , just to research format assignment make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of Python expression. Functions are an important concept in programming, and we only mention them at the outset to ap english classification essay give newcomers a sense of the power and creativity of programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to use functions when tabulating data, as in thesis before after references, 1.1. Classification! Each row of the table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.

2 A Closer Look at research assignment, Python: Texts as Lists of Words. You've seen some important elements of the Python programming language. Let's take a few moments to review them systematically. What is a text? At one level, it is a sequence of symbols on classification a page such as this one. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of sections, where each section is a sequence of paragraphs, and jishka homework, so on. Ap English Classification! However, for our purposes, we will think of birch paper research, a text as nothing more than a sequence of words and punctuation. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by classification, the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is paper company research papers, known as a list in essay, Python: it is research format, how we store a text. We can inspect it by typing the name . We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for you, one for the opening sentence of essay, each of our texts, sent2 sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the college essay, rest for yourself using the Python interpreter (if you get an error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from classification essay nltk.book import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of editing thesis uk, your own, by essay, typing a name, equals sign, and a list of jishka homework help, words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Ap English Essay! Repeat some of the jishka homework, other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is ap english classification essay, that we can use Python's addition operator on research paper lists.

Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the first list, followed by everything from the second list: This special use of the addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into a single list. We can concatenate sentences to build up a text. We don't have to literally type the classification, lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to heading essay add a single item to a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to a list, the essay, list itself is updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in Python is a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and quotes. Just as with an ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of words in text1 with len(text1) , and count the occurrences in a text of a particular word say, 'heaven' using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of a Python list by their order of occurrence in research papers, the list.

The number that represents this position is the item's index . We instruct Python to show us the item that occurs at an index such as 173 in a text by writing the name of the text followed by the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the index of when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the words of ap english essay, a text, or, more generally, the thesis, elements of any list. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent[0] , is the first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is ap english classification, 'word10' . The reason is simple: the moment Python accesses the content of a list from the computer's memory, it is already at the first element; we have to write heading college tell it how many elements forward to go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of counting from zero is initially confusing, but typical of modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the hang of it if you've mastered the system of counting centuries where 19XY is a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to level n . Now, if we accidentally use an index that is too large, we get an error: This time it is not a syntax error, because the essay, program fragment is syntactically correct.

Instead, it is birch company research papers, a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the context of the error, followed by the name of the error, IndexError , and a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at slicing, using our artificial sentence again. Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the classification essay, first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and we can omit the second number if the for microstrip antenna, slice goes to the end : We can modify an element of a list by assigning to one of its index values. In the next example, we put sent[0] on the left of the equals sign . We can also replace an classification essay entire slice with new material . A consequence of this last change is that the paper, list only has four elements, and accessing a later value generates an essay error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and birch paper company, groups of words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.

Check your understanding by ap english classification essay, trying the editing thesis uk, exercises on lists at the end of ap english classification, this chapter. From the start of thesis, 1, you have had access to texts called text1 , text2 , and so on. It saved a lot of classification essay, typing to be able to refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. This process is thesis appendix after, called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is ap english classification essay, slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to the left. It might help to think of thesis, it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and ap english, underscores.

Here are some examples of thesis appendix before references, variables and assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in ap english, the previous example that we split the jishka homework, definition of ap english classification essay, my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Python uses the . prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you and to jishka help anyone else who reads your Python code what your code is meant to do. Python does not try to make sense of the ap english, names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only research assignment restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to classification essay follow. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:

Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by editing, digits ( 0 to 9 ) or letters. Thus, abc23 is ap english essay, fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Company Papers! Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Ap English Classification Essay! Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Be careful not to insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to a variable , index a string , and slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of a list to make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to jishka help the topic of strings in 3. For the time being, we have two important building blocks lists and strings and are ready to get back to some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to our exploration of the ap english classification, ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on birch large quantities of essay, text. We began this discussion in 1, and saw how to search for words in context, how to compile the vocabulary of a text, how to generate random text in the same style, and so on.

In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and use automatic methods to jishka help find characteristic words and ap english, expressions of a text. As in 1, you can try new features of the Python language by copying them into the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in write, the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to check your understanding of the last section by predicting the output of the following code. You can use the interpreter to check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the ap english essay, words of a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. One method would be to keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of rows, and it would be an exceedingly laborious process so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)

The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the frequency of editing thesis uk, each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Ap English Essay! Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Let's use a FreqDist to find the appendix before after, 50 most frequent words of ap english classification, Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the name of the text as an argument . We can inspect the total number of words (outcomes) that have been counted up 260,819 in the case of research paper format assignment, Moby Dick . The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for ap english classification, text2 . Be careful to use the correct parentheses and thesis, uppercase letters. If you get an error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is ap english classification, not defined , you need to research format start your work with from nltk.book import * Do any words produced in ap english classification essay, the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of this text? Only one word, whale , is heading college, slightly informative! It occurs over 900 times. The rest of the words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?

We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for ap english essay, nearly half the references, book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the ap english classification essay, frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the essay, so-called hapaxes ? View them by typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and classification, without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the hapaxes mean in write heading, any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to essay try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of thesis for microstrip, Words. Next, let's look at the long words of a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from set theory. We would like to find the words from the vocabulary of the text that are more than 15 characters long.

Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is essay, true if and write college essay, only if w is more than 15 characters long. Now we can express the words of ap english classification, interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in (1b). Help! (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.

We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the text and classification essay, changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for thesis, word in vocab if . ] ? Let's return to our task of finding words that characterize a text. Notice that the ap english classification essay, long words in text4 reflect its national focus constitutionally , transcontinental whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and appendix, infrequent long words (e.g. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the words are longer than seven letters, and fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. Ap English Classification Essay! At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.

It is a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of thousands of words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of words that occur together unusually often. Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the wine is not. A characteristic of collocations is that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . This is paper, easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is Python's way of saying that it is ready to compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. For now, you just need to know to tell Python to convert it into a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of essay, words than-done is birch paper company papers, a bigram, and classification, we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to pay more attention to thesis the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. The collocations() function does this for us.

We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to the genre of the texts. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is useful, but we can count other things too. Classification! For example, we can look at the distribution of word lengths in a text, by research paper format, creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the lengths of words in ap english classification, text1 , and the FreqDist then counts the number of times each of these occurs . The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of which is a number corresponding to a word token in help, the text. But there are at most only 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.

One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of length 3 account for ap english, roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the jishka homework help, book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of ap english classification, word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and research format, we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the ability to classification work with language, and research assignment, the potential to save human effort through automation.

A key feature of programming is the ability of essay, machines to make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is satisfied. This feature is known as control , and jishka homework, is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of ap english essay, operators, such as and = , for testing the relationship between values. The full set of birch paper company papers, these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from essay a sentence of news text.

Here are some examples only the operator is uk, changed from one line to the next. They all use sent7 , the classification, first sentence from references text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is undefined, you need to first type: from nltk.book import * There is a common pattern to all of ap english classification, these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is a Python test that yields either true or false. In the cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of words, using the functions listed in 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to select words from our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to thesis appendix after references form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the following examples and try to explain what is going on ap english classification in each one.

Next, try to make up some conditions of your own. In 3, we saw some examples of write essay, counting items other than words. Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the form [f(w) for essay, . Editing! ] or [w.f() for essay, . ] , where f is thesis before after, a function that operates on a word to compute its length, or to convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on every element of a list.

In the preceding examples, it goes through each word in text1 , assigning each one in turn to the variable w and performing the specified operation on the variable. The notation just described is called a list comprehension. This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an important part of becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to the question of vocabulary size, and apply the same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and ap english, this , which differ only in research paper format, capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by ap english essay, filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to research format assignment count the lowercase-only items, but this gives the wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to ap english essay execute a block of code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.

We already saw examples of conditional tests in code like [w for w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . In the homework, following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . The if statement checks whether the ap english, test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the print statement by typing four spaces. When we use the Python interpreter we have to paper add an extra blank line in order for it to detect that the nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to classification essay include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the paper company research, conditional test to len(word) = 5 , to check that the length of word is greater than or equal to classification essay 5 , then the editing thesis uk, test will no longer be true. This time, the body of the if statement will not be executed, and classification, no message is shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the thesis, code in ap english classification, the indented block will be run.

Another control structure is homework, the for loop. Try the following, and remember to include the colon and the four spaces: This is called a loop because Python executes the ap english classification, code in circular fashion. It starts by performing the assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to name the first item of the list. Then, it displays the value of word to the user. Editing! Next, it goes back to the for statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. Ap English Essay! It continues in this fashion until every item of the list has been processed. Now we can combine the if and for research paper format, statements. We will loop over every item of the list, and ap english, print the item only if it ends with the papers, letter l . We'll pick another name for the variable to demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of ap english essay, variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at the end of the line, before the indentation begins.

In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. The colon indicates that the current statement relates to the indented block that follows. We can also specify an action to help be taken if the condition of the if statement is not met. Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Notice that these also have colons before the classification essay, indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of Python knowledge, you can start to build multiline Python programs. It's important to develop such programs in pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. This is why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and why you should get comfortable using it.

Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over each item and editing thesis, print it. Notice the extra information given in the print statement: end=' ' . This tells Python to print a space (not the default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the classification, help of birch paper papers, texts and the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of language and computation by ap english, building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the write heading college, nitty-gritty of code in ap english classification, order to paint a bigger picture of natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to navigate the universe of information locked up in jishka, text on the Web. Search engines have been crucial to the growth and popularity of the Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and classification essay, some luck, to extract answers to such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?

What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in before references, the past week? Getting a computer to answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and with a level of robustness that is still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and a major part of intelligent behaviour is ap english, understanding language. Editing Uk! For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. Ap English Classification! However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to give you a sense of the interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of a word was intended in a given context. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the paper papers, dish , you can detect that both serve and dish are being used with their food meanings. It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from classification essay sports to crockery in the space of birch paper papers, three words.

This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the classification, court. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. Jishka Help! As another example of this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the book by Chesterton (agentive Chesterton was the author of the book); the cup by the stove (locative the stove is classification essay, where the cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal Friday is the time of the submitting). Observe in (3c) that the meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by . A deeper kind of language understanding is to work out who did what to whom i.e., to detect the subjects and objects of verbs. Thesis After! You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. In the sentence the thieves stole the ap english essay, paintings it is easy to tell who performed the stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in (4c), and try to determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the for microstrip, pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for tackling this problem include anaphora resolution identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to and semantic role labeling identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to move on to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and machine translation . Ap English Classification! In the first case, a machine should be able to answer a user's questions relating to collection of texts:

The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to paintings and not to thieves. In the jishka homework, second case, the machine should be able to classification essay translate the appendix before references, text into another language, accurately conveying the meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into French, we are forced to choose the classification essay, gender of the pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the thieves are found, and birch papers, elles (feminine) if the paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of these examples, working out the sense of a word, the subject of a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of languages. Ap English Classification Essay! Its roots go back to the early days of the Cold War, when the promise of antenna, automatic translation led to substantial government sponsorship, and with it, the genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of ap english essay, languages, and some are integrated into web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and heading essay, forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:

Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to German (in the line starting 1 ), but on the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). After line 5 the essay, sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by the commas, and the change from jump to leap ). Thesis For Microstrip Antenna! The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using http://translationparty.com/ Machine translation is difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and because word order must be changed in keeping with the grammatical structure of the target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by collecting massive quantities of parallel texts from news and ap english classification essay, government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Uk! Given a document in German and English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.

In the ap english classification, history of artificial intelligence, the chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from heading essay a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to provide driving instructions or details of nearby restaurants unless the ap english classification essay, required information had already been stored and suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into editing uk the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to understand the user's goals: the classification, user asks when a movie is showing and the system correctly determines from company research papers this that the user wants to see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in order to interact naturally. Ap English Classification Essay! Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . However, the developers of for microstrip antenna, commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and ap english, business logic to ensure that the different ways in which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in references, a way that makes sense for the particular application. So, if you type When is . , or I want to know when . , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is classification, enough for the system to provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and interpreted in context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to spoken output; different types of for microstrip antenna, linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the ap english classification, process.

Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. 5.1 shows the architecture of a simple dialogue system. Along the thesis antenna, top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is a pipeline of some language understanding components . These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to some kind of ap english, meaning representation. Along the middle, moving from right to left, is the reverse pipeline of write college, components for essay, converting concepts to speech. These components make up the appendix after, dynamic aspects of the system.

At the ap english classification essay, bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of language-related data that the processing components draw on for microstrip antenna to do their work. Your Turn: For an example of a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an NLTK chatbot. To see the ap english essay, available chatbots, run nltk.chat.chatbots() . (Remember to import nltk first.) The challenge of language understanding has been brought into focus in recent years by heading college, a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.

Suppose you want to find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Max Purnell , and that you have another short text that seems to classification essay be relevant, for example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to heading essay Parliament in the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of Coromandel by essay, defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into third place . Does the research format assignment, text provide enough evidence for you to accept the ap english classification essay, hypothesis? In this particular case, the answer will be No. You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is very hard to come up with automated methods for making the right decision. The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Consequently, some linguistic analysis is crucial. In the previous example, it is important for the system to note that Sandra Goudie names the person being defeated in the hypothesis, not the jishka homework help, person doing the defeating in classification, the text. As another illustration of the difficulty of the task, consider the following text-hypothesis pair: In order to determine whether the hypothesis is supported by the text, the system needs the following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an paper assignment editor of a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is author of eighteen books. Despite the research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in a general and robust manner. We can wait for these difficult artificial intelligence problems to be solved, but in the meantime it is necessary to ap english essay live with some severe limitations on the reasoning and knowledge capabilities of natural language systems. Write Heading College Essay! Accordingly, right from the beginning, an classification essay important goal of NLP research has been to make progress on the difficult task of building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of thesis, unrestricted knowledge and reasoning capabilities.

Indeed, this is one of the goals of this book, and classification essay, we hope to equip you with the knowledge and references, skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to the long-term aspiration of ap english essay, building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . Editing Thesis! We can use indexing, slicing, and the len() function on lists. A word token is a particular appearance of a given word in a text; a word type is the unique form of the classification essay, word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the birch paper papers, vocabulary of classification, a text t using sorted(set(t)) . We operate on each item of a text using [f(x) for x in text] . Editing Uk! To derive the ap english essay, vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for w in text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for w in t: or for word in text: . Thesis Appendix! This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to essay be executed each time through the company papers, loop. We test a condition using an if statement: if len(word) 5: . This must be followed by ap english classification essay, the colon character and editing uk, an indented block of code, to essay be executed only if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the words of a text and their frequency of appearance). A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and before references, can be reused. Functions are defined using the def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the function, and ap english essay, act as placeholders for antenna, actual data values. A function is ap english, called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in programming, natural language processing, and linguistics, all mixed in together. Many of them are consolidated in the following chapters. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at http://nltk.org/ ), including links to additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.

You may also like to read up on some linguistics and thesis for microstrip, NLP-related concepts in essay, Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at birch research papers, http://docs.python.org/ , including the many tutorials and ap english classification, comprehensive reference materials linked there. A Beginner's Guide to Python is thesis after, available at ap english, http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide . Miscellaneous questions about Python might be answered in the FAQ at antenna, http://python.org/doc/faq/general/ . As you delve into NLTK, you might want to subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. Classification Essay! There is thesis, also an NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to use Python and NLTK for language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at classification, http://nltk.org/ . For more information on research format the topics covered in 5, and on essay NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the college essay, following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of essay, Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in thesis for microstrip, 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for Computational Linguistics is the international organization that represents the classification essay, field of NLP.

The ACL website ( http://www.aclweb.org/ ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about international and regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of research paper format assignment, useful resources; and ap english essay, the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the NLP research literature from the past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an uk alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to ap english essay the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. Before References! That works out to 141167095653376 . How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.

How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for ap english classification, humor and romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. Write! What can you observe about the classification, different roles played by heading college, the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the classification essay, couples? #9788; Find the write heading essay, collocations in ap english classification essay, text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the purpose of this expression. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on lists and strings.

Define a string and assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in the string). Print the contents of this variable in two ways, first by jishka homework help, simply typing the variable name and pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Classification Essay! Try adding the string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Paper Format! Notice that the strings are joined together without any spaces. How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of words, using the syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to convert this into a string. Use split() to split the string back into the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in various combinations (using the ap english classification, plus operator) to form whole sentences.

What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in birch paper research, NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is a sequence of characters. What does sent1[2][2] do? Why?

Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of text3 is provided to you in ap english classification, the variable sent3 . Thesis Appendix Before After! The index of the in sent3 is 1, because sent3[1] gives us 'the' . Ap English! What are the indexes of the two other occurrences of this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of uk, conditionals in classification essay, 4. Homework Help! Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of uses for this built-in function in later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the index of the word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the parentheses. By a process of trial and error, find the ap english classification essay, slice for the complete sentence that contains this word.

#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the sentences sent1 . sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the uk, case for other texts? #9681; What is the classification essay, difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in decreasing order of frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of looping with conditions in 4. Write Heading! Use a combination of for and if statements to loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the uppercase words, one per line. #9681; Write expressions for finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.

The result should be in the form of ap english classification essay, a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the thesis after, sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for classification, an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to perform the paper, following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the ap english essay, following Python code do? sum(len(w) for w in text1) Can you use it to thesis antenna work out the average word length of a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for the text, and which returns the vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the ap english essay, following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?

Can you think of a practical application for research format assignment, this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright 2014 the classification, authors. It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/].

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Secondary School English Essay Ap English Beautiful Example Of

5 Must-Dos For Outstanding Essay Writing. By Clare #038; Chris on ap english classification, February 21, 2011 45 Comments. Essay writing is so important, so here#039;s what you can do to help your child write great ones! Your teen needs to step up to the mark because school is getting harder. College Essay! High school education continues to ap english classification move away from tests with one word answers and towards students having to come up with paragraph or even full essay answers. And theres a good reason for editing thesis this. Ap English Essay! The internet has become so widespread and so accessible, that having a library of singular facts stored in jishka help, your head is no longer helpful. Ap English Essay! The average cell phone can now access Google or Wikipedia anywhere. Type in your question and boom, there#8217;s your answer. Essays require more than just a memorization of facts.

They require students to have an thesis uk, understanding of what theyre talking about. Classification! They also require students to know how to express themselves clearly and concisely in writing. Thesis Antenna! Being able to communicate well is an absolute must in the real world. It#8217;s also necessary in all subject courses at university, and definitely in any professional capacity. Essay writing is definitely a learnable skill, but not necessarily a straight forward one for ap english classification a lot of students. Because we want your teen to master essay writing as much as they can during their time at jishka homework help high school, here are 5 tips that will significantly increase your teens essay marks. 1. Every essay must have a proper structure. Classification! An essay must be broken into paragraphs to make it readable. Its horrible reading a full page of thesis before after references solid text. Ap English Classification Essay! Breaking down an essay into different sections is what allows it to flow in a logical manner. At high school all essays should follow a simple formula.

Your teen needs to learn this formula off by thesis antenna, heart! Introduction: Tell #8217;em what youre gonna tell em. Introduce the topic and briefly outline the points youre going to make in your essay in the order you#8217;re going to write about them. Ap English Classification! If the write heading essay is meant to argue a point, your teen should make it clear in the introduction what their argument/point of view is. Body Paragraphs: Tell em. At high school an essay will usually have 3-5 paragraphs. Each paragraph contains its own main point that contributes to the overall theme or argument of the ap english classification essay essay. (These paragraphs follow their own structure see tip # 2) Conclusion: Tell em what you told em.

Sum up what the essay was about. 2. Each body paragraph must have a proper structure. Not only editing uk, does the essay as a whole need structure, each paragraph needs to meet certain requirements. S = Statement: This is the main point of the essay paragraph. What part of the film is college being discussed and what did it mean to the film? What was important about an historical event and how did it affect later events? Basically, whats the point youre about to discuss in this paragraph. Ap English Essay! E = Explanation: Explain what you said in your statement. Tell the write college essay reader why your statement is true. Why did the setting reflect how the main character was feeling?

In what way did the weather affect the outcome of the battle? This part should make up the bulk of the paragraph. X = eXample Give an classification essay, example! A quote, an thesis appendix references, example, a fact. Something concrete that gives evidence to your statement. I = Importance Why is the point youve made in this paragraph important? What does it mean to the story, or the film, or the event? Tell the reader why it matters. This one might not always be applicable, but if you can then go for it. 3. Every essay needs an essay plan. You wouldnt go on a road trip without a map and ap english classification essay, essays are just the same.

Before your teen starts writing an essay they should make a quick plan of before after what theyre going to ap english essay write about. An essay plan does not have to research paper format be a big thing. Not at all. It only takes a few minutes but will save your teen SO much time overall. Essay plans instantly give an essay structure, they prevent you from forgetting to include any important points, and they prevent you from losing your way as you write. An essay plan can be quickly scribbled in a margin, or the ap english first page of an exam book that isnt marked. Here is an example of the way I would do an essay plan before I started writing. (It#8217;s for the film The Matrix #8230;)

Essay Plan Example. Each of the three #8216;fingers#8217; coming off each paragraph make up #8216;SEXI#8217;. I haven#8217;t done the #8216;I#8217; part, but within each paragraph I would try and thesis references, emphasize why this point was important to the setting of the film. Ap English Classification Essay! Every time your teen writes an essay, whether it#8217;s just for practise or in an exam, they need to jot down the points that are going to fill their SEXI for each paragraph. The detail that they list here means they dont have to worry about forgetting anything important while theyre writing. This depends on what situation the essay is research papers being written in. If its being written for homework and your teen doesnt have the ap english classification time pressure of an college, exam, it can be a good idea to go and do something else for classification a while once theyve finished writing. You know when you come back to look at something youve written and thesis appendix, you see all the little mistakes you didnt notice before? This is why. Your teen should check that the classification paragraphs are written in a logical order. Simply put does the essay make sense?

Does each paragraph follows SEXI? Get them to read their essay aloud (or in their head) so they can see how it flows (or doesnt as it may be). Antenna! If the essay is being written in an exam your teen won#8217;t have the luxury of time. So the number one rule here is: stay until the end! While it may seem like eternity to a high school student, exams arent actually that long.

And a few minutes of proof reading can often make the difference between one grade and ap english essay, another. Its worth staying right to the end. Writing essays can be practised! Many students go through a whole year at school and only do one or two practice essays (that they were forced to do). They may know the subject backwards, but if they dont know how to write a good essay then theyre screwed. Make sure your teen includes practice essays as part of their exam preparation. Research! Getting a hold of past exams and using them to practise is a great idea.

If you can then have a read of their work yourself thats fantastic. They might need an adult eye to pick up something thats not quite right. Even better, get your teen to ask their teacher to mark it. Most teachers would love an interested student to ap english classification ask them to write mark a practice essay! If you think your teen would benefit from exam tips, including how to write fantastic exam essays, it might be worth checking out our Exam Survival Package. You can read what other parents have said about it here. Classification Essay! Was this helpful? Similar articles: This is a great article! I love it for its succinctness and think it would make a great poster in a high school classroom!

I forwarded it to all three of for microstrip my kids! i looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this article. it really helped me making an ap english classification, essay in my 5th grade class and thesis appendix references, guess what I got a 4 by just remebering these tips! I am in fifth grade And I have to ap english essay write an essay in paper company research papers, an hour and a half tomorrow. This really helped me understand and I will post my grade when I am informed of it. Thank you so much for the tips and I will be sure yo use them on my essay. Dear Clare and Chris: I#8217;m a Mexican teacher of English as a foreign language and ap english essay, I#8217;m constantly searching for guidance to improve my teaching. I teach a preparation course for the FCE by Cambridge.

I truly appreciate your generosity to share these great guidelines.. Editing! I live in Merida, Yucatan. Ap English Classification! That is the Yucatan peninsula, just 3 hour drive from Cancun. I#8217;d love to be of any help if you ever plan on travelling down here. Research! This article has helped me a lot because I#8217;ve been trying to write a 1000 word essay due at school and hadn#8217;t started but I did an essay plan and that has helped me a lot. Thanks. tell em about sexi. The Study Gurus says. Essay! Thanks so much for your feedback Lisa! The whole idea of this article is to get students to realize there#8217;s a formula to essay writing they can apply every time. In a classroom is a great idea!

We#8217;ll definitely be getting in touch with teachers we know about that one. I have to thesis appendix agree with Lisa this is a great summary of how to write an essay. Essay! And a great guide for parents wanting to help without getting caught up in cricising spelling or the whole thing. In an jishka help, exam, I also jotted down the relevant points I could think of, added a relevant example/quote/fact then sorted into classification, order for the essay. It really was effective in clarifying what to write when you can#8217;t cut and paste your work! And saved a lot of time as I had lots of time for research writing rather than getting the ideas tumbling over each other. Ap English Essay! sania benazza says. hello!could you please display some model essays as revision purpose for research paper format #8216;A#8217; level. Classification Essay! Hi im taking a state test tomorrow and im having trouble with writing essays i hope this article will help. cool i also agree lisa.

Really useful and clearly explained, thank you. I will forward to my thirteen year old. Thanks Smidge I hope they find it useful! That#8217;s Clare for your valuable comments. Paper Format! i am a teen therteen year old teen and ap english classification, we do essys alot in school and your stuff helped me alot. Editing Thesis Uk! Thank you Salma! That#8217;s fantastic, but it#8217;s you doing the work and studying hard, so good for you! Best of luck with your study this year #128578; jimbob cutia says. same im working do hard on mid term report i have to write a 5 page essay this helps alot. I am a 13yr old in yr8 and ap english essay, were doing essays in English at the moment on the book #8216;Tomorrow When The War Began#8217;. Write Heading! this helped a lot with my essay writing #128578; I am going to recommend this website to people I know who are having trouble with writing essays. Thank you KC that#8217;s fantastic you#8217;re finding our tips useful, but you#8217;re the one who is ap english essay putting them to use so well done you!!

I loved the Tomorrow When the War Began series, I hope you#8217;re enjoying the books too! Keep up the good work awesome stuff! #128578; Love the SEXI structure #128521; Wow! really this one is very useful. Jishka Help! Tmr going to be my n level English examm#8230;gonna use this steps to use for ap english classification my argumentative essay. .hope it help:) A brilliant and informative article. I really appreciate your effort in writing this. Good article #8230; SEXI. I loooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this it really helped me realize what an essay is all about and i got a 4 on writing my essay so thanks! Well done Rachel that#8217;s fantastic!! Go you!! Israel Ryan says. This really helped. this is really helpful im gonna take the uk ela state test tomorrow my english teacher tells us tip but never really help us in writing.

Paty Valdez says. Ap English Classification Essay! You have saved me with this info! I was looking for something attractive and fun enough to paper company papers help me introduce essay writing and this works well! Thank you! Thank you for this article.

Its very useful to me. Essay! omg tysm for this! jasmeen sidhu says. SEXI really helped my essay in grade 7. This article is write heading really helpful! Thank you. Now i understand what SEXI means in essay writing. Thanks fr the wonderful information.

This is fantastic. My children, 12 and 9, found this very useful as booster for ap english classification their previous knowledge. Thanks for this good work. Please continue. Uk! But you do not get enough time to make a structure plan in the exam#8230;. Is there any alternative for that#8230;?? I would be waiting for an example. Hi there, we hope that this article has given a few simple tips on classification essay, how your son should do about writing a good essay.

You can check out all of our posts on essay writing here. Our Exam Survival Package also has a great video on writing essays in exams. Plus there are hundreds of other tips all centered around getting fantastic exam results in for microstrip antenna, the videos too! Check it out essay, here. This is a great resource very informative and accessible! A small grammar gripe you misuse practice (noun)/practise (verb) throughout and paper, the title doesn#8217;t need an apostrophe.

Writing essays should be practised! Actually, the ap english classification essay apostrophe is okay. Thank you for this outline. Hi Erin, thanks for your comments! Yes thank you for pointing out the practice/practise error. This article is a few years old now and I#8217;ve since been schooled on birch papers, the difference between the two, but I don#8217;t believe they distinguish between the ap english two in the US, so someone is always going to think that I am wrong #128578; [#8230;] While a school essay is not the same as writing for thesis before after a business or website, I wanted to recommend this great blog post I just read about ap english writing school essays. Research Paper Format! [#8230;] [#8230;] You can help your teen make their writing simpler and more like a straight-A students by helping them plan their essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] may not understand how to apply what they have learnt in class to classification essay the essay format, or how to structure an essay, or how to structure paragraphs or sentences, or how to convey what they understand about the topic to the reader in a clear and concise [#8230;] Also get our free 2-week email course and study articles sent to your inbox. Everything we know about exam study in one digital package.

Does your teen struggle with math? We explain how to study high school's most hated subject. Motivation and Procrastination Package. Uk! Is a lack of ap english motivation holding your teen back? We want to help you help your teenager succeed academically, at school and birch paper company research papers, beyond.

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Division and Classification Essay - Ms Belefonte AP Language and

Don#039;t Write Comics: How To Write Comics Part 1. Don't Write Comics is a multi-part essay about writing comics, understanding what your options are, finding the right artist, and everything you need to do to get a strong comic book pitch package together. If you’re interested in comics solely because you think it might be easy or that it might be a shortcut to another end (like having a movie made of your comic) let me just stop you right here and point you towards the exit. While it's true that some screenplays get reverse engineered into comics, and then after being successful comics are turned into successful films (30 Days of Night springs to mind), there's nothing quick and easy about classification making comics. In fact, if you’re not well connected to artists (and possibly some publishers) and/or willing to lay out your own money upfront in some cases, then it can be the very opposite of quick and help, easy. In order to make good comics, I truly believe you have to already love comics. It’s the love that’s going to get you through.

So you’ve made it this farwhich means you either do have a love of comics, or you’ve decided to ignore my advice - in which case I’m not sure why you’re reading on, but whatever, you’re here! First and foremost, I would suggest identifying what kind of book best fits your idea. Because we are assuming you are not already a well-established comics professional, we’re going to assume that you’re not pitching an ongoing series (i.e. a comic series that has no definitive end). In fact, let’s just list out what your options are and we’ll go from there. One-Shot: A one-shot is simply that, it’s one comic book (generally between 20 and 22 pages depending on ap english classification essay, the publisher) that tells a complete story. This is probably not the venue for you as one-shots are not only very difficult to do successfully, they are also not a great jumping in point unless you’ve been commissioned to do one.

Anthologies : Anthologies are collections of short comic stories. And it's one of the best ways to get your foot in the door -- creating a solid short piece and getting it accepted to an anthology, or banding together with talented similarly motivated friends to create an anthology of your own. Short comic stories, just like prose, take a very particular set of thesis appendix after skills, but getting a publisher to take a chance on you for one short piece (a short story could range anywhere from ap english essay, one page to thesis more than a dozen) can be easier since they're risking less page space (and money) on an unknown. Mini-Series: A mini-series is also exactly what it sounds like. It’s a small series of ap english classification essay single issue comics most mini-series run from 4 to 6 issues in length (so if you figure 22 pages per issue you’re looking at between 88 and 132 pages total). There are some 3-issue minis out there as well as the rare 7 or 8-issue series. Anything at 9-issues or above likely falls into thesis a “Maxi-series” category, these are less common and generally run between 9 and 12 issues. Ongoing: An ongoing comic is a comic that has no intended end. While it will likely end at some point, it is not designed that way. Essay! It is open-ended and company research papers, continuing. Like a one-shot, this is classification usually not the thesis appendix before references, kind of classification essay book you want to thesis for microstrip pitch unless you are established already or have been asked to pitch (in which case, why are you reading this?

You already know what you're doing). An ongoing, depending on the ownership of the classification, concept and characters, can continue on, even once the creative team leaves. For example Batman is an ongoing title. Trade Paperback aka TPB aka Trade : Trade Paperbacks are collections of for microstrip single issues that come in two forms. The first collects an arc from an classification, ongoing run, and thesis before after, packages it as one volume.

The second collects a completed mini-series into one volume. Most publishers these days like to release a mini-series in single issues and then, once the ap english classification, entire series has released, they will bundle it together into a trade and release it for a price that is slightly less than buying the issues individually. Many publishers have adopted this method of late as it not only thesis allows them to sell the book twice once as a monthly, and ap english classification essay, once as a trade - but it also makes it easier to get those trades onto bookstore and library shelves. To add a bit of confusion, technically a Trade Paperback can also be a Hardcover, but is usually still called a Trade (see the Batwoman hardcover edition below). Sometimes collected trades include an birch, intro or foreward. They can also include additional material like covers, sketches, and notes from ap english, creators. Graphic Novel: A graphic novel is considered a longer comic book and it's designed to be released as one volume, as opposed to smaller pieces. Help! Graphic Novels are published by both comics’ publishers and by regular publishing houses with regularity. Graphic Novels are all the rage these days, and they're great things, but you should understand that they're essentially longer and complete comic books. Ap English Essay! Comics is not a bad word, though in comparison to birch papers the much more hip graphic novel it seems to have become one. Webcomic : There are a million ways to do webcomics these days.

From posting randomly on a blog or tumblr, to posting with a weekly or daily schedule, from releasing a page at a time that appears like a regular comics page and contributes to a larger story, to essay releasing only thesis appendix references fully realized strips. Ap English Classification Essay! There are many sites that host webcomics, and there are some VERY successful webcomics out thesis, there like Kate Beaton’s Hark A Vagrant! which is brilliant. But like any other medium, there's a lot of dreck out there, so while this avenue might eliminate the publisher for classification you, you’ll still have to find a way to rise to the top and get noticed, which can be difficult. Most people writing a comic for the first time should aim for the mini-series category, which, if you do it correctly, can also overlap with Graphic Novels, giving you a little more flexibility about where you can pitch and how you can organize things. We’re going to talk more about how to actually write the comic in the next installment, but you should definitely be thinking a bit about length here. Heading College Essay! CAN you tell your story in 132 pages? If not, what’s it going to ap english classification take? After identifying how you should package your story, you should certainly identify what your genre is. Though I like to assume anyone that does any kind of writing knows the difference between medium and write college, genre, I will admit that I’ve come across a lot of people that get confused about ap english essay these two categories when it comes to comics, so I’ll break it down just in case.

The medium is comics. Period. The genre can be anything from memoir or horror to college superhero to western. You should definitely know, with ease, what genre your story falls under, or if it’s a hybrid of a couple genres like a superhero comedy, etc. There are other things to ap english essay consider here as they relate to thesis the artwork inside, tone, color, font, panel layout, etc., but we’ll cross that bridge when we get to it, further down in the process. If you are already a big comics fan, then you probably have already done all the classification essay, reading you need to do, but if you’re fairly new to the medium then I suggest, the after references, same way I would for prose, that the best education is ap english classification essay reading a lot of great comics. Reading great comics can teach you all kinds of jishka things about how much text works on a page, what kind of ap english visuals might be a good fit for your story, and jishka homework, perhaps most importantly, pacing. Pacing is, for my money, one of the single greatest things that differentiate a great comic book from a good comic book. And while a lot of ap english classification this is thesis going to have to ap english essay do with your artist (and picking the correct artist) down the line, you can really set the references, pace and ap english, tone by how you initially lay out the story in research format assignment, your script, thus guiding your artist to the result you’re looking for.

I would suggest reading a wide breadth of essay comics, so you can get a feel for everything that’s out there, but you should certainly look at books in for microstrip antenna, your genre especially closely. Really examine what works and doesn’t work and why, the same way you would with prose. And while reading great books is always helpful, sometimes reading mediocre or bad books can be equally as helpful in illustrating what not to do. While I don’t urge people to waste money on bad comics, a day spent at a comic book store, reading through a lot of different books (but make sure to classification essay buy some good ones support your local comic book store!) can teach you a lot. The library is also a great resource if you have one with a good comics graphic novel section. Format Assignment! Every book I mentioned above I'd recommend reading, as well as these and these!

Writing comics is simply not the same as writing prose. Ap English! Though it's closer to thesis for microstrip writing screenplays, it's still quite a bit different, even when it comes to ap english classification formatting. So you may need some more specific (and more professional) help as you continue your research. Research Format! While there is ap english classification certainly a deluge of information out there, much of it bad, some of it is also very good. One book on my reading list when I was at the Savannah College of help Art and Design studying comics (yes, that’s an actual major, if you’re insane, as I apparently am) was Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics . Classification! It was then, and is now, one of the jishka homework help, best books I’ve ever read about comics. Ap English! It breaks down both the broad and the detailed into easy to understand pieces. Write! It’s a book I would never part with and ap english, have referred to frequently over the years. If there is a single book you buy in editing thesis, your attempt to begin writing comics, this is the book.

If you’re looking for a little more guidance, I’ve found Alan Moore’s Writing For Comics is a great resource about the writing side of ap english essay comics, and Jessica Abel and research paper assignment, Matt Madden’s Mastering Comics , a sequel of sorts to their popular Drawing Words Pictures is also good. Mastering Comics is not for the light of heart, as it’s more like a great textbook and includes activities, homework, and even extra credit. So now you have your story idea, an idea of what format it should be, what genre you’re working in, and you’ve researched your competition and classification, looked at jishka some educational booksI think you’re ready to write. So come back next month to figure out where to classification begin. I’ll be using an example from birch paper papers, a mini-series pitch I put together with artist Meredith McClaren this past spring to help illustrate some of the hurdles we faced and how we solved them. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Mastering Comics: Drawing Words Writing Pictures Continued.

Alan Moore's Writing For Comics Volume 1. Kelly Thompson is the author of two crowdfunded self-published novels. The Girl Who Would be King (2012), was funded at ap english classification essay over $26,000, was an Amazon Best Seller, and has been optioned by format assignment, fancy Hollywood types. Her second novel, Storykiller (2014), was funded at nearly $58,000 and remains in essay, the Top 10 most funded Kickstarter novels of research paper assignment all time. She also wrote and co-created the ap english, graphic novel Heart In A Box (2015) for Dark Horse Comics. She's currently managed by Susan Solomon-Shapiro of college Circle of Confusion. To leave a comment Login with Facebook or create a free account. I look forward to classification the rest of this series as I'm currently in the middle of deciding if I want to dive into the world of homework help comics/graphic novels. While I already knew of some of your recommended books there were a couple I hadn't found yet.

So thanks for that. I'm currently listening to the iFanBoy/Comics Experience podcast. I'm also excited about the classification, brand new Kids' Comics Revolution podcast which focuses on making/writing comics and graphic novels for kids. If anybody knows of any other good making comics podcasts I'd love to editing hear about them. And yes, the library is invaluable for reading as many graphic novels as possible especially if they do inter-library loaning as they do in my county's library system. I'm a big fan of ap english essay First Second Books and I'm pretty much going to be able to read their whole catalog via the library.

Great article. I’m taking the Graphic Novel Writing class on heading college essay, the site, so this article is well timed. The Aqua Man comic is ap english essay hilarious. I just bought a bunch of how to books on comics including the McCloud and Moore book you list here. They’re both great reads, but McCloud takes it to another level.

It’s such a good book. I also picked up Eisner’s Comics and Sequential art and Warren Ellis’s Come in Alone. I can’t wait to read the paper research, rest of the articles. One thing I've noticed is that there is a big difference between writer/artists and writers. That is, even if the writer ISN'T the artist for classification essay the comic in question, they are still an artist, and after, approach the ap english classification, writing differently than someone like myself, who can, in a pinch, draw stick figures. I know I personally vaccillate between thinking im too sparse and jishka, not giving the artist enough description, and thinking that I'm trying to ap english classification essay do their job for them with my words, rather than letting them create from my basic descriptions. @Tim: Great! Then I hope this series is helpful to you. :)

I have a podcast but it's not regularly about process. We do have interviews with comics writers and for microstrip, artists pretty much every episode. so a little bit of process always does get discussed. So far we've had on Scott Snyder, Cliff Chiang, Kelly Sue DeConnick, J.H. Williams, Marjorie Liu, Fiona Staples, Duane Swierczynski, Faith Erin Hicks, Ross Campbell, and coming up, one of my favorites - Brian Wood. Here's the link if you want to essay check it out. @Korey: Good luck to you in editing thesis, the class!

It's true that McCloud's book is really above and beyond. I haven't read the ap english classification essay, Ellis yet, but he's a favorite comics writer of mine, so it's on my list. @Alex: I absolutely agree with that. And that will be discussed (to a degree) in part two and three of the series. College! I would also say that every artist is different and you have to learn how to write for classification each of them. some definitely need more and some do better with less. It's an art. ;) great post, Kelly!! i like how you're tackling this stuff. @Ross: Thanks Ross. Write! You know, you and Nick really influenced the way I approached this series - so credit is largely due to you - I'm glad you're enjoying it. Totally forgot about this column! Off to read the rest of it! i dnt now how to rite a comic.

i dnt now how to ap english rite a comic. Read this series a few weeks ago and I must say, it was a very useful read. I've been plugging away on thesis appendix before after, a sci-fi comic book for a while now. Ap English Essay! It's still in it's infancy but I'm determined to see it through. It's really cool to hear about other women creating comic book stories.

Comics are such a male dominated industry that sometimes I forget that we (female comic book readers/writers/artists/etc.) ARE out there. We have our own distinct voices and jishka help, stories to tell and ap english, it is inspiring to know that other women love this medium and have a desire to jishka homework work in this industry as much as I do. I remember when the kickstarter project began for classification Womanthology : Heroic, I almost peed myself with excitement. (Okay, not literally.) To see and read about the numerous women involved in this anthology was astounding. I hope your series, and others like it, will motivate and direct both men AND women with a passion for jishka comics to heed their calling. I've encounter a situation where a publisher requests that I send in an Inquiry Letter detailing my experience and why I wish to write.

Well, I do not have writing experience as they would account for it. Ap English! I am a federal government employee who does some creative writing for pleasure, but has never published anything. College Essay! I've written factsheets, newsletter articles, and classification, memos for dissemination to federal, state, and local level government offices, nothing of a creative nature. So, what do recommend in situation such as this? In addition, is ageism a problem for research format assignment comic book writers? I'm over 40. It's certainly true that, like any industry or medium, breaking in is often the toughest part. Classification Essay! Like with any job, nobody wants to hire you without experience, and you can't get experience without anyone hiring you. So you just have to have great ideas, write great scripts, find great artists, possibly invest some money so that you can produce impressive wok for those publishers to read, and keep trying. Small indie publishers will obviously be more willing to take a chance on an inexperienced writer.

If they're asking for what your experiences are, the only thing you can do is be honest. Detail (in brief) your extensive technical experience, and say that you're trying to help switch gears and do not yet have any creative/fiction credits. I haven't encountered any issues with ageism in comics. I am under 40, but I'm no spring chicken. Though it might be hard for you to start up a second career (it's hard no matter what the ap english, field) to be honest, comics are predominantly written by older white males. so as long as your work is jishka good, I can't imagine they're going to care. It is more advance when you have the idea of script writing and in poetry so you can put quality story on it. Classification Essay! Then the editing thesis uk, artistic designs and animations is what to be your next plan. Better graphic designs are better to use if you are using better type of essay printing, just as the digital print from http://www.digitekprinting.com/. I am a wannabe up and coming comics writer wanting to write heading essay debut inthe world of comics. however the kind of comics I write/wamnt to make are French comics or Bande Dessinees (which is mnore like a hardback book than a comic issue) as I am aiming for the French market.

I am currently looking for classification an artist to draw my scenarios, also0 I do believe money is one of the issues faced by writers. in France and Italy the homework, publisher pays the ap english essay, writers so there's no need to jishka homework help fund, but if you're starting out then a writer and an artist have a 50/50, in mainland europe this is the best way to work together. I am just wondering if anybody can help me with my situation. This is ap english a great column, so thank you for writing it. I must admit, I know very little about comics and I've read very few, yet I am in the middle of writing a series. It doesn't really fit in write college, with any of the types mentioned in classification, this article though it might be described as a cross between a very short miniseries (of 3 issues) and an ongoing comic which has the possibility of for microstrip antenna ending after 12 issues or potentially going on classification, forever.

We'll see how it goes. This article has been particularly useful though, so thanks :)