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Building Breakthrough Businesses Within Established Organizations. Why did toy and statement a, gaming giant Hasbro unload its new software division at a rock-bottom price just five years after launching it? Like many other established companies, Hasbro learned the hard way that new ventures rarely coexist peacefully with the great persuasive essay hooks, core businesses that launched them. The company failed to nurture its nascent division—and the venture stumbled badly. Statement! Innovative ideas aren’t enough to fuel breakthrough growth in a new business. To thrive, new ventures must surmount three challenges: Forget some of what has made your core business successful—such as which skills to acquire and modern hsc essay, which customers to serve. Borrow only those assets from your core business—brands, sales relationships, manufacturing capacity—that provide a distinct competitive advantage. Learn quickly.
The faster you resolve your venture’s inevitable unknowns, the sooner you’ll zero in on a winning business model. To master these challenges, you must redesign virtually every aspect of your new business—from hiring, performance evaluation, and budgeting to compensation, definitions of success, and reporting relationships. Statement A! Hard work? Yes. But the payoff is worth it. By artfully blending forgetting, borrowing, and learning, the essay, New York Times Company’s new Internet division turned around a dismal start and generated profits just a few years after launch. The Idea in Practice. To translate breakthrough business ideas into breakthrough growth: Your new venture has unique answers to the questions “Who’s our customer?” “What value do we offer?” and “How do we deliver that value?” Yet institutional memory (stories about the established company’s history, or traditional performance measures) can prevent the a, new business’s leaders from forgetting the old answers. Your strategy? Restructure the nascent division.
Example: Corning launched Corning Microarray Technologies (CMT) to make glass laboratory apparatus for the emerging genomics industry. CMT stumbled initially, after adopting Corning’s traditional product-development model—which didn’t apply to against arranged marriages, genomics work. Statement! Only after Corning restructured CMT did the thesis on racism, division launch a successful product. Changes included appointing a new general manager, who facilitated communication between businesspeople and scientists and consolidated far-flung CMT employees to statement a, develop a unique culture. Borrow assets from your core business only great hooks, if they afford such a competitive advantage that you’d highlight it in a pitch to outside investors. Typically just one or two areas (e.g., Corning’s expertise in glass manufacturing) will meet this criterion. Statement A! Once you’ve borrowed, manage the against marriages essay, resulting tensions between your new and old businesses. Example: When the New York Times Company’s Internet business, New York Times Digital (NYTD), borrowed the newspaper’s branded content and advertiser base, an statement, “us versus them” undertone developed.
The paper’s editorial staff worried about protecting its brand; its circulation department accused the Internet business (which offered free content) of cannibalizing newspaper subscriptions. To manage the tension, company leaders conducted analyses showing that the Web site was generating new newspaper subscriptions. And during performance reviews, managers stressed the importance of cross-unit collaboration. Results? After becoming profitable, NYTD began generating $30 million-plus annually on revenues of $100 million. By analyzing disparities between your new business’s predicted and actual performance, you can develop a winning business model or exit a hopeless situation in time. Expect that early predictions will be wild guesses. Great Persuasive Essay Hooks! Resist the a, temptation to discard them: In time, your guesses become informed estimates and thesis on racism, then reliable forecasts. To accelerate learning, create and review simple business plans at frequent intervals. Evaluate your new division’s and core business’s performance in separate meetings.
Don’t judge performance of the nascent unit’s leader against standards used in the old business. Instead, evaluate his or her ability to statement a, learn and make good decisions. Few business narratives are more evocative than that of the inspired leader boldly pursuing an extraordinarily innovative idea. So romantic is the notion that companies pushing for more innovation often devote the bulk of great persuasive essay their energies and a, resources to generating ideas and encouraging individual initiatives. This is a good start, but nothing more. New businesses with the potential to deliver breakthrough growth for established companies face stiff headwinds well after launch. Ray Stata, a cofounder of Analog Devices, the $2 billion semiconductor company, has lived this challenge for decades: “I came to the conclusion long ago that limits to innovation have less to do with technology or creativity than organizational agility. Inspired individuals can only do so much.” Emphasis must shift: from ideas to execution and from leadership excellence to organizational excellence. Phd Thesis! To find out statement, exactly what it takes to get beyond ideas, we have spent the past five years chronicling initiatives at thesis organizations such as the New York Times Company, Analog Devices, Corning, Hasbro, Cisco, Unilever, Kodak, Johnson Johnson, Nucor, Stora Enso, and the Thomson Corporation. Statement A! We have examined best practices for arranged, managing strategic experiments—high-growth-potential new businesses that depart from an organization’s current business model and statement a, that target emerging industries in which no clear formula exists for making a profit.
Strategic experiments constitute the highest-risk, highest-return category of innovation and require a unique managerial approach. We chose to focus on strategic experiments because dramatic forces such as globalization, digital technology, biotechnology, and demographic change are now creating nonlinear shifts in the economy—threatening stability but also opening up opportunities for breakthrough growth. A new business with high growth potential (let’s call it NewCo) rarely coexists gracefully with the in america, most closely related established business unit within the company (let’s call it CoreCo). The unnatural combination creates three specific challenges for NewCo: forgetting, borrowing, and learning . NewCo must forget some of what made CoreCo successful, because NewCo and CoreCo have elemental differences. NewCo must borrow some of CoreCo’s assets—the greatest advantage it has over independent start-ups. And NewCo must be prepared to learn some things from scratch. A! When Analog Devices decided to explore opportunities presented by a new semiconductor technology, it faced all three challenges. The technology, called microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), uses a chip with microscopic moving parts that act as sensors; the first commercial application was automotive crash sensors, which launch airbags. The MEMS team at Analog Devices needed to forget, because the company’s core business model wouldn’t work for MEMS.
Analog Devices was accustomed to serving thousands of thesis in america customers with thousands of products, many designed for custom applications. A! There were only a few automakers, however, and because they valued cost and reliability over customization, they needed only in financial accounting, a few variations on the basic crash sensor. As a result, the MEMS team had to statement, alter all of thesis about system its processes for a, selling, marketing, and manufacturing. The team also needed to borrow Analog Devices’ semiconductor expertise and manufacturing plants. And it needed to arranged, learn whether MEMS devices could be manufactured at a profit and to what extent markets for MEMS applications outside the automotive industry would develop. The business ultimately became profitable but not without first having to confront each of the three challenges. Forgetting, borrowing, and a, learning are monumental tasks. That’s why it’s crucial for a company to leverage the power of organizational design—a term we use in accounting its broadest sense.
In building NewCo, the statement a, CEO must be willing to challenge the status quo on persuasive essay hooks, an extraordinary range of issues: hiring, individual performance evaluation, needed competencies, reporting relationships, decision rights, planning and budgeting, business performance assessment, metrics, compensation, shared values, and shared assumptions about success. If NewCo cannot leave behind CoreCo’s formula for success, it will not find its own. The three challenges are present throughout NewCo’s awkward adolescence, from launch to profitability. And they’re present all at statement a once, which means tackling them requires an understanding of against essay how they’re related. Forgetting and a, borrowing are at odds, for example, and need to be balanced. A sole focus on forgetting would suggest isolation of NewCo, while a sole focus on borrowing would suggest full integration of NewCo. Also, failure to forget cripples the 101 essay plan, learning effort. If NewCo cannot leave behind CoreCo’s formula for success, it will not find its own. To build a foundation for statement, success, NewCo must forget CoreCo’s business model.
NewCo’s answers to room plan, the fundamental questions that define a business—Who is statement, our customer? What value do we offer? How do we deliver that value?—should be different from arranged essay, CoreCo’s. NewCo must therefore leave behind notions about what skills and competencies are most valuable. And it must forget the relative predictability of statement a CoreCo’s environment. It is easy to underestimate the magnitude of the forgetting challenge. History Structure! And it is easy to conclude too quickly that NewCo has succeeded in forgetting. Awareness of the differences between NewCo and CoreCo is not enough. Forgetting is about changing behavior.
Often, we have observed, NewCo talks like NewCo but acts like CoreCo. Many powerful sources of institutional memory—instincts developed through past experiences, relationships between employees that are grounded in CoreCo’s business model, performance measures, planning templates, norms for statement, individual performance evaluation, and even often-told stories about the company’s history—can interfere with forgetting. Some companies have especially strong memories. (See the phd thesis in financial, sidebar “Warning Signs That Forgetting Will Be an Uphill Battle.”) Warning Signs That Forgetting Will Be an Uphill Battle. The company has only a, one business model. All business units within the company are at thesis similar points in the business life cycle (starting up, rapidly growing, steadily expanding, maturing, or declining). CoreCo has well-established standards of business performance that do not apply to NewCo—often because NewCo has a different cost structure.
The company has a well-defined culture and has effective socialization mechanisms built into its hiring and acquisition processes. The company has a history of statement a promoting primarily from within. The company has a strong culture of holding people accountable to plans. Plan! Many firms make the mistake of duplicating CoreCo’s organizational design when they create NewCo. Doing so minimizes hassles, since making NewCo an exception to rules about such things as hiring, compensation, and statement a, status can lead to room, resistance, even resentment, within CoreCo. But the only way to erase memory is to overhaul NewCo’s organizational design. Statement A! To understand what it takes to on racism in america, forget, consider Corning’s venture into statement the genomics industry. Through the 1990s, advances in persuasive essay biotechnology spawned an industry dedicated to serving the needs of genomics researchers, who were trying to unlock the secrets of DNA and unleash a revolution in a medical therapies. Millions of new experiments became possible, and researchers desperately wanted to thesis about payment system, automate and accelerate the experimentation process. One crucial piece of laboratory apparatus was the DNA microarray—a glass slide with thousands of tiny DNA samples adhered to it.
Because of issues of quality, reliability, and ease of statement use, many researchers “printed” their own microarrays—a time-consuming and costly process. The opportunity for Corning was clear: to thesis in america, leverage its world-class expertise in statement a specialty glass and microscopic manufacturing processes so it could offer genomics researchers a reliable and inexpensive supply of on racism microarrays. When Corning launched Corning Microarray Technologies (CMT) in 1998, analysts were projecting explosive growth for the industry. Over the years, Corning had been effective in statement part because its business units shared a common formula for success. Each sold components to industrial manufacturers. Each emphasized high quality and reliability. Each depended on strong intellectual property rights that limited competition. Marriages! Each relied on excellence in the manufacture of glass and statement a, ceramics and on mastery of related scientific fields. Each planned in a disciplined fashion, and each held managers accountable to those plans.
But CMT was different. Marriages! CMT sold to an unfamiliar customer—senior laboratory administrators. It needed to emphasize cost and convenience instead of the highest possible quality. It had to work in an unfamiliar, emerging scientific field where patent protection was unlikely. Statement A! It needed to balance expertise in great essay hooks glass manufacturing with expertise in molecular biology. And it faced a much higher level of ambiguity. The differences between Corning and CMT are clear in hindsight. But at the time, Corning naturally assumed that what had worked for its established business units would also work for CMT.
Therefore, CMT had its own manufacturing, sales, and marketing functions and shared Corning’s centralized research and development functions. Statement! CMT also adopted Corning’s rigorous five-stage model for new product development, along with clear expectations for hitting certain milestones. About Payment System! Because CMT was small, it reported to the existing life sciences business unit. Corning did depart from its tradition of hiring and promoting from a, within—CMT hired several outside experts in molecular biology, many of phd thesis accounting whom were assigned to the centralized RD groups—but all management positions were filled by Corning insiders. A! As a result, CMT did not develop a culture or identity that was noticeably different from Corning’s. Nonetheless, within months, CMT achieved its first success. It offered researchers who printed their own microarrays a much-improved un printed glass slide (without DNA adhered to it) with a special coating. Customers were thrilled with the improved consistency they achieved in printing their own microarrays. Ambitions for in financial, CMT escalated.
Its leaders thought that if they simply stuck to the plan, breakthrough growth and a, profitability would certainly follow. But CMT soon faced unanticipated difficulties. Working with DNA presented unfamiliar challenges. DNA from different suppliers had chemical inconsistencies, and 101 essay plan, Corning’s usual methods for a, identifying and correcting manufacturing problems were confounded by the peculiarities of DNA fluid. One day the process would appear to thesis in america, be working fine; the statement a, next day a mysterious new problem would arise. Soon CMT started missing deadlines established in the business plan. Payment System! The leadership team felt intense pressure.
Corning held managers accountable to statement, the plan. Falling short was failing. Accounting! Plus, falling behind meant that CMT would drag down the profitability of a Corning’s life sciences unit, which was just as concerned about hitting its numbers. Rather than reexamine fundamental choices, which would have meant admitting failure and asking for 101 essay plan, more capital, CMT leaders viewed their struggles as minor setbacks, and they urged their team to work harder. Despite the high level of urgency, CMT was unable to meet expectations. In an environment of perceived failure, the statement a, cohesiveness of the leadership group frayed.
The team often settled disagreements by reverting to what had worked in the past. Antagonism also developed between the molecular biology experts that CMT had hired from outside Corning and the CMT leadership team. The molecular biologists took issue with the way the leadership team allocated resources and evaluated outcomes. The biologists also disagreed with decisions to arranged marriages essay, delay product launches to achieve quality standards they knew to be unnecessary in a the imperfect world of biotechnology. Persuasive Essay Hooks! All of CMT’s struggles stemmed from failures to forget. And all were probably inevitable from the moment CMT adopted Corning’s organizational design. Statement A! Two years into CMT’s operations, turnover in Corning’s senior staff led to a reevaluation. Corning’s leaders decided to rebuild the CMT organization. First, they appointed a new general manager, someone who had the ability to modern history, manage in a ambiguous contexts and had a knack for facilitating communication between businesspeople, engineers, and scientists. Second, they reduced the extent to thesis on racism, which CMT was integrated with the a, existing research and development functions by having CMT’s heads of RD report to CMT’s general manager. Third, they changed to more subjective criteria for evaluating the general manager’s performance, focusing on factors such as how quickly he learned and made adjustments.
Fourth, the phd thesis accounting, general manager no longer reported to the head of the life sciences business but to a, the president of phd thesis accounting Corning Technologies, who would dedicate significant time and energy to a, advising CMT. CMT’s new general manager subsequently made his own changes. He hired an outside molecular biology expert to manage the product development effort and another to manage relationships with suppliers. He also moved numerous CMT employees working in distant Corning facilities back to Corning, New York, to help CMT develop a distinct culture. Phd Thesis In Financial! All of these changes took several months, but it was time well spent. CMT was able to restructure its relationships between research, development, marketing, and statement, sales and to follow a more iterative innovation process. The molecular biologists were given a stronger voice and modern, were able to help CMT make more rapid technical progress. And Corning’s senior management team treated CMT’s projections as though they were informed estimates rather than a nonnegotiable basis for judging performance. Knowing that he would be evaluated on how quickly he learned and made adjustments, CMT’s general manager frequently updated the statement, president on setbacks, lessons, and new directions. When CMT launched its first microarray product in September 2000, customers rated the product a “home run.” From studying Corning’s experience—and comparing it to room 101 essay, similar efforts at other companies—we have isolated a number of best practices for forgetting: NewCo should hire outsiders in key management roles and strongly consider an statement, outsider to head the business.
Outsiders challenge institutional memory and accounting, are instrumental in statement building new competencies. NewCo should report at least one level above CoreCo in order to reduce the pressures on NewCo for about payment, short-term results and to ensure that CoreCo does not hoard resources. NewCo should reconsider how major business functions such as marketing and product development interact. Established patterns of a interaction within CoreCo are usually incompatible with the new business model. The company should not base NewCo’s performance on CoreCo’s metrics. Doing so reinforces CoreCo’s formula for success, not NewCo’s.
The company should not judge the performance of NewCo’s leader too heavily against plans. Promote new thinking about success. Arranged! NewCo’s leader should create a unique set of beliefs about statement actions that lead to success and regularly reinforce them. Phd Thesis! CoreCo’s beliefs may not apply in a NewCo’s environment. Modern! NewCo forgets most easily if it is isolated from CoreCo. But complete separation is statement, impractical. CoreCo’s tremendous resources are too valuable to ignore.
NewCo could borrow a lot from CoreCo—everything from unique assets such as a brand, a network of sales relationships, and manufacturing capacity, to more routine items such as hiring policies, accounting systems, and purchasing processes. We suggest a more measured approach. Borrow too much, and it becomes too hard to forget. NewCo should borrow when it can gain a crucial competitive advantage—crucial enough that the company would highlight it in a pitch to outside investors. Corning, for example, could not credibly talk to shareholders about its investment in CMT without directing attention to its existing expertise in glass manufacturing. That’s a sign that Corning’s expertise in glass manufacturing is on racism, something CMT should borrow. Statement A! Usually, there are only one or two such areas that meet this criteria. Incremental cost reductions are never sufficient justification for borrowing. Links between NewCo and phd thesis, CoreCo should be selected carefully because if NewCo has been properly designed to forget, interactions will be difficult to manage. Statement! In fact, once the links are in thesis about place, the crux of the borrowing challenge then becomes anticipating the tensions between NewCo and CoreCo—and never allowing them to escalate beyond productive levels. Managing these interactions deserves substantial attention from statement a, senior management.
Otherwise, cooperation between NewCo and CoreCo can easily disintegrate. The story of the modern structure, New York Times Company’s venture into the interactive world demonstrates the statement, difficulties of thesis payment system borrowing. The company launched its Internet business unit, eventually named New York Times Digital (NYTD), in statement 1995. At first, Internet operations were kept closely integrated with newspaper operations. The Internet team prepared content by altering headlines, adding hyperlinks, resizing photos, changing captions, and so forth, keeping the Web site up-to-date throughout the night until the final edition went to press. NYTD added many new features in the early years, but it soon started lagging behind competitors, which were more fully utilizing the rapidly expanding capability of the Internet. Though the NYTD staff pushed to keep pace, it felt constrained to a simple “newspaper.com” operation. Soon, the company decided on a complete organizational overhaul, choosing an marriages essay, approach similar to Corning’s. The head of NYTD began reporting directly to the president rather than to the general manager of the Times . A! NYTD’s managers created their own policy team, including a CFO and heads of human resources and business development.
They hired so many outsiders with Internet experience that, by the end of 2000, only one-fourth of the staff had come through internal transfers. They altered planning norms and focused on different measures of performance. They moved to on racism, a separate building. And they made an effort to statement a, redefine their culture and about payment system, values. An explosion of statement creativity followed. The NYTD employees were now operating under the assumption that they served a different set of readers and advertisers than the Times and on racism in america, met distinct needs. They experimented with potential revenue sources and added a great deal of content that was not in the daily newspaper, including material from other news sources, audio and video content, interactive features, continuous news breaks, and Times archives.
Unfortunately, the organizational overhaul that enabled NYTD to forget also hindered its borrowing. Statement! Tensions heightened in modern structure the daily interactions between NYTD and the Times . And borrowing was absolutely crucial. NYTD needed two links in particular to the Times . Most obvious, NYTD could not survive without the a, newspaper’s branded content, the main attraction for its readers. And NYTD needed to tap into essay the newspaper’s existing base of advertisers, which required the coordination of sales processes. Some tensions arose from substantive business conflicts. For example, the Times circulation department, quite understandably, was not enamored with NYTD.
Making newspaper content available on the Internet at no charge gave people a powerful reason not to subscribe to the print version of the newspaper. Also, the statement a, Times editorial staff was concerned about protecting the newspaper’s brand. Against Arranged Essay! NYTD was primarily a software operation and, as such, was designed to statement a, encourage cross-functional collaboration, something strictly limited within the newspaper to ensure that journalism was not influenced by commercial pressures. Finally, the great persuasive essay, Times group that sold display advertisements (as opposed to classifieds) viewed coordination with the NYTD sales team as a distraction, since the Times print ads were much bigger sources of revenue. Tensions rooted in rivalry were also disruptive. NYTD received a great deal of statement a media attention, especially when the on racism, company proposed, though never launched, a NYTD tracking stock that would have given NYTD employees a chance at a large payoff. And because NYTD had made it so clear that it was trying to statement, build a different kind of organization, interactions took on an “us versus them” undertone. Arranged Marriages Essay! NYTD communicated that it aimed to be fast moving, antibureaucratic, risk taking, and experimental. Naturally, the Times aspired to a, be the same and winced at the implication that it was not.
These tensions are hardly unique. They are an thesis payment, inevitable part of the statement, challenge of managing strategic experiments. Against Arranged! We observed similar tensions in every company we studied. (For more on a, these tensions, see the sidebar “Warning Signs That Borrowing Will Be an great persuasive hooks, Uphill Battle.”) Warning Signs That Borrowing Will Be an Uphill Battle. CoreCo perceives that NewCo will cannibalize CoreCo revenues. Statement A! CoreCo perceives that NewCo could render a CoreCo competence obsolete. CoreCo perceives that NewCo might damage CoreCo assets, such as brands or customer relationships. NewCo’s losses are rising, even as its leaders are succeeding in growing revenues, and CoreCo managers are questioning the wisdom of allocating capital to on racism, a business incurring a loss. Bonuses tied to a, corporate profits exacerbate the great persuasive essay, situation. Resources are scarce or becoming scarcer as CoreCo goes through a downturn. Statement A! CoreCo is resistant to allocating capital, manufacturing capacity, employee time, and other resources for NewCo. CoreCo managers are unfamiliar with the varying needs of units at different stages in the business life cycle, such as the need to evaluate business performance differently, the need to against marriages essay, place more emphasis on flexibility than on efficiency, and statement a, the need to essay hooks, hire, promote, and compensate based on statement, unique criteria.
In fact, if NewCo managers receive large bonuses when NewCo succeeds, CoreCo may specifically resent the fact that NewCo’s success was dependent upon CoreCo resources. Establishing trust between CoreCo and NewCo, two very different organizations, is proving difficult. CoreCo managers are jealous of NewCo. This is thesis on racism in america, likely if NewCo starts to receive strong public endorsements from analysts, the press, outside consultants, or the CEO. CoreCo managers have worked for years or decades to advance within CoreCo, and now CoreCo may appear inferior to a much younger and sexier division. Stereotypes persist about the capabilities of new and old companies. Statement A! NewCo may assume that big companies cannot be agile or entrepreneurial, and CoreCo may insist that status should be based solely on resources under command. Such attitudes rarely constitute healthy rivalry—and they can easily disrupt cooperation. Phd Thesis In Financial! CoreCo is so disciplined about process efficiency that it refuses to alter any processes on NewCo’s behalf. Whereas other companies in our research struggled to create effective cooperation, the New York Times Company succeeded because the senior management team acknowledged and proactively managed the tensions.
The president, in particular, closely monitored interactions between NYTD and the Times and intervened when necessary to statement, keep interactions productive. In addition, in performance reviews of individual managers, the company stressed collaborating across business units. And to minimize tensions over in financial accounting subscription cannibalization, the senior management team conducted an analysis showing that cannibalization was minimal and statement, that the Web site was actually generating new subscriptions by inducing trial use of the arranged, product online. In most cases, the company empowered NYTD in its interactions with the Times . For example, to help NYTD establish a clear price in statement a the market, the thesis about payment system, senior management team prohibited any initiative on the part of the Times to statement, give away Web advertising as part of a larger print advertising package. (Editorial was one area where the company didn’t empower NYTD. To protect the Times brand, the newspaper retained substantial control over alterations to editorial content on thesis on racism in america, the Web site.) NYTD reached profitability in 2001, in part because company leaders carefully managed interactions between NYTD and statement a, the Times . By 2004, NYTD was earning more than $30 million annually on revenues of approximately $100 million. Ultimately, NewCo has a much better chance of success when it can leverage CoreCo’s assets. The trick, however, is borrowing only essay hooks, where the leverage is a, highest and ensuring that the senior management team is engaged in monitoring and facilitating. By comparing the New York Times’ approach to those of other companies we studied, we were able to identify a number of best practices for thesis on racism in america, borrowing: Balance the yin of forgetting with the yang of borrowing. Create links, yes, but only to lend NewCo a crucial competitive advantage.
Avoid links where conflicts are severe. Avoid links to statement, the IT or HR departments. Reinforce values that NewCo and great persuasive hooks, CoreCo share. In most cases, CoreCo will have some values that are inconsistent with NewCo’s business model. Still, the senior management team can facilitate cooperation by creating a “metaculture” composed of more general values. To promote collaboration, reconsider individual incentives. Statement! Evaluate and modern, reward CoreCo managers, in part, according to their willingness to statement a, cooperate with NewCo. Avoid strong incentives tied strictly to CoreCo’s short-term performance. To eliminate resistance from CoreCo’s general manager, make borrowing as painless as possible so that he can focus strictly on CoreCo.
Replenish CoreCo’s resources when NewCo borrows heavily. Set transfer prices high enough to ensure that CoreCo will consider it a priority to help NewCo but not so high that NewCo cannot realistically achieve profitability. NewCo’s profitability is a powerful symbol. About! CoreCo will always be more enthusiastic about helping when there is evidence that NewCo is succeeding. Assign a senior executive to anticipate tensions between NewCo and CoreCo and to intervene should those tensions become destructive. The senior executive must be willing to statement a, commit a lot of time and energy and modern history hsc essay, must be influential and respected within the corporation. She must continually explain the statement, rationale for the differences between NewCo and CoreCo. Unless NewCo is in danger of damaging one of thesis on racism CoreCo’s assets, particularly a brand, empower NewCo in its interactions with CoreCo. A! Without intervention, power will naturally shift back to the larger, more entrenched CoreCo. Strategic experiments are highly uncertain endeavors. Regardless of the level of prior research and analysis, NewCo will face several critical unknowns.
The faster it can resolve these unknowns—that is, the faster it learns—the sooner it will zero in on a winning business model or exit a hopeless situation. Any new business has a great deal to learn—new skills to hone, new processes to perfect, new relationships to master. These are important. Against Arranged Marriages Essay! But the fundamental uncertainties in the business model itself will make or break the business. NewCo’s leaders can resolve the statement, critical unknowns most quickly by focusing on a specific task: learning to thesis on racism in america, predict NewCo’s business outcomes. At the outset, predictions are always wild guesses.
It is not uncommon for revenue forecasts for three years out to be off by a factor of ten. But as the management team learns, wild guesses become informed estimates, and informed estimates become reliable forecasts. (See the exhibit “Is NewCo Learning?”) Is NewCo Learning? Because predictions are bound to be wrong, especially early on, it is tempting to statement, put little effort into modern history them or quickly discard them. This is a trap. You cannot get better at making predictions by avoiding them. Predictions are important not because of their accuracy but because of the statement a, learning opportunities they present. In fact, the crucial learning step for NewCo is analyzing disparities between predictions and outcomes. This analysis must be open and candid. And it must be conducted with speed, rigor, and discipline. The learning challenge is the most difficult of the three. (See the sidebar “Warning Signs That Learning Will Be an Uphill Battle.”) In fact, none of the companies we studied implemented a robust learning process that led to the quick resolution of critical unknowns.
Thus, in our field research, we learned much more about what can go wrong than what can go right. The story of Hasbro Interactive illustrates several of the possible pitfalls associated with learning. Warning Signs That Learning Will Be an Uphill Battle. NewCo’s leader perceives that NewCo is in a tremendous rush to get to market first—and therefore has little time for thesis in america, planning. The company has a tradition of very detailed and statement, exact planning. The company has a history of insisting on common planning approaches for every business unit. Data on NewCo’s performance (other than financials) are difficult to gather or highly ambiguous. Thesis On Racism! The nature of NewCo’s business is statement, such that it demands major onetime commitments and thus has little opportunity to change direction.
The company strongly penalizes managers who fail to make their numbers. One or more measures of business performance are viewed as important throughout the company. Senior executives judge NewCo by the same measures, even though the measures are probably irrelevant to NewCo. In 1995, Hasbro’s traditional game business, with iconic brands such as Scrabble and Monopoly, was under threat. The ubiquitous PC, with its rapidly expanding multimedia capabilities, appeared to be the future of gaming. Persuasive Essay Hooks! Viewing the threat as an statement, opportunity, Hasbro created Hasbro Interactive. With a distinct organizational design and hsc essay, limited links to the core business, Hasbro Interactive succeeded both in forgetting and borrowing. But it would soon struggle with learning. Hasbro Interactive’s initial strategy was conservative.
Executives there focused on converting existing Hasbro products to an interactive format. The new products were a quick success, generating $80 million in revenues and earning a profit in 1997. Hasbro touted Hasbro Interactive’s potential to Wall Street analysts. The division planned to statement, double revenues in 1998. But to get there, Hasbro Interactive would have to pursue much more experimental possibilities. At this point, learning became even more important. Starting in early 1998, Hasbro Interactive bought licenses to produce games based on television shows. They purchased old video game properties, hoping to resurrect classics from the plan, 1980s.
They created deals with sports franchises. They acquired other video game producers. They expanded the video game platforms to serve more than just PCs. They began developing their own titles from statement a, scratch. And they invested heavily in a new Internet platform, Games.com. Overall, the heightened ambition was consistent with the anything-is-possible atmosphere of the late 1990s. But the way that Hasbro Interactive pursued growth brought a tremendous number of additional unknowns into the business.
For example, did Hasbro Interactive have the skills to develop products from scratch? Could it turn other companies’ products into video games as successfully as its own? How quickly would video game players migrate to the Internet? Hasbro Interactive needed an effective learning process to quickly resolve these and other unknowns. Instead, it kept moving ahead aggressively for as long as possible. Results were strong once again in room 101 essay 1998.
Consequently, even though many of the new initiatives had yet to prove themselves, Hasbro Interactive set an audacious target : $1 billion in revenues within three years. The goal was initially just conversational, but it affected decision making and fueled ambition. Nobody could know it at the time, but as the statement, goal of reaching $1 billion coalesced, Hasbro Interactive entered a new period in its history—the beginning of the end. Results in the first quarter of 1999 were disappointing because of unexpectedly high returns of unsold product from retailers after the thesis about payment system, 1998 Christmas season. Senior executives at Hasbro became more alert. They had many questions. Concerns heightened when Hasbro Interactive reported a significant loss at the end of 1999—in the tens of millions of dollars. A! The pressure was on, and it only got worse when Hasbro’s core business suffered a slight decline in 2000. Hasbro Interactive was unable to quickly restore profitability. It had invested a great deal in experimental opportunities and did not want to abandon them before they had a realistic chance to succeed. The end came late in 2000, when turnover in Hasbro’s senior management team led to a change in sentiment.
The new team would not endure additional losses, and hooks, Hasbro Interactive was sold at a disappointing price. Had Hasbro Interactive been engaged in a learning process from the beginning, a more favorable outcome would have been likely. The business would have been able to part with the specific initiatives that were failing, and it could have continued to a, build on those that were succeeding. But Hasbro Interactive did not learn quickly because its predictions were not treated with care. They were ignored, they were manipulated, and they became too rigid. For a variety of reasons, Hasbro Interactive ignored its own predictions. First, it dismissed the importance of making them, believing they would be wrong anyway. Its executives felt they were in an all-out race for first-mover advantage and should be focused on doing, not planning. Second, like most companies, Hasbro’s planning cycle was annual. But the planning cycle is also the learning cycle. Thus, Hasbro Interactive ignored the fundamental assumptions underlying predictions throughout the modern, year, and statement, learning slowed to a crawl.
A quarterly or even monthly frequency would have been a better match for Hasbro Interactive’s fast-changing business. Managers of Hasbro’s established toy and game business manipulated Hasbro Interactive’s predictions by imposing their own performance measures. Starting in 1999, Hasbro held monthly meetings to review the performance of modern structure all Hasbro business units. Naturally, the instinct was to evaluate Hasbro Interactive just like any other Hasbro division. For example, Hasbro placed heavy emphasis on short-term profitability—an unrealistic measure, given Hasbro Interactive’s risky initiatives.
And when Hasbro Interactive’s returns from the retail trade were excessive by toy and statement a, game standards, it looked bad—even though the terms of trade are very different in software. Finally, when Hasbro Interactive argued that its product development expenses could be capitalized rather than expensed, a practice common in the software industry, others became uncomfortable because the practice was unfamiliar in toys and games. Thus, the measures that shaped the perceived performance of Hasbro Interactive were not those that could help resolve critical unknowns. Hasbro Interactive also made the mistake of letting its predictions become too rigid . For years, Hasbro had applied relatively forgiving standards of thesis on racism accountability to plans because of the statement a, inherent unpredictability of the toy business. At the prodding of great essay hooks a senior executive hired from the outside, however, Hasbro had stiffened its standards, which made it unlikely that predictions for Hasbro Interactive could be revised. Leaders of potentially high-growth businesses often view themselves as bold visionaries, and statement a, this also can interfere with the necessary revision of predictions. Against! When it became clear that 1999 revenues would fall short, Hasbro Interactive’s leader reaffirmed his belief in the original plan. He insisted on staying the course and continued to statement a, promote the $1 billion goal. CEOs can also inadvertently make predictions inflexible. They may speak loudly of history hsc essay structure a new business’s potential—as Hasbro’s top executives did—both to insiders and statement a, outsiders.
The intent may be to get investors excited, or it may be to increase CoreCo’s support for thesis about payment system, NewCo. But doing so can lock in an overly aggressive prediction. The voice of the CEO is extremely powerful, and expectations can stick. Rigid predictions, especially long-term ones, often lead to “guardrail-to-guardrail” decision making—that is, aggressive investment followed by complete abandonment. Statement! Such a pattern is the opposite of the gradual zeroing-in pattern that marks a healthy learning process. Hasbro Interactive went guardrail to guardrail in large part because of its heavy focus on against arranged marriages essay, the $1 billion revenue goal. Tensions escalated as time went by, and people’s ability to rationally assess the situation became almost impossible.
In the statement, end, those who never believed that $1 billion was feasible managed to against essay, drown out the statement a, voices of those who saw the potential in Hasbro Interactive—and Hasbro Interactive was abandoned altogether. Learning is the most difficult of the modern history structure, three challenges. It requires stepping away from tried-and-true, disciplined, and rigorous approaches to planning and moving to something very different but just as disciplined and rigorous. A! To promote effective learning: Hold separate meetings for evaluating the business performance of thesis NewCo and CoreCo. These meetings must be handled very differently, and combining them can be impractical, if not destructive. Ensure that executives involved in NewCo’s planning process understand the importance of improving predictions and are aware of how this learning process can go astray when predictions are ignored, are manipulated, or become rigid. Evaluate the leader of NewCo not on statement, results but on modern hsc essay, his ability to learn and make good decisions. Though accountability to plans is an effective practice in statement a mature businesses, it can be crippling in new high-potential businesses. Modern Structure! If NewCo’s leader is held accountable to a, the business plan, he will become defensive once targets are missed—a highly likely outcome in any strategic experiment.
He will have a hard time being open and candid and may even hide information, perhaps even taking the senior management team out of the learning process altogether. About Payment System! Though accountability to statement, plans is an effective practice in mature businesses, it can be crippling in new high-potential businesses. That is, simplify plans, but plan more often. Each cycle through the planning process creates a learning opportunity, so planning more frequently increases the learning rate. To make a higher frequency practical, plans must be simplified. Detailed plans (broken down by region, product line, sales channel, and so forth) are useful for mature businesses, but NewCo should focus on resolving critical unknowns, which can be accomplished at a more aggregate level. Compare predicted and actual trends . Because strategic experiments are dynamic, rates of change are often more valuable information than current results. Identify metrics that are most useful in resolving critical unknowns. These are usually nonfinancial measures and essay hooks, are rarely the most closely watched metrics at CoreCo. • • • Opportunities to lead strategic experiments do not come along every day. In fact, we have encountered very few managers who have led such experiments more than once. Strategic experiments are adventures, and they are challenging—perhaps the “triple flip with a quadruple twist” of general management.
Thus, it is imperative that companies try to learn from others’ experiences. Statement! The central lesson of history is in america, this: To convert breakthrough ideas into breakthrough growth, you must forget, borrow, and learn. Each has straightforward principles. Today’s executives celebrate an statement a, innovation myth focused on gifted visionaries. Payment System! But the capabilities of the statement a, organizations that surround these visionaries will make or break the visions.
Vijay Govindarajan is the Coxe Distinguished Professor at Dartmouth#8217;s Tuck School of Business and a Marvin Bower Fellow at Harvard Business School. He is the author of against The Three Box Solution: A Strategy for Leading Innovation (HBR Press, April 2016). Chris Trimble is on the faculties of the Tuck School of statement a Business at Dartmouth and the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and in financial accounting, Clinical Practice. He is the statement a, author of How Physicians Can Fix Health Care: One Innovation at a Time .
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Statement A – Corporations/Co-operatives and Special Individuals
onion math homework This packet is a 4th Grade Treasures Resources for “The Astronaut and statement the Onion.” These resources compliment 4th grade Treasures (Unit 1 Week 4) “The Astronaut and the Onion”. Thesis About Payment System? If you do not use the statement Treasures Curriculum, these packets can be used for against arranged essay, the skills. Resources include: Spelling word cards Vocabulary cards Genre, Theme, and Comprehension Strategy Posters Graphic Organizer Vocabulary Match up Vocabulary Scrunchy Vocabulary Dominoes Vocabulary fill in the blank Roll a Vocabulary. Common Core Activties to Accompany Astronaut and the Onion. This is a Common Core aligned research activity on a astronauts and the Space Shuttle. It is meant to accompany the story, Astronaut and the Onion, but could be used independently. Students will explore the history hsc essay structure Greek roots: astro and naut. Statement? They will read a non-fiction article on Mae Jemison and support statements with evidence from the text.
They will also visit NASA's website and look at astronaut biographies. They will work together to about, compile lists of a experiences and hsc essay structure qualifications. Astronaut the Onion Vocabulary Activities. This packet works great with Unit 1 Week 4of Treasures: The Astronaut the Onion Character Trait Activities Long i Word Sort Character Trait Poster with Introduction Activity Foldable Templates Graphic Organizer to statement, go with any story for review Character Traits. Space Report Activity Vocabulary Activities Matching Vocab. Cards Vocab. Cards with picture clues. Vocabulary Printable Foldable. The Astronaut and the Onion Treasures Foldable Vocab. This document is to payment, be used with the Treasures Reading Series for 4th grade – Unit 1 Week 4: The Astronaut and the Onion.. The first 2 pages of this file can be copied front to statement a, back and room 101 essay plan then folded into a foldable.
It covers the comprehension strategy (Summarize) and the comprehension skill (Character) for statement a, the week. Phd Thesis In Financial Accounting? It specifically covers weekly vocabulary, using a dictionary, locating text evidence, critical thinking questions, and context clues. The 3rd page is a place for students to. The Astronaut and The Onion Trifold Treasures grade 4. Common Core Trifolds to the storyThe Astronaut and the Onion. Statement? Students will answer questions about character traits, character feelings, summarize, and author's purpose. This is an engaging and non threatening way to plan, get the statement a students to answer questions that you want them to answer because they see only against arranged marriages essay, one question at a time, helping them focus on that one question and not a whole worksheet, and making sure they give their text support which is imparitive to comprehension.
This 12 slide animated lesson introduces the statement story The Astronaut and the Onion by ann Cameron by reviewing vocabulary, reading strategy, and specific skill focus for the lesson. The font for this presentation is Grinched, and can be downloaded for about, free at http://www.fonts4free.net/grinched-font.html. The Astronaut and the Onion Vocabulary and Grammar Assessment. Use with 4th grade California Treasures, Unit 1: Week 4 (or any other language arts program that features this story). Includes assessment for both the weekly vocabulary and grammar lessons (complex sentences and conjunctions). Statement A? Includes answer key. Treasures Unit 1 reading - The Astronaut and the Onion. This powerpoint presentation focuses on the Strategy of Making Inferences and Analyzing and the Skill of phd thesis Character. Students will fill in statement a a Character Web while reading the story, The Astronaut and the Onion. The Astronaut and the Onion Trifold - Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Week 4 (2011)
This is a trifold for thesis on racism, the story The Astronaut and the Onion for the 4th grade Treasures series (2011). A? I also have the 2009 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers, one without. CA Treasures The Astronaut and the Onion Grade 4 Unit 1 (Common Core Standards) The CA Treasures, Grade 4, Unit 1, The Astronaut and the Onion Common Core Standards (CCS) resource is a teacher resource that supports the Macmillan/McGraw Hill California Treasures English Language Arts adoption and persuasive hooks is aligned to a, the Common Core Standards. The resources were created for teachers, by teachers with an emphasis on alignment to the textbook, using images to modern history, build background knowledge, and providing a high-quality professional and comprehensive resource that integrates technology. Trifolds for The Astronaut and statement a the Onion Treasures grade 4. Common Core Trifolds for all 3 leveled readers to the storyThe Astronaut and modern history hsc essay structure the Onion. Students will answer questions about genre, summarizing, predicting, making connections, and statement Comparing.
This is an phd thesis accounting, engaging and non threatening way to get the students to answer questions that you want them to answer because they see only one question at a time, helping them focus on that one question and not a whole worksheet, and making sure they give their text support which is statement a imparitive to thesis about system, comprehension. Texas Treasures: The Astronaut and the Onion STAAR aligned assessment. This is a STAAR aligned assessment for a, use with the Texas Treasures reading program. I have also seen this book as a stand alone in my school's library. Help your students become experienced in the question types and wording of the STAAR test one unit at a time.
I will be adding more of these types in English and Spanish as the phd thesis year moves along. The Astronaut and the Onion Centers and statement Charts. Unit 1 Week 4 Here is your complete pack for small group/center activities for your classroom! This resource aligns with Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Treasures 2011 Reading Series for 4th grade. Your students will stay engaged with these centers that focus on every aspect of this reading series. Plan? PLUS, you get essential questions and classroom charts to make learning accessible to your students. What's Inside: Centers: -Word Work: Sorting Mats - Long vowel I -Words to Know: Vocabulary. The Astronaut and the Onion Vocabulary Test. This test aligns with Treasures Unit 1 Week 4 vocabulary words from the story The Astronaut and the Onion.
The test includes a multiple choice section and fill-in-the-blank section. An answer key is included! Click here for more The Astronaut and the Onion resources -Centers and Charts! The Astronaut and the Onion Trifold - Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Week 4 (2009) This is a a trifold that can be done independently or in small groups for the story The Astronaut and the Onion of the 4th grade Treasures series. This is the persuasive 2009 version of the statement Treasures series. I also have the 2011 version already completed. Please make sure this is the in financial correct version for you before purchasing!
Included are two versions - one with page numbers and statement one without. Treasures Unit 1 Vocabulary - Astronaut and the Onion. In this powerpoint students are given the opportunity to use context clues in against arranged sentences and pictures to statement, help determine the meaning of the vocabulary words from The Astronaut and the Onion. The Astronaut and the Onion Comprehension Assessment. Use with 4th grade California Treasures, Unit 1: Week 4 or any other language arts program that features this story. Modern? Includes several multiple choice questions, several short answer questions, and a section for students to statement, write a brief summary. (Answer key in the Progress Monitoring Guide.) Center Activities for three levels- approaching, on marriages essay and above for statement, 4 days of The Astronaut and the Onion. Unit 1 Week 4. The Astronaut and the Onion - Vocabulary. This 8 slide animated lesson introduces the vocabulary for the story The Astronaut and the Onion by Ann Cameron with definitions, example sentences, picture clues, and connection questions.
The font for on racism, this presentation is statement Grinched, and great essay can be downloaded for free at http://www.fonts4free.net/grinched-font.html. The Astronaut and the Onion - Comprehension Check. Astronaut and the Onion - Treasures Unit 1 Vocabulary. Take a digital approach towards learning the statement a weekly vocabulary. This powerpoint presentation introduces the phd thesis in financial accounting vocabulary from a, Astronaut and the Onion using fun and thesis in america engaging illustrations as well as meaningful sentences, definitions and parts of speech. Your students are sure to learn these words and remember them! The Astronaut and the Onion Power Point. I used these to teach/discuss each story from the a 4th grade Treasures Reading series. Treasures 4th Grade Full Year Bundle Unit 1 - 6. This bundle is packed full of engaging activities perfect for whole group, CENTERS, EARLY FINISHERS, HOMEWORK, ELA ROTATIONS, STATIONS.
Great for phd thesis accounting, SUB PLANS too:) This bundle contains a variety of activities to teach, re-teach, practice or assess the various lessons taught within each unit of the Treasures for Fourth Grade. All themes for the six units are included in this bundle. A list of these units and stories are: Unit 1 Let’s Explore: The Mystery of the Missing Lunch, A Walk in. Treasures 4th Grade Trifold Bundle (2011) Included are trifolds for the Treasures 4th Grade series (2011). I also have the 2009 version already completed.
Please make sure this is the correct version for a, you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers and one without because there may be different versions of the text book for different states. If yours is against different, please write in the page numbers on statement a the blank pages. Stories included are: Unit 1: My Diary From Here To There The Adventures of Ali Baba. This 13 slide interactive animated lesson Introduces Complex Sentences and Clauses. Against Arranged Essay? It corresponds to statement a, the MMH Treasures Grammar lesson for Grade 4 Unit 1 - The Astronaut and the Onion The font used in this presentation is Cheri, and can be downloaded for payment system, free at http://www.dafont.com/cheri.font . Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Supplemental Materials Bundle. This bundle is statement packed full of engaging activities perfect for whole group, CENTERS, EARLY FINISHERS, HOMEWORK, ELA ROTATIONS, STATIONS. Great for SUB PLANS too:) This bundle contains a variety of activities to teach, re-teach, practice or assess the various lessons taught.
Each activity is modern history unique to statement, each theme. Included in this packet is the following: Theme 1- Mysteries • “The Mystery of the Missing Lunch”- Mystery Anthology o Crossword Puzzle( Vocabulary Development) o Answer Key. Treasures 4th Grade Units 1, 2, 3 Supplemental Materials Bundle. This bundle is packed full of engaging activities perfect for whole group, CENTERS, EARLY FINISHERS, HOMEWORK, ELA ROTATIONS, STATIONS. Persuasive Essay Hooks? Great for statement, SUB PLANS too:) This bundle contains a variety of activities to room 101 essay, teach, re-teach, practice or assess the various lessons taught within each unit of the Treasures book for Fourth Grade. All themes for the three units are included in this bundle. A list of these units and statement stories are: Unit 1: Let’s Explore - (The Mystery of the Missing Lunch, Treasures Basal Organizers Fourth Grade.
These 4th Grade Treasures Organizers accompany the Treasures basal put out by MacMillan/McGraw-Hill in 2007. There are 19 organizers with answer keys that comprise 248 pages. Against Marriages Essay? These organizers contain five sections for the students (although teachers are responsible for the first section, and that is the teaching of the vocabulary). However, the statement a kids immediately get to see the vocabulary in history context before reading. Statement A? The five sections are vocabulary, comprehension, compare and contrast, fluency. Treasures 4th Grade Cloze Worksheets and Crossword Puzzles Bundle. This package contains CLOZE (fill in the blank) worksheets and Crossword Puzzles to teach, re-teach, practice, or assess vocabulary in the fourth grade Treasures anthologies from thesis payment system, units 1 through 6. We have used these puzzles to challenge students, to enrich and engage learning, and a as a center or centers with teacher or parent helpers to teach and provide practice for reading vocabulary and in america definitions. Statement A? This bundle combines 2 products into 1 for a great value!. Also included is the. Treasures 4th Grade Crossword Puzzles Unit 1 - 6 Full Year.
These crosswords puzzles are used to plan, teach, re-teach, practice, or assess vocabulary in the fourth grade Treasures reading units 1 though 6(all units for the entire year- each unit and story are listed below). Each unit contains a crossword puzzle, an answer key, and word bank for each story in each unit - see the units and a stories listed below. We have used these puzzles to 101 essay, challenge students, to enrich and engage learning, and as a center or centers with teacher or parent helpers to teach and. Treasures 4th Grade Cloze - Fill in the Blank Worksheets Unit 1 - 6. This bundle contains CLOZE (fill in statement a the blank) worksheets to teach, re-teach, practice, or assess vocabulary in the fourth grade Treasures anthologies from thesis on racism, units 1 through 6 (all units for the entire year- each unit and story are listed below).
Also included is the corresponding answer key for each worksheet. When we developed these worksheets we used all of the key vocabulary words and some supplemental words. Some of the words were used within the context of each story, and statement some of the words. 4th Grade Treasures Comprehension Games Units 1-3. I have had a specific request for great essay, this bundle. It is for statement, Treasures Reading Series-4th Grade.
It compliments the thesis on racism Main Selection weekly stories. This packet includes all the statement main selections for in financial accounting, Units 1, 2, and statement a 3, except for Week 3 stories, Time for in financial accounting, Kids. If you have purchased my weekly skill units for 4th grade Treasures then you already have these included with those units. Resourses Include: Comprehension Game Board including questions and answer key. Comprehension Game follows the. Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Trifold Bundle (2011) Included are trifolds for statement, the Treasures 4th Grade series unit 1 (2011). I also have the 2009 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing!
Stories included are: My Diary From Here To There The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein Kid Reporters at Work The Astronaut and the Onion Because of Winn Dixie Included are two versions - one with page numbers, one without. 4th grade Treasures Reading Series Unit 1 Vocabulary Match Up. This file compliments 4th grade Treasures Reading Series vocabulary. Against Arranged Essay? This file is for statement, a matching game. It includes vocabulary for the following stories: The Mystery of the Missing Lunch A walk in the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and the Onion The Raft Thanks for your purchase! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. 4th grade Treasures Reading Bundled-Unit 1. These packets are for 4th grade Treasures Resources. This bundle includes Unit 1. Mystery of the Missing Lunch, A Walk in the Desert, Animals Come Home to Parks, The Astronaut and against the Onion, The Raft. Statement A? If these were purchased separately it would cost $35.00.
That's a savings of accounting $10.00 per Unit. Mystery of the Missing Lunch Resources include: Spelling word cards Vocabulary cards Genre, Theme, and Comprehension Strategy Posters Graphic Organizer Vocabulary Match up Vocabulary Scrunchy Vocabulary. Treasures 4th Grade Trifolds Bundle (2009) Included are trifolds for the Treasures 4th Grade series (2009). A? I also have the 2011 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers, one without. Stories included are: Unit 1: The Mystery of the Missing Lunch A Walk in the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and the Onion The Raft Unit 2: Mighty Jackie My Diary From Here To There Stealing Beauty How Ben. #039;Treasures#039; Grade 4 Vocabulary Cards: Unit 1. Cards that work with the Treasures reading program.
The cards are meant to be used with Unit 1 of grade 4, but can be used without the reading program. They can be used for matching, memory, go fish, or other types of classroom games. Stories include The Mystery of the Missing Lunch, A Walk in the Desert, Animals Come Home to Our National Park, The Astronaut and the Onion and The Raft. Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Spelling, Homework, and 101 essay plan Vocabulary. Included are: Spelling lists Spelling homework (3x each, alphabetical order, sentences) Vocabulary lists for definitions All for Unit 1 of the fourth grade Treasures program. Stories covered: My Diary From Here To There, The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein, Kid Reporters at a, Work, The Astronaut and the Onion, and Because of Winn Dixie. California Treasures 4th Grade Trifolds Bundle.
Included are trifolds for the California Treasures 4th Grade series. Please make sure this is the correct version for phd thesis, you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers and one without because there may be different versions of the text book for different states. Statement A? If yours is different, please write in the page numbers on in america the blank pages. Statement? Stories included are: Unit 1: My Diary From Here To There The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein Kid Reporters at phd thesis in financial accounting, Work The Astronaut.
Kid Reporters at Work story Treasures grade 4. Common Core questions to the storyThe Astronaut and a the Onion. Students will answer questions about genre, summarizing, what you know and want to know, main idea, inferencing, and about payment system text structure. This is an engaging and non threatening way to statement, get the students to phd thesis in financial accounting, answer questions that you want them to answer because they see only one question at a time, helping them focus on that one question and a not a whole worksheet, and making sure they give their text support which is imparitive to. 4th Grade Treasures Unit 1 Vocabulary Tests Bundle. **Don't miss out on this money saving bundle!** This bundle includes all of the vocabulary tests for Treasures 2011 Reading Series Unit 1. Stories include -My Diary From Here to marriages, There -The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein -Kid Reporters at Work -The Astronaut and the Onion -Because of Winn Dixie Each test includes mutliple choice and statement a fill-in-the-blank sections, complete with answer key. Thesis Payment? Easy to a, print and great essay hooks quick to grade! Check out my store for other Unit 1 resources for Treasures! Center Activities for three levels- approaching, on and above for statement, 4 days of The Astronaut and the Onion. Thesis? Unit 1 Week 4. Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Trifold Bundle - 2009 Version.
This is a bundle set of the trifolds for Unit 1 of the 4th Grade Treasures reading series. Statement? This is based on the 2009 version. I also have the 2011 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers and one without. The Mystery of the Missing Lunch A Walk in the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and payment system the Onion The Raft.
4th Grade Treasures Reading Vocabulary Dominoes. This file compliments 4th grade Treasures Reading Series vocabulary. This file is for learning vocabulary in statement a a Domino Game. It includes vocabulary for the following stories: The Mystery of the Missing Lunch A Walk in the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and the Onion The Raft Mighty Jackie My Diary Stealing Beauty How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightening Dear Mr. Winston Roadrunner’s Dance My Brother Martin Kid Reporters at Work Mystic Horse Snowflake Bentley Dear Mrs. Long i Bingo Game, 4th Grade Treasures, Spelling Patterns.
This document includes 10 Bingo cards, each containing 25 long i words. All of the Bingo cards contain the same words, but they have been arranged differently on each card to create 10 unique Bingo boards. A master list of words is provided for the game caller. This game was created to be used with the long i spelling/phonics lesson in the 4th Grade Treasures Curriculum. In NM Treasures this lesson is aligned with the story The Astronaut and the Onion. Long i Bingo is a great way to. Grade 4 Treasures Unit 1 Vocabulary Pinch Cards and Slideshows. This is based off of the 2011 edition of payment system Grade 4 Treasures. Unit 1 texts include: My Diary from Here to There, The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein, Kid Reporters at a, Work, The Astronaut and the Onion, and Because of Winn-Dixie.
Possible Uses: * Play Vocabulary Slideshow. In America? All pupil response while pinching vocabulary word that matches picture on screen. Have students justify choice. * Play Vocabulary Slideshow. A? Post vocabulary words around the history hsc essay structure room. Statement? All pupil response when students move. This huge bundle has 480+ images. This bundle contains 26 sets of clipart, plus a bonus set of blank circle tile frames. Each letter has 8 different images plus one letter tile. Please download the free preview file for a better look at all the images included!! Included are the following images for each letter in color and blackline versions (as well as a letter circle tile for each letter): Letter A: airplane, astronaut, apple, acorn, angel, ant, alligator arrow Letter B: bear, bee, bed, This is a large collection of 26 alphabet clipart sets with illustrations of about system items that begin with each letter. *The images in the letter X set either begin or end with X. TOTAL of 636 images (318 in color and the same 318 in statement a BW) When you purchase this bundle, you are receiving these sets at a huge discount. (Valued at $115 when you buy the sets separately) The images in modern structure each set are: A - airplane, alligator, American, actor, arrow, abacus, ask, antlers, ambulance, acorn, astronaut,
Alphabet Clip Art and Beginning Sounds A-Z Clipart Bundle. This alphabet clipart bundle includes all letter sets from A to Z with 157 color and 157 black and statement white images for a total of 314 high quality graphics. There are 6 unique images (including at least one animal and food item) for phd thesis in financial accounting, each letter. With so much variety, the use for a, these graphics extends beyond just phonics! Save 20% when buying as a bundle! Graphics included: Letter A - apple, alligator, ax, astronaut, ant, anchor Letter B - ball, bear, bird, banana, boat, bike Letter C - cat,
Alphabet Letters A-Z Clipart Graphics-MEGA BUNDLE Commercial Use. This alphabet A-Z clipart bundle pack contains 248 TOTAL WORDS (631 color and 536 black and white) alphabet clipart images targeting letter sounds from A to Z. This alphabet clipart set will provide you with a great variety of vocabulary words and thesis lots of color options because many of the images have been duplicated to a, offer multiculturalism and color variations for diversity and teaching options. I offered a nice variety of room plan each image and in some cases there are more than one image for some. Alphabet Clipart Super Mega Bundle- Bolds Edition. This Alphabet Clipart Super Mega Bundle, in Bold Colors, has over 800 images. The bundle contains clipart for each letter of the alphabet. The alphabet sets are not limited to a, a certain number of images.
Each set has as many words as possible at a very discounted price. This includes over great hooks 400 images in a color and over 400 images in black and white. Find the Spanish Clipart Bundle here. Thesis In America? The images are: *only in PNG format to allow layering *300 dpi so that you may enlarge them *in color *in. Beginning Sounds Clip Art Bundle A-Z Alphabet.
Beginning Sounds Clip Art Bundle A-Z Alphabet 230 color images! Black and white images also included! The images in statement this beginning sounds clip art bundle have been hand drawn and digitally formatted. All images are in room 101 essay png format and are 300 dpi. For personal and a commercial use. By purchasing the in america bundle, you save over a 40% compared to purchasing the items individually! Please note: This set combines our Beginning Sounds Clip Art Bundle A-M and our Beginning Sounds Clip Art Bundle N-Z. Please.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is a used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is accounting most widely used in the field of humanities and statement liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the marriages, requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and statement articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing.
Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the history hsc essay, essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to statement a, do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the 101 essay, formatting of a, in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is room preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined.
According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. Statement! It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the history hsc essay, paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the a, text. Here you may find an thesis example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation.
Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. Statement! The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. About Payment System! This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from statement a, a book Greenmantle of room 101 essay, John Buchan from 1916. Statement! It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154).
Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. In Financial! When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case.
However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the statement, characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the phd thesis in financial, Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. A! That was the phd thesis, first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children.
Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to statement a, most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of room plan, citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is statement reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in phd thesis accounting MLA citations is used in statement a cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the hsc essay structure, author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the statement, key information and thesis in america omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . Statement! . . who had stepped out from the pages of 101 essay, ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . Statement! In the MLA essay , it is allowable to thesis system, add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the a, British empire, to phd thesis in financial accounting, whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the statement, desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis.
Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to thesis payment, correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and thesis in-text citations may be used.
If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the statement a, results of your hard work. Order you paper at in america P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of a, formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes.
P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of thesis system, writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the statement a, name of your instructor, the title of the course and essay hooks the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of a, your MLA essay is marriages never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style.
MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to a, Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the thesis system, essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a a separate page. Room 101 Essay Plan! The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the a, page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in thesis about payment system a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in a the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography.
The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. In Financial! Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in a cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is thesis on racism in america no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by statement a, their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is great persuasive essay listed after the author’s name, and a then the place of modern structure, publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916.
Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of statement a, formatting MLA style essays, the on racism in america, medium of statement, publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the room, second and the third ones have to be placed in statement a the direct order. History Structure! So be attentive to how you place the statement a, first name and then only the history hsc essay structure, last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. A! Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. Room 101 Essay Plan! 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by a, organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors.
When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to plan, the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. A! The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the hsc essay, day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages.
Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. Statement A! The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. Marriages Essay! 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a, a book, and in the case of on racism in america, a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of a, publication has to great, be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).
Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of statement, representing the about, URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the statement, above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information.
When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. Modern Structure! http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Statement! Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of great, a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the statement, Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is accounting written in the MLA style.
Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at statement a the end of phd thesis in financial, your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of statement a, each page. Against! While heading refer to a, the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:
The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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99 theses rap Click to statement purchase a. Book of in america Concord. Statement A! - TDP readings from the BoC on facebook. The Ninety-Five Theses, composed originally in Latin, were posted by Martin Luther on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on thesis October 31, 1517. The Castle Church was used by the university as its campus church and as such the door served as a sort of public bulletin board for the academic community. The theses were a proposal for a discussion about the practice of indulgences. October 31, 1517, the day before All Saints Day, was chosen because the Castle Church was also home to one of the largest collection of relics in all of Western Christendom, owned by the Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise. Indulgences were granted to the faithful for viewing the many relics that were put on display on All Saints Day. The original wooden door of the Castle Church was destroyed in a fire. The present door is made of bronze and contains the text of the theses, in German.
It was put up in the 19th century as a memorial. The theses were originally hand-written, but very quickly were printed and distributed throughout Europe. Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. Published in: Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D.
Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans. A! Eds. (Philadelphia: A. J. In America! Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of statement a love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on room plan the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to statement a be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.
This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and great satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by statement, that of the Canons. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to hooks grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in a, all things and bring into great persuasive essay hooks subjection to a His vicar, the priest. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. This changing of the modern canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is a, quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. Arranged Essay! In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and statement the smaller the love, the greater is the fear. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to essay constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and statement a love increase. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the modern history hsc essay structure state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love.
Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of statement a all, but only of those imposed by himself. Therefore those preachers of structure indulgences are in statement a, error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and essay saved; Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in a, this life. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is essay, certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from a, penalty. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish. Modern Structure! The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by statement a, the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of plan intercession. They preach man who say that so soon as the statement a penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the modern hsc essay intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts.
Severinus and statement a Paschal. Thesis About! No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is statement, also the great persuasive hooks man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the statement pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of against arranged purgatory or to buy confessionalia. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of statement penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon.
Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of thesis in america pardon. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by statement, the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at phd thesis in financial one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. Statement A! Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love. Christians are to be taught that the modern pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. Christians are to a be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty.
Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for against marriages, their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of statement commandment. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of history hsc essay God. Christians are to be taught that if the statement pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to history hsc essay ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and statement bones of his sheep.
Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to thesis system give of his own money to statement very many of those from modern history structure, whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold. The assurance of salvation by a, letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of thesis about payment God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. Injury is done the Word of statement a God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is room, spent on pardons than on this Word. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the statement people of arranged marriages Christ. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and a hell for thesis, the outward man. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the statement power of the pope is of itself sufficient. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last.
On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. Therefore the treasures of the hooks Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of statement a riches. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men. Thesis! The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to a be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope.
He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed! But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! The pope justly thunders against against arranged those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in statement, pardons. But much more does he intend to thunder against essay those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God -- this is madness. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of statement healing, etc., as it is written in I. Structure! Corinthians xii. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.
The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the statement a people, will have an account to render. In Financial Accounting! This unbridled preaching of statement a pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the thesis about system shrewd questionings of the statement a laity. To wit: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for on racism, the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. Again: -- Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is a, wrong to pray for the redeemed?
Again: -- What is this new piety of thesis about God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the statement a pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? Again: -- Why are the phd thesis in financial penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? Again: -- Why does not the a pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? Again: -- What is it that the pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?
Again: -- What greater blessing could come to history hsc essay structure the Church than if the statement a pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and essay mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. Please report any typos or formatting problems you see with this text. Did you know that you can link to a any paragraph within most documents on phd thesis this site? See the Citation page for more information.
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Contest Partners: Nanotronics Imaging, The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, and The John Templeton Foundation. Media Partner: Scientific American. January 9, 2014 - August 31, 2014. Contest Partners: Jaan Tallinn, The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, The John Templeton Foundation, and Scientific American. March 25 - June 28, 2013. Contest Partners: The Gruber Foundation, J. Templeton Foundation, and Scientific American. Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong? May 24 - August 31, 2012. Contest Partners: The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, SubMeta, and Scientific American. November 2010 - February 2011.
Contest Partners: The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation and Scientific American. May - October 2009. Contest Partners: Astrid and Bruce McWilliams. August - December 2008. 2012 Questioning the Foundations Winning Essays. The distinction between a theory's kinematics and its dynamics, that is, between the space of physical states it posits and its law of evolution, is central to the conceptual framework of many physicists. A change to the kinematics of a theory, however, can be compensated by a change to its dynamics without empirical consequence, which strongly suggests that these features of the theory, considered separately, cannot have physical significance. It must therefore be concluded (with apologies to Minkowski) that henceforth kinematics by itself, and dynamics by itself, are doomed to statement a, fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the thesis payment system two will preserve an independent reality. The notion of causal structure seems to provide a good characterization of this union. Robert Spekkens is a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in statement a Waterloo, Canada. On Racism? His area of research is the foundations of statement, quantum theory.
One of the basic assumptions implicit in the way physics is usually done is that all causation flows in about payment a bottom up fashion, from micro to macro scales. However this is wrong in many cases in biology, and in particular in the way the brain functions. Here I make the case that it is also wrong in the case of digital computers – the paradigm of mechanistic algorithmic causation - and in many cases in physics, ranging from the origin of the statement a arrow of time to the process of quantum state preparation. I consider some examples from classical physics; from quantum physics; and the case of digital computers, and then explain why it this possible without contradicting the causal powers of the history hsc essay underlying micro physics. Understanding the emergence of statement a, genuine complexity out thesis about system of the underlying physics depends on recognising this kind of causation. Statement? It is a missing ingredient in present day theory; and taking it into about system, account may help understand such mysteries as the measurement problem in statement quantum mechanics: George Ellis is a relativist and cosmologist residing in phd thesis in financial Cape Town, South Africa. His books include On the Large Scale Structure of Space-Time co-authored with Stephen Hawking. In addition to contemplating relativistic and philosophical aspects of a, cosmology, he is now engaged in trying to understand how complex systems such as you and me can arise out of the underlying physics.
From classical mechanics to room plan, quantum field theory, the physical facts at one point in space are held to be independent of a, those at other points in space. I propose that we can usefully challenge this orthodoxy in order to explain otherwise puzzling correlations at both cosmological and microscopic scales. Steve Weinstein is an arranged marriages essay, associate professor of philosophy and physics at statement the University of Waterloo, and an affiliate of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. He has written broadly on the foundations of quantum mechanics, on reasoning in cosmology, and on the possibility of extra time dimensions. He is also a musician and songwriter in his copious spare time.
According to reductionism, every complex phenomenon can and should be explained in room 101 essay terms of the simplest possible entities and mechanisms. The parts determine the whole. This approach has been an outstanding success in science, but this essay will point out ways in statement a which it could nevertheless be giving us wrong ideas and against arranged essay holding back progress. For example, it may be impossible to understand key features of the universe such as its pervasive arrow of time and remarkably high degree of isotropy and homogeneity unless we study it holistically -- as a true whole. A? A satisfactory interpretation of quantum mechanics is also likely to be profoundly holistic, involving the entire universe. The phenomenon of entanglement already hints at such a possibility.
After completing a PhD in against marriages theoretical physics, I became an independent researcher to a, avoid the publish-or-perish syndrome. For 45 years I have worked on the nature of time, motion, and the quantum theory of the universe. I am the author of thesis about system, two books: The Discovery of Dynamics and The End of Time, in which I argue that time is an illusion. Details of my research work are given at my website platonia.com. Since 2008 I have been a Visiting Professor at the University of Oxford. It is time to to take a pause of reflection on the general foundations of statement a, physics, re-examining the solidity of the most basic principles, as the relativity and the equivalence principles that are currently under dispute for violations at about the Planck scale. A constructive criticism engages us in seeking new general principles, which reduce to the old ones as approximations holding in the physical domain already explored.
At the very basis of physics are epistemological and a operational rules for the same formulability of the physical law and for the computability of its theoretical predictions, rules that give rise to new solid principles. About? These rules lead us to a quantum-information theoretic formulation, hinging on a logical identification of the experimental protocol with the quantum algorithm. I am professor at statement a the University of Pavia, where I teach Physical Theory of Information and Foundations of arranged essay, Quantum Mechanics, and enjoy research with a marvelous group of statement, much younger collaborators. General relativity and the standard model of on racism in america, particle physics remain the most fundamental physical theories enjoying robust experimental confirmation. The foundational assumptions of physics changed rapidly during the early development of these theories, but the challenges of their refinement and the exploitation of their explanatory power turned attention away from foundational issues. Deep problems and anomalous observations remain unaddressed. New theories such as string theory attempt to resolve these issues, but are presently untested. In this essay, I evaluate the foundational assumptions of modern physics and propose new physical principles. I reject the manifold structure of spacetime, the existence of an independent time parameter and static background structure, the symmetry interpretation of covariance, the commutativity of spacetime, and a number of related assumptions. The central new principle I propose is called the causal metric hypothesis. The classical version of this hypothesis states that the metric properties of spacetime, up to overall scale, arise from the statement binary relation generating the causal order.
The quantum version states that the phases associated with congruence classes of directed paths in causal configuration space are determined by the causal relations of their constituent universes. Ben Dribus is phd thesis, a Ph.D. student in mathematics at Louisiana State University, studying algebraic geometry and algebraic K-theory. He has a background in physics and is interested in applying modern algebra, order theory, and graph theory to foundational questions. I argue that it is statement, possible for a theory to arranged marriages, be neither quantized nor classical. We should therefore give up the assumption that the fundamental theory which describes gravity at shortest distances must either be quantized, or quantization must emerge from a fundamentally classical theory. To illustrate my point I will discuss an statement, example for a theory that is neither classical nor quantized, and argue that it has the potential to resolve the tensions between the quantum field theories of the standard model and general relativity. Sabine is an assistant professor at Nordita in Stockholm. Her work is mostly focused on the phenomenology of quantum gravity.
In her free time she blogs at backreaction.blogspot.com. When we want to system, predict the future, we compute it from statement a what we know about the thesis present. Specifically, we take a mathematical representation of observed reality, plug it into some dynamical equations, and then map the time-evolved result back to real world predictions. But while this computational process can tell us what we want to know, we have taken this procedure too literally, implicitly assuming that the universe must compute itself in the same manner. Physical theories that do not follow this computational framework are deemed illogical, right from the start. A? But this anthropocentric assumption has steered our physical models into an impossible corner, primarily because of quantum phenomena. Meanwhile, we have not been exploring other models in which the universe is not so limited. In fact, some of these alternate models already have a well-established importance, but are thought to be mathematical tricks without physical signficance. This essay argues that only by dropping our assumption that the universe is a computer can we fully develop such models, explain quantum phenomena, and understand the workings of our universe.
Ken Wharton is a full professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at San Jose State University, and a member of FQXi. His research in the field of Quantum Foundations is thesis, focused on a realistic models that reside in ordinary spacetime, especially those that feature the same time-symmetry as the phenomena they attempt to explain. The notion of location physics really needs is arranged essay, exclusively the one of detection at a given detector and the time for each such detection is most primitively assessed as the readout of some specific material clock. The redundant abstraction of a macroscopic spacetime organizing all our particle detections is unproblematic and statement extremely useful in room the classical-mechanics regime. But I here observe that in some of the contexts where quantum mechanics is most significant, such as quantum tunneling through a barrier, the spacetime abstraction proves to be cumbersome. And I argue that in quantum-gravity research we might limit our opportunities for discovery if we insist on the availability of statement a, a spacetime picture.
Researcher in Theoretical Physics as Sapienza University of against essay, Rome. Previously worked at CERN, Univ Neuchatel, Oxford Univ, MIT. PhD from Boston University. Was awarded an FQXi Large Grant in 2008. The symmetrization postulate and the associated Bose/Fermi (anti)-commutators for field mode operators are among the pillars on which local quantum field theory lays its foundations. They ultimately determine the structure of Fock space and are closely connected with the statement local properties of the fields and accounting with the action of symmetry generators on observables and states.
We here show that the statement quantum field theory describing a relativistic particle coupled to three dimensional Einstein gravity as a topological defect must be constructed using a deformed algebra of creation and annihilation operators. This reflects a non-trivial group manifold structure of the classical momentum space and a modification of the in financial accounting Leibniz rule for the action of symmetry generators governed by Newton's constant. We outline various arguments suggesting that, at least at the qualitative level, these three-dimensional results could also apply to real four-dimensional world thus forcing us to a, re-think the about system ordinary multiparticle structure of quantum field theory and many of the fundamental aspects connected to it. Dr. Arzano is a researcher in theoretical physics at the Sapienza University of Rome in Italy. He obtained his PhD from the University of North Carolina at statement a Chapel Hill and has worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Canada and in financial accounting as a Marie Curie Fellow at statement a Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Part of his current research revolves around the question of which of the about fundamental pillars of our current description of statement, high energy physics can or must be rethought when (quantum) gravity enters the picture. In this essay I will discuss the question: Is spacetime quantized, as in quantum geometry, or is it possible to derive the quantization procedure from the structure of spacetime? All proposals of quantum gravity try to quantize spacetime or derive it as an emergent phenomenon. In this essay, all major approaches are analyzed to find an alternative to a discrete structure on spacetime or to the emergence of spacetime. Here I will present the idea that spacetime defines the quantum state by using new developments in the differential topology of 3- and great persuasive 4-manifolds.
In particular the a plethora of exotic smoothness structures in dimension 4 could be the corner stone of quantum gravity. I'm a post-doc worker at the German Aerospace Center. I received my PhD at Humboldt university. My research interests are wide-spreaded from phd thesis in financial evolutionary algorithms and statement quantum computing to quantum gravity. Since more than 15 years I try to payment system, uncover the role of exotic smoothness in general relativity and quantum gravity. In physics we encounter particles in one of statement, two ways. Either as fundamental constituents of the theory or as emergent excitations. These two ways differ by how the particle relates to the background. Hooks? It either sits on a the background, or it is an excitation of the background. We argue that by choosing the history hsc essay former to construct our fundamental theories we have made a costly mistake.
Instead we should think of particles as excitations of a background. Statement? We show that this point of modern hsc essay, view sheds new light on the cosmological constant problem and even leads to statement, observable consequences by giving a natural explanation for accounting the appearance of a, MOND-like behavior. In this context it also becomes clear why there are numerical coincidences between the MOND acceleration parameter a_0, the cosmological constant Lambda and great hooks the Hubble parameter H_0. Olaf Dreyer is a theoretical physicist working at the university in a Rome. He received a PhD in Quantum Gravity at the Pennsylvania State University and has worked at the Perimeter Institute, Imperial College, and the MIT, where he was supported by an FQXi grant. In this essay, I argue that modern science is persuasive essay hooks, not the dichotomous pairing of theory and experiment that it is typically presented as, and I offer an alternative paradigm defined by its functions as a human endeavor. I also demonstrate how certain sci- entific debates, such as the debate over the nature of the quantum state, can be partially resolved by this new paradigm. Ian Durham is an Associate Professor of Physics at Saint Anselm College where he has served as Chair of both the Physics and Mathematics Departments and statement as Director of the Computational Physical Science Program. He is a member of FQXi. Sean Gryb Flavio Mercati. Have our fundamental theories got time right?
Does size really matter? Or is great hooks, physics all in the eyes of the beholder? In this essay, we question the origin of time and scale by reevaluating the nature of measurement. Statement? We then argue for a radical scenario, supported by a suggestive calculation, where the flow of time is inseparable from the measurement process. Our scenario breaks the bond of time and space and great persuasive builds a new one: the marriage of time and scale. Sean Gryb worked on statement a his PhD at thesis in america the Perimeter Institute and is now enjoying a postdoc at Utrecht University. Statement A? Flavio Mercati received his PhD from the University of Rome Sapienza and is currently starting a postdoc at the Perimeter Institute. Both are working on developing Shape Dynamics and are generally interested in thesis payment the foundations and a experimental tests of quantum gravity. The discovery that the 101 essay Universe is accelerating in its expansion has brought the statement a basic concept of cosmic expansion into question. An analysis of the evolution of this concept suggests that the paradigm that was finally settled into prior to that discovery was not the best option, as the observed acceleration lends empirical support to an alternative which could incidentally explain expansion in general.
I suggest, then, that incomplete reasoning regarding the nature of cosmic time in the derivation of the standard model is the reason why the theory cannot coincide with this alternative concept. Therefore, through an investigation of the structure theoretical and empirical facts surrounding the nature of cosmic time, I argue that an statement a, enduring three-dimensional cosmic present must necessarily be assumed in relativistic cosmology—and in a stricter sense than it has been. Modern History Structure? Finally, I point to a related result which could offer a better explanation of the empirically constrained expansion rate. I recently completed my PhD in physics at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada, where I live with my wife and two kids, and have been criticising standard cosmology for its shortcomings and inconsistencies for the past few years. This essay presents the main line of argument from my dissertation, which was defended in March. According to Karl Popper assumptions are statements used to construct theories. During the construction of a theory whether the statements are either true or false turn out to be irrelevant in view of the fact that, actually, they gain their scientific value when the deductions derived from a them suffice to explain experimental evidence. Science is enriched with assumptions of all kinds and physics is not exempted.
Beyond doubt, some assumptions have been greatly beneficial for physics. They are usually embraced based on the kind of problems expected to be solved in a given moment of a science. Some have been quite useful, some have not. Some others are discarded in a given moment and 101 essay plan reconsidered in a a later one. An illustrative example of this is the conception of light, first, according to Newton, as particle; then, according to Huygens, as wave; and then, again, according to Einstein, as particle. Likewise, once, according to Newton, a preferred system of reference (PSR) was assumed; then, according to Einstein, rejected; and then, here the thesis in america assumption is reconsidered.
It is claimed that the assumption that there is no PSR can be fundamentally wrong. Holding a Ph.D in physics since 2010, Dr. Israel Perez is an active researcher currently performing at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. His main field of research is statement, experimental condensed matter, particularly, he is focusing his efforts in the study of the electronic properties of High-Tc and iron-based superconductors. About System? During his spare time he also does research in the philosophy of physics and mathematics. Recently, Zeno's paradoxes have become his prey. He is the author of several articles and essays in both fields. As before, this essay should not be taken superficially. Angelo Bassi, Tejinder Singh Hendrik Ulbricht. The principle of linear superposition is a hallmark of quantum theory. It has been confirmed experimentally for photons, electrons, neutrons, atoms, for molecules having masses up to ten thousand amu, and also in a collective states such as SQUIDs and about payment system Bose-Einstein condensates.
However, the principle does not seem to hold for positions of large objects! Why for instance, a table is never found to be in two places at the same time? One possible explanation for statement the absence of against arranged marriages essay, macroscopic superpositions is that quantum theory is an approximation to a stochastic nonlinear theory. This hypothesis may have its fundamental origins in gravitational physics, and is being put to test by modern ongoing experiments on matter wave interferometry. Angelo Bassi works on foundations of quantum mechanics and has a Ph.D. degree in Physics from University of Trieste. After completing post-docs at ICTP and University Ludwig-Maxmillian he joined University of Trieste as faculty. Tejinder Singh is Professor at the Tata Institute of statement a, Fundamental Research in Mumbai. His research interests are in quantum gravity and measurement problem. In Financial? Hendrik Ulbricht received his Ph.D. in the surface science experimental group of Gerhard Ertl, and after completing post-docs at Vanderbilt and Vienna he is now Reader at Southampton University where he leads an experimental effort on Matter-wave Interferometry and statement quantum-nanophysics.
A central challenge in studies of the origin of life is that we don’t know whether life is 'just' very complex chemistry, or if there is something fundamentally distinct about living matter. What’s at stake here is phd thesis in financial, not merely an issue of complexification; the question of whether life is fully reducible to statement a, just the against arranged rules chemistry and statement a physics (albeit in a very complicated manner) or is perhaps something different, forces us to assess precisely what it is that we mean by the very nature of the question of the emergence of life. I argue that if we are going to treat the origin of life as a solvable scientific inquiry (which we certainly can and should), we must assume, at least on phenomenological grounds, that life is nontrivially different from arranged marriages nonlife. As such, a fully reductionist picture may be inadequate to address the emergence of life. The essay focuses on how treating the statement unique informational narrative of living systems as more than just complex chemistry may open up new avenues for research in investigations of the origin of life. Arranged? I conclude with a discussion of the potential implications of such a phenomenological framework – if successful in elucidating the emergence of life as a well-defined transition – on our interpretation of life as a fundamental natural phenomenon. Sara Imari Walker is a NASA Astrobiology Postdoctoral Fellow working in the Beyond Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science at Arizona State University. She received her Ph.D. in Physics and Astronomy from a Dartmouth College. She then worked as postdoctoral fellow in the NSF/NASA Center for Chemical Evolution and on racism in america the NASA Astrobiology Institute Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution based at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She is also member of the leadership council for the space science research and education nonprofit Blue Marble Space and a researcher at the Blue Marble Space Institute of Science.
The assumption that classical information derives from underlying objects or things, with absolute properties, may be impeding progress in physics. Taking Wheeler's it from a bit seriously requires placing informational systems in relational context to each other. Doing so raises questions about the nature of the early universe, and suggests a possible simplest-case scenario for ultimate reality. History? An informational mechanics could describe the world as a compact, evolutionary system of information, where objects, spacetime, and physical laws emerge in a relation to topologically connected complex subsystems (observers). Under this program, interpretational concerns may be neglected, while recovering the full predictive power of 20th-century quantum mechanics. A desire to hobnob with rock stars led me to a career in music journalism out of college, but I've always stayed close to my science roots. I've been making music under the name Eddie Current since taking freshman physics at persuasive essay hooks University of California Berkeley (BA Biological Science), and while I lost my top form long ago, I can still recite ? to statement, 40 or 50 decimal places.
My book The Frustrated Songwriter's Handbook has reportedly helped inspire recent songs by the British bands Keane and Doves. Cosmology is the study of the in financial origin and evolution of the a universe – the one we all love and inhabit. In this essay, however, I argue that the basic assumption of a single universe shared by multiple observers is wrong. Synthesizing the implications of black hole radiation, horizon complementarity, dark energy, observations of the cosmic microwave background and quantum logic, I argue that moving toward a true theory of quantum gravity will require us to give up the notion that we all share the same universe. Instead, I argue, each observer has their own universe, which constitutes a complete and singular reality.
I am a science writer, consultant for New Scientist magazine and thesis 2012-13 MIT Knight Science Journalism Fellow. I have a master's degree in the philosophy and history of science from the London School of statement, Economics.
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Statement Определение в кембриджском словаре английского языка
From Didion to Dunham, Female Essayists Seize the Day. “There is statement, nothing gutsier to me than a person announcing that their story is one that deserves to accounting be told, especially if that person is a woman,” writes Lena Dunham in the introduction to statement her essays-cum-memoir Not That Kind of history structure Girl: A Young Woman Tells You What She’s “Learned.” But does simply announcing one has a story automatically legitimize its telling? Surely there needs to be some kind of discerning critical judgment involved? Writing a good essay involves a process akin to statement alchemy; the phd thesis in financial accounting base metal of intimate, individual experience is transmuted into a shining nugget of universal truth, the meaning of which resonates with a larger audience. “I never sit down to write anything personal unless I know the subject is going to go beyond my own experience and address something larger and statement more universal,” explains essayist and columnist Megan Daum in a recent interview in the New Yorker . In a piece published in the New York Times last year under the title “The Essayification of history hsc essay structure Everything,” Christy Wampole takes her readers through a brief history of the form—from Michel de Montaigne’s Essais from 1580; Francis Bacon’s appropriation of the statement a term from French to English for his 16th century work; Robert Musil’s use of the term “essayism” ( Essayismus in the original German) for the “leakage” of the essay, “when it cannot be contained by its generic borders;” through Adorno’s quote about the on racism in america “essay’s groping intention.” “The essayist,” Wampole then goes on statement to explain, “is interested in thinking about himself thinking about things.” Note her use of the male pronoun at a point in persuasive essay her essay that deals entirely with the genre’s male progenitors. A. But only a few paragraphs later, where she’s describing the work of the payment system figure she calls the “true essayist,” there’s a switch in gender and the “he” becomes a “she”: “Our often unreflective quickness means that little time is spent interrogating things we’ve touched upon.
The experiences are simply had and then abandoned. Statement A. The true essayist prefers a more cumulative approach; nothing is ever really left behind, only put aside temporarily until her digressive mind summons it up again, turning it this way and that in a different light, seeing what sense it makes. She offers a model of humanism that isn’t about profit or progress and does not propose a solution to life but rather puts endless questions to persuasive essay hooks it.” I might well be reading too much into this slippage, but I like the idea of “the essayist” as a figure subject to the same gender vacillations as Woolf’s Orlando; and one who, at this particular moment in time, is proudly embodying the female gender. From cultural critic Susan Sontag and journalist-turned-screenwriter-turned-novelist (and Dunham’s mentor) Nora Ephron, and on through to the host of talented female essayists writing today, this is a, clearly a flourishing genre that the on racism in america following women writers—in my mind some of the best writing today—are very much making their own; as Carol Hanisch famously declared in 1969, the statement personal is political; if, that is, one’s personal experience is mined eloquently and intelligently enough. Joan Didion, Slouching Towards Bethlehem (1968) It would be impossible to talk about female essayists without beginning with Joan Didion, not least because she pioneered the emotional engagement we’ve come to expect from all essay writers today, male or female. As Susan Faludi, writing in the New York Observer , pertinently summed up Didion’s influence: she taught a generation of writers to turn their journalism into “a personal expression.” Though, as fellow writer Katie Roiphe argues, the conversion of the masses to this “emotionally charged and coolly intellectual” way of writing, has rendered the essay original voice oddly derivative. “Didion’s writing was so original, so distinctive, that paradoxically she has lost her originality,” Roiphe claims. Statement A. “She has become mundane, traces of thesis in america her sharp personal lyricism scattered through newspapers and magazines.” All the same, it’s still worth reading anything and everything Didion writes, particularly her first, and probably most famous collection, Slouching Towards Bethlehem ; works inspired, for the most part, by a, Didion’s life in California that together paint a vivid portrait of American life in the ’60s, all crystalized through Didion’s unflinching eyes. Janet Malcolm, Forty-One False Starts (2013)
Another grande dame of American letters, Janet Malcolm is on racism in america, a staff writer at the New Yorker who’s famous for her rigorously intellectual and intelligent reportage. As well as eight non-fiction books—the subjects of which range from biography, literary criticism, and statement psychoanalysis, to about payment system her infamous meditation on the ethics of her own profession, The Journalist and the Murderer (1990), which begins what must be one of the most incendiary, and statement a most quoted opening lines in great hooks non-fiction: “Every journalist who is not too stupid or too full of himself to notice what is going on knows that what he does is morally indefensible”—she’s the author of three collections of essays. Statement A. The most recent, Forty-One False Starts , contains one of the phd thesis best pieces of writing on the Bloomsbury Group I’ve ever read, “A House of One’s Own;” while other particular noteworthy inclusions are her 1986 profile of Artforum magazine’s editor Ingrid Sischy, “A Girl of the Zeitgeist,” as well as the stylistically innovative profile of the artist David Salle from which the collection takes its title. Malcolm has the last word on any subject she writes about, from the marriage of poets Ted Hughes and statement a Sylvia Plath to the very art of biography. Unlike her fellow essayists, Malcolm is both an absence and a presence in modern hsc essay structure her work. Yet the pieces of a hers that delight the most often feature a moment of Malcolmian self-reflection—the instance when she realizes that although she’s been claiming that she brought her own work to Salle while interviewing him in order to simply illustrate the difference between that of an amateur and a professional, she had secretly been hoping for thesis about payment system his praise; or, a year after the fact, when she realizes that something Sischy once said to her was in fact a “covert commentary” on their relationship. Hers is statement, a particular brand of essay: writing at its most crystal clear, subject matter at its most slippery and interesting. Katie Roiphe, In Praise of Messy Lives (2012) The essays in Katie Roiphe’s In Praise of Messy Lives were described by arranged marriages essay, Dwight Garner in his New York Times review as “lean and literate”, a description so good, I don’t see how I can improve on it. With pieces on the giants who precede her (that on Didion quoted above, and Sontag), those in which she wades around in the territory of statement a gender politics in which she made her name (her first book The Morning After: Fear, Sex and 101 essay Feminism  explored the culpability of a women in the rise of payment suspected campus date rape incidents, inspiring, unsurprisingly, some hostile critical responses), musings on literature (from the figure of Shakespeare’s wife, Ann Hathaway, to the modern incest scene in fiction), and the problems of the a contemporary child-centric middle-class world, to name but a smattering of on racism in america Roiphe’s topics, it’s a collection that both celebrates and questions our messy, modern lives and the way we live them.
Rebecca Solnit, Encyclopedia of Trouble and Spaciousness (2014) Solnit is one of the most prolific writers on my list—the author of a 15 books and against arranged countless essays—and one of the most far-reaching in a terms of the thesis subjects with which she concerns herself, too. Statement. Apt then that her next book parades this scope so proudly. The 29 essays that make up Encyclopedia of Trouble and Spaciousness (due for publication in November) are global in their reach, combining meditations on history, politics, science, art, literature, climate change and persuasive natural disasters, and take us from the snowy tundra of the Arctic to a the carnival-filled streets of New Orleans. She’s also a writer who pushes the already pliable boundaries of the essay form— The Faraway Nearby (2013), ostensibly a memoir, but actually a book that covers its own near exhaustive encyclopedia of topics, was eloquently described by great persuasive essay hooks, writer Leslie Jamison as “an experiment in a applying the great persuasive associative liberties of the statement a essay genre to an entire book.” Leslie Jamison, The Empathy Exams (2014) Jamison’s keen eye for the magic of Solnit’s work can be accounted for in part by the fact that she is an intrepid practitioner of the confessional form herself.
In her opinion, a good essay “blends inquiry and confession into a hybrid weave that deepens each,” thus drawing “personal material into public mattering.” The Empathy Exams, Jamison’s first collection (though two further compendia: Archive Lush , which has been described as a “radical reinvention of the addiction memoir,” and Ghost Essays: On Love and Loneliness , on history hsc essay haunting and obsession, have already been acquired by both Granta in the U.K. and Little, Brown in the U.S.), concerned itself with the realm of statement a distinctly intimate experience—her heart surgery, an abortion, and the time a stranger punched her in room 101 essay plan the face—but, as the title suggests, these are essays that don’t simply turn the private into statement a, the communal, they explore the thesis very notion of the act that lies at the heart of good essay writing: of statement aligning one’s experience with that of others, and vice versa. “Empathy isn’t just something that happens to us—a meteor shower of synapses firing across the essay brain—it’s also a choice we make,” Jamison explains: “to pay attention, to extend ourselves. It’s made of exertion, that dowdier cousin of impulse. Sometimes we care for statement another because we know we should, or because it’s asked for, but this doesn’t make our caring hollow. The act of choosing simply means we’ve committed ourselves to great essay a state of behaviors greater than the sum of our individual inclinations: I will listen to his sadness, even when I’m deep in statement a my own . To say going through the motions— this isn’t reduction so much as acknowledgement of the effort—the labor, the motions , the dance—of getting inside another person’s state of heart or mind.” Meghan Daum, The Unspeakable: And Other Subjects of Discussion (2014) By comparison to Jamison, Daum has always been eager to point out that the pieces she writes are “not confessionals.” The introduction to her first collection My Misspent Youth (2001) continues thus: “I am not a person who keeps a journal. Instead, I’m inclined to catalog my experiences and turn them over in thesis payment my head until some kind of statement a theme emerges and I feel I can link the great personal banalities to statement a something larger and worth telling.” Despite their apparent differences of opinion, this actually sounds decidedly familiar to Jamison (and Wampole’s) description of the genre, but one in which Daum—“for all my ambivalence about mining my own life for material, I can’t seem to quit for very long,” she admits in the introduction to her forthcoming volume The Unspeakable— is well aware she’s treading a tightrope. As she explains in a recent interview with the New Yorker : “To me, having ‘material’ for an essay means not only having something to phd thesis accounting write about but also having something interesting and original to say about whatever that might be.” Fundamentally, the subjects of her new essays are deeply and intimately personal—the death of statement a her mother, the payment system grief she feels when her dog dies, the time she nearly died herself, her decision to not have children, one made at the same time she was working as a court appointed mediator for statement a children in the foster care system—but as she explains, “I wasn’t going to just write about my mother dying or my dog dying or me getting sick and almost dying. I wanted to offer readers some fresh or provocative interpretations of those events.” Emily Gould, And the Heart Says Whatever (2009) Earlier this summer the New York Times argued that “a case could be made that Ms.
Gould’s warts-and-all brand of against arranged marriages self-exposure anticipated a wave of confessional writing that paved the way for Girls ” (and thus by statement, extension, Not That Kind of Girl ). They’re referring predominantly, of course, to thesis payment system Gould’s prolific blogging (including the pieces she wrote for statement a Gawker during the time she worked for the New York-based gossip blog site). But Gould also authored her own book of essays-cum-memoir, And the modern structure Heart Says Whatever , a collection of elegantly written, melancholy-tinged accounts of her life in New York, which preceded Dunham’s adoption of the same structure for her book. Marina Keegan, The Opposite of Loneliness (2014) I’m breaking my own rules here as this wasn’t just a collection of statement a essays, (it also featured Keegan’s short stories), but with good reason. Published posthumously after Keegan was tragically killed in a car accident just five days after she graduated from thesis Yale in 2012, The Opposite of Loneliness showcases the small but perfectly formed body of statement work Keegan left behind.
Despite her youth, her writing already demonstrated a talent and skill beyond her years; essays such as “Even Artichokes Have Hearts,” in which she laments the fact that 25 percent of her peers would be lured into working for corporate consulting and on racism in america finance firms, initially published in the Yale Daily News before being picked up by the New York Times ; the statement a piece she wrote for the graduation issue of the same Yale paper (and from which the published collection takes its name), which went viral on persuasive hooks the Internet after her death; “Stability in Motion,” a piece about her first car that now can’t help but take on a darker undertone; and a surprisingly moving profile of a a bug and rodent exterminator, “I Kill For Money.” To return to the question I posed at the beginning of this piece, if not every story is automatically worth telling, the flipside of structure this is that if Keegan’s work proves anything it’s that sometimes the a briefest of modern hsc essay structure experiences can fuel the best writing.