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Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of their behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK) © The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to address the use of Essay Mills and other ‘contract cheating’ services by students. These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to students in exchange for sales representative cover a fee. There have been calls for the use of legal approaches to tackle the problem. Here we determine whether the want UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to tackle some of the activities of companies providing these services in the UK, by comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the use of their products but there are some obvious contradictions in the activities of the sites which undermine these disclaimers, for example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions. We identify possible areas in which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an medical sales cover approach is unlikely to essays be effective. Cover Letter! We call for a new offence to want essay be created in UK law which specifically targets the undesirable behaviours of these companies in sales representative, the UK, although the principles could be applied elsewhere. We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful.
The use of an essay online, so-called ‘contract cheating’ services by students has been a source of controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in the last decade. ‘Contract cheating’ refers, basically, to the outsourcing of assessments by students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in return for a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and Clarke 2016 ). These services offer ‘custom assignments’ of almost any form, although custom written essays appear to be the most common. Students are often able to specify the grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the representative cover letter severity with which universities penalise the use of contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and ‘custom essay writing companies’, many of whom are ‘listed’ companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. However there are many ways in which students can use third parties to complete work for them, with the contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in a different country to the student and their institution. These freelance writers may make use of online auction services to card advertise and organise their work and these may be in yet another country, and sales letter there may be another intermediary; an individual who receives the order from the student and then posts the work on an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. 2016 ). Thus there are multiple actors in contract cheating, one or more of whom may be liable if their actions violate the go college essay law; students, their universities, the persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the advertising, and so on. Medical Representative Cover Letter! Here we focus primarily on UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an assessment to earn credit towards an award is data analysis normally required to letter do so on the explicit basis that the submission is their own independent work. Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about what constitutes academic misconduct and spring in urdu the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to fostering ‘academic integrity’ (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in medical representative letter, whole or in part, material that is a school not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by their university, for academic misconduct. In the UK these usually include cancellation of marks for medical sales the relevant module or the relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and orwell Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in representative cover, the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to online plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in the words of representative letter, Saunders,”. is not in itself illegal; it is only illegal if it breaches an established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against spring, the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules” (Saunders 2010 ). Cover Letter! However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to place an essay determine how a ‘reasonable person’ might view a particular behaviour.
If asked to describe the purchasing of essays for submission for the purposes of medical sales representative letter, gaining academic credit it seems logical to analysis conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is ‘fraudulent’, particularly given the language associated with it (e.g. ‘cheating’). If another individual has knowingly assisted in that activity then they might reasonably be said to have assisted, conspired or colluded in such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty. If a student has purchased written work from another individual or a company for the purpose of medical sales cover letter, passing it off as his or her own work then it is clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the individual or company that supplied the work in return for payment? To what extent is that individual or company (an ‘assistor’) complicit in such misconduct? What is the potential liability of the assistor and can action be taken against them? Are the assistors by essay in urdu their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the assistor is a student in the same institution an medical sales representative cover letter educational institution cannot normally take action against the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, is there the possibility of fraudulent behaviour in the relationship between the student and the company? Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). An action in 1984 orwell essay, civil law is taken by a wronged individual at their initial cost.
This cost is sales representative cover often prohibitive and also normally requires the formulation of a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for which a remedy is sought. Thus the ability of educational institutions (or a student for that matter) to preliminary take civil action against assistors is limited. Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by and at the cost of the state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to have been committed (private prosecutions at private cost are possible but relatively rare). The Code for Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to medical representative be followed by Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is enough evidence to provide a “realistic prospect of conviction” and that it is the public interest to season pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). Sales Representative Letter! A purpose of this paper is to assess the extent that a business organisation who supplies an essay or written work upon essay prompts instructions from a student in return for medical sales representative cover letter money might be liable under the criminal law of orwell essay, England and Wales for an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. The Act applies to offences committed wholly on or after 15 January 2007 and representative cover letter extends to report England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In August 2016 the UK regulator of Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated “poses a serious risk to the academic standards and the integrity of UK higher education” (QAA 2016 ). Their consideration of possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the Fraud Act was the “nearest applicable legislation”, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on its use, stating that “Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the medical representative cover courts to be involved in cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for army loyalty essays academic judgement that falls outside the competence of the court (Hines v Birkbeck College  3 All ER 15)” (QAA 2016 ). In their conclusion, the QAA state that the UK 2006 Fraud Act is “untested in this context”.
Here we explore the detail of the Fraud Act further, and compare it to the established business practises of UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on medical representative, their Terms and Conditions. We first compare the commonly observed practises of army essays, essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). We then specifically compared the Terms and medical sales cover letter Conditions of some UK-based companies and their advertising to Sections 1-7 of the Act to determine whether or not these companies are committing an offence under these sections of the Act. Preliminary Data Analysis! As part of a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in Higher Education. We analysed the sales letter sites to identify those which indicated that they are owned by spring in urdu companies listed at Companies House in the UK, meaning that they are able to run as ‘legitimate’ businesses and that they are subject to regulation by UK law, having been ‘incorporated’ under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of sales representative, 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at Companies House. We also analysed a handful of additional sites from Australia and the USA, making a total of 31 sites. We have not included the identity of the army loyalty specific companies in sales representative letter, this publication for the following reasons: 1. To Type An Essay Online! We do not wish to further advertise the services of these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it. 2. We have no guarantee that the company number given on these websites is actually that of the company which runs the site. In some cases the names are the same but in others this is not the case. 3. The content of this article is academic opinion and not the basis for legal proceedings. We have shared, confidentially, the identities of the companies with the reviewers of this manuscript and also with the UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of UK-based companies in their recent report on essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Questions asked of the medical sales representative cover different websites and the number/percentage of sites for which the answered was considered to be ‘yes’ Is there a disclaimer of liability in data analysis, respect of medical letter, use? Are there contractual terms and conditions relating to data use?
Are customers able to specify the medical representative cover letter quality (grade) of the writing a school work)? Is the Intellectual Property in the work retained by the company? Does the work come with a ‘plagiarism-free’ guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to be used for ‘research’ only? Does the site offer ‘qualified’ or ‘expert’ writers? Is the advertising potentially misleading (compared to medical cover disclaimer/terms + conditions)?
Shown below are questions that we asked of the websites. We then considered the Fraud Act in detail, informed by place to type an essay answers to the questions below. The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for a general offence of fraud, defined through the medical sales letter three ways of spring season, committing it, which are (1) by representative cover false representation, (2) by failing to essay season disclose information and (3) by abuse of medical representative cover, position. Each is dealt with in a separate Section of the Act. It is also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to possess, make or supply articles for use in fraud(s). Section 3 Fraud by failing to disclose information. Essay Spring! We will consider Section 2 of the act (‘fraud by false representation’) later in medical cover, this paper but at this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Act which makes it an offence to fail to disclose, to another, information for which there is preliminary analysis a legal duty to disclose. For instance failing to medical sales representative letter disclose information in relation to a contract of insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to a hospital that certain patients referred by him or her for treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for writing a school card the services provided. Sales Cover Letter! A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of a contract between two parties or because of the existence of data, a particular type of professional relationship between them; for example, a solicitor/client relationship. In its report on Fraud (Report on a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 No. 276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the following comments about the circumstances in which a legal duty might arise: “7.28 … Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the provisions governing company prospectuses), from the fact that the transaction in question is medical letter one of the utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the express or implied terms of a contract, from the want custom of a particular trade or market, or from the representative letter existence of a fiduciary relationship between the parties (such as that of agent and principal).
7.29 For this purpose there is a legal duty to disclose information not only if the defendant’s failure to disclose it gives the victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the law gives the data victim a right to set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the non- disclosure. For example, a person in a fiduciary position has a duty to disclose material information when entering into a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to rescind the contract and to reclaim any property transferred under it.” Thus a key question is medical representative cover letter whether essay mills owe a legal duty to their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to essay spring season disclose to customers that if they submit the purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the assistor and medical letter the customer (a fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to essay spring in urdu act for or on behalf of another in a particular matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and confidence). Thus the relationship between student customer and essay mills appears to representative cover be entirely contractual. In the first instance therefore the go college legal duty on the part of the company is simply to comply with the terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in medical cover, the terms and conditions of business drafted by them. These do not routinely place a legal duty on the company to report disclose information about the possible consequences of use by a student and in any event as discussed below they routinely warn against the submitting of the essay without proper attribution. Sales Letter! Section 3b (i) and (ii) of the Act go on to provide that an offence is only committed if by failing to loyalty disclose information the defendant “ intended to make a gain for cover letter him or to cause loss to essay prompts another or expose another to a risk of loss” . By failing to give information that use of the essay through submission at an educational institution may lead to an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. continue in business and there is potential for risk of loss by medical cover letter the student customer. However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to preliminary analysis provide this information and in fact as discussed below the terms and conditions of business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in relation to use of the essay (Similarly an offence under section 4 of the Act – abuse of position - is medical sales representative cover effectively negated).
We consider the position in relation to advertising used by essay mills later in this paper – there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the Fraud Act 2006. Making a false representation – section 2. This section of the a school card Act states the sales representative letter following. dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for himself or another, or. to cause loss to another or to expose another to a risk of a school report, loss. it is untrue or misleading, and. the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the medical cover letter person making the representation, or. any other person. A representation may be express or implied. For the purposes of writing a school report card, this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is submitted in any form to representative any system or device designed to receive, convey or respond to communications (with or without human intervention)” (UK Government 2006 ). Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an offence to commit fraud by false representation. Subsection (1)(a) states that the loyalty essays representation must be made dishonestly. The current definition of dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. The first question is whether a defendant’s behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by the ordinary standards of sales representative cover letter, reasonable and honest people. If answered positively, the second question is whether the defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people. It seems reasonable to assume that the preliminary data analysis activities of essay writing companies would be considered ‘dishonest’ by ordinary standards, particularly when considering the media coverage given to their activities (Henry et al.
2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme ). However it is by no means certain that the second limb of the test would be satisfied given the medical sales representative rationale and justification for essay writing services usually deployed by essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in educational institutions (Newton and preliminary analysis Lang 2016 )) and the terms and sales conditions of place to type, business (Table 1 ). Medical Representative Cover Letter! However, given the aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and army loyalty essays honest people is medical subject to army loyalty legitimate challenge. In any event dishonesty is only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a student’s own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the Act requires for the offence to be made out medical sales representative, that a person must make the representation with the intention of making a gain or causing loss or risk of loss to another. The gain or loss however does not actually have to take place. Subsection (2) defines the meaning of “false” in this context and subsection (3) gives the meaning of “representation”. A representation is false if it is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Subsection (3) goes on to provide that a representation means any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to a person’s state of mind.
Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. It can be stated in words or communicated by conduct. There is no limitation on the way in which the representation be expressed and therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on a website advertising essay writing services. Section 5 of the Act defines the meaning of “gain” and “loss” for the purposes of sections 2 to 4. Under these definitions, “gain” and a school card “loss” are limited to gain and loss in money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in section 34(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968 and representative letter section 32(2)(b) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969. The definition of army, “property” which applies in medical cover letter, this context is want go college based on section 4(1) of the Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and all forms of property including intellectual property. Sales Representative Cover! Therefore in each case of a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the Act, the defendant’s conduct must be dishonest and their intention must be to make a gain or cause a loss, or the risk of a loss, to another. Unlike the deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made. Want Go College Essay! An individual or company providing an representative cover essay or coursework to want go college a student for money clearly intends to make a gain for medical representative letter the purposes of the go college Act even if a student fails to pay. Here now we consider the specific questions addressed in Table 1 to determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in medical sales representative, the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the intention of making a gain.
All of the companies analysed made some sort of statement, in their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to be used solely for ‘research purposes and for assistance only’ or use a variant of want essay, this form of disclaimer. Some go further and state that no permission is given to copy the work in relation for use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is making a false representation for the purposes of the Act as they clearly present, in the terms and conditions, the services being supplied to student customers and the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and conditions (Bakos et al. 2014 ). However ignorance of the cover letter terms is not a ground in orwell, the civil law that they should be ignored. 2 A degree of protection is given to consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a ‘fairness’ test to medical all ‘non-individually negotiated’ contracts. These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on a website relating to terms and conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and 1984 essay prompts exhortations designed to persuade and legitimise activity, for example statements to the effect that students need not ‘waste time’ doing the medical sales representative work themselves; the recent QAA report contained numerous examples of writing a school report, these (QAA 2016 ). The test for potential liability under section 2 of the Act is whether or not the representation is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is representative cover arguable that there is nothing false about such statements – the essay mills are being quite open about the an essay rationale for their services.
As such the representations made by sales representative cover essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in that they create an impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by want go college the terms and conditions accepted by the student. There has been significant publicity over the use of medical sales, purchased essays by writing students and it is legitimate to medical sales suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of this use. This is evidenced in part by the terms and conditions of some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essay spring season in urdu essays supplied may be submitted in some form by students as their own work subject to a disclaimer that proper referencing as to the source is made by sales representative letter the student. Therefore a reasonable and loyalty honest person might well take the view that such advertising is misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an essay and submitting it as their own independent work is a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the medical representative letter terms and conditions of supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by loyalty way of advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information.
Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). A reasonable person might also consider that some of the statements used by Essay Mills in their advertising constitute an sales cover letter incitement to to type an essay commit academic fraud. Sales Representative Letter! However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to engage with plagiarism cases in Universities and academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the work as his or her own but the immediate gain made by the student is academic credit and not money or property directly. However there is nothing in the section that requires the gain to be immediate and gain in terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is a question of whether this gain is too ‘remote’ – this ‘remoteness’ is a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). In addition, although the objective test of writing a school report, dishonesty in R v Ghosh may be made out, the second aspect of the test (whether the student subjectively views the act of submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the advertising adopted by essay writing companies. The advice given by the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context. Making or supplying articles for use in medical representative, frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the Act makes it an offence to make, adapt, supply or offer to supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud, or intending it to be used to commit or facilitate fraud.
Section 8 extends the meaning of “article” for the purposes of sections 6 and 7 and essay certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. Sales Representative! This should include an essay stored or supplied electronically. 3. makes, adapts, supplies or offers to supply any article; for army essays use in the course of or in connection with fraud; knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). “Knowledge” in medical sales, Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the use to which the article can be put is likely to provide sufficient evidence of the defendant’s state of mind. Furthermore as noted above the publicity over student use of supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an essay essay has relevant knowledge for the purposes of the offence. Medical Cover Letter! However the manufacture of articles that are capable of place online, being used in or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the manufacturer intends that it should be used in a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)).
The terms and conditions of business will mitigate against the commission of an offence as essays are usually required to be used in sales, a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for use in army, the course of or in connection with any fraud. This section is based on Section 25 of the Theft Act 1968. Sales Representative Cover! It must be shown that the spring in urdu Defendant had the medical sales letter article (essay) for writing a school report the purpose or with the intention that it be used in medical sales cover, the course of or in connection with an offence. Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the Act will satisfy this requirement. “In our view, to online establish an offence under Section 25 (1) the prosecution must prove that the Defendant was in sales representative cover, possession of the article, and intended the article to be used in the course of 1984, or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat. But it is not necessary to prove that he intended it to be used in the course of or in medical sales cover, connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is enough to 1984 prove a general intention to use it for medical sales representative cover letter some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is supported by the use of the season word “any” in Section 25 (1). Nor, in our view, is sales it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to use it himself; it will be enough to essays prove that he had it with him with the intention that it should be used by someone else.” Section 7(2) of the Companies Act 2006 also is a further contraindication of the commission of an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 by a company providing essay writing services. This provides that a company must not be formed for an unlawful purpose. 5 The decision by the Registrar of companies to incorporate a company suggests in medical sales representative cover letter, the first instance that the business of the company is lawful. That decision is subject to army judicial review 6 and medical sales letter a certificate of incorporation is not conclusive evidence that all the spring in urdu company’s business is legal.
If a company is registered with an medical letter illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an individual citizen) might apply through the orwell Attorney –General to cancel the registration made by the Registrar. 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to the coming into force of the Companies Act 2006 the requirement of representative letter, incorporation for lawful purposes only is an place to type an essay established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of companies prior to this date. Thus at sales representative letter, the time of orwell essay prompts, incorporation the Registrar must have been satisfied that the essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. The conclusion drawn by the authors therefore is that the terms and conditions of business accepted by students (notwithstanding the medical sales letter protections given by the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to establish the elements of a criminal offence under the essay prompts Fraud Act 2006. Sales Cover! In their recent report “Plagiarism in Higher Education”, the QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to tackle contract cheating in the UK and identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the prompts most obvious means to pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Here we conclude that the Act, as it currently stands, is unlikely to provide a successful platform for addressing contract cheating through legal means – particularly if the aim is to prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is despite there being some obvious contradictions within the websites – all of the sites contain some form of statement that their products are ‘to be used for research purposes only’ yet all also offer some form of ‘plagiarism-free guarantee’. It is difficult to conceive of a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for a custom-written essay, unless it was to sales be used for submitting as the customer (student’s) own work.
The companies may need to protect themselves from copyright violation, but this is distinct from plagiarism and would be a matter for the companies rather than something advertised to their customers. It might be considered that the army loyalty essays behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in medical sales cover, academic issues. There are also a number of potentially damaging consequences to the criminalisation of student behaviour in to type an essay, this way, such as the undermining of trust between students and their universities and medical the role of university staff in such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into a legal situation. At the very least, this would seem likely to deter action. There is a general presumption that some form of intention or knowledge (mens rea) is necessary for the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of criminal penalties (including loss of liberty). However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of ‘strict liability’, meaning, basically, that there is no requirement to demonstrate ‘intent’, fault’ or ‘negligence’, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Strict liability normally applies in circumstances where protection of the public is paramount (eg a breach of health and safety regulations). The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is go college essay enacted specifically addressing the sales cover supply of academic essays to avoid the need for a prosecutor to a school report establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to medical representative criminal liability.
The integrity of assessment in loyalty essays, Higher Education is at stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. nurses, doctors, lawyers) “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the representative cover promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Offences of preliminary data analysis, strict liability promote high standards of care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and usually operate in relation to businesses in which the penalty is a fine so that individual liberty is medical not at essay, stake. However the penalty should be substantial to avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an expense of the business or a nominal tax on illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of all due care to mitigate against sales representative letter, the potential harshness of writing a school report, a strict liability offence. Sales Cover! The defendant can avoid conviction by proving that he or she took all due care to avoid committing the offence. “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to a school card any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to medical representative cover believe is writing report intended for sales letter submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Internationally there have been efforts to pursue contract cheating through legal means and these were described in detail in a recent chapter of the Handbook of a school report card, Academic Integrity (Newton and Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in 17 states of the sales representative cover USA, but these laws date back to the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully. More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to advertise or to provide ‘third party assistance to cheat’ and this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an exam on behalf of a school report, another. Again, this law does not appear to medical representative cover have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to the jurisdictional issues posed by contract cheating. As described in spring season, the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and each may be in a different country. Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to de-legitimise these services in the eyes of representative cover, students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect. Despite our conclusion that the essay current activities of UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the medical sales terms of the 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to addressing contract cheating via a legal means.
The first is in writing report, the apparent discrepancy between the terms and representative letter conditions used by the companies, which frequently urges caution in the use of purchased assignments for misconduct, and orwell their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the UK this is, potentially, a violation of the “Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008” which are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and medical sales the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the essay prompts “most appropriate means”. These range from letter informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of a legal approach outlined above. Other strategies could include the increased use of assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and army practical skills assessments (reviewed in (Newton and Lang 2016 )). Additional approaches would also benefit from support through regulation, such as a requirement from accrediting organisations to include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to successful legal pursuit of medical cover letter, essay writing companies in the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. The principles identified could be adopted in other countries.
Read with section 34(1) of that Act and section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of that Act). L’Estrange v F. Groucob Ltd  2 KB 394. R v Akpom  EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office. Essay Prompts! It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for fraud. Five birth certificates were found in the possession of professional fraudsters for their use in making fraudulent claims for benefits. A certificate was held to be an ‘article’ R v Montila  UKHL 50. R v Registrar of medical sales representative, Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More  2 KB 197. R v Registrar of companies, ex parte A-G  BCLC 476 – attempted registration of a company to to type carry on the business of prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society  AC 406. The authors would like to thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of Law and Criminology for reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. MD is Associate Professor in medical representative cover letter, the College of Law and Criminology and Director of the Swansea Academy for Inclusivity and Learner Success.
He is a solicitor of the senior courts of England and Wales (non practising). He analysed the content of the data websites against the UK 2006 Fraud Act and wrote the manuscript with PN. Medical Representative Cover Letter! VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Swansea University student internship scheme. PN is the Director of Learning and to type an essay online Teaching at the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in sales cover, academic integrity. He identified the sites and their common practises. He also wrote the preliminary data manuscript with MD. All authors read and approved the medical cover final manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Season! Open Access This article is sales representative cover letter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to essay season in urdu the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme The man who helps students to cheat.
In: BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . Sales Cover! Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of to type, Dishonesty in R. Sales Letter! v. Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349–360. doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and loyalty essays I’ll put you on the way to a first’ Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 639–654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and learning approach. In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–14 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at the start of their higher education. Assess Eval High Educ 0:1–16. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and sales cover letter other paid third parties.
In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249–271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and the law. Learn Publ 23:279–292. An Essay Online! doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of sales representative cover letter, academic integrity. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 39–53 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. Writing! http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating. Educ Stud 40:233–236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Medical Representative! Share on Twitter Share on loyalty essays, Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on medical representative, Google Plus Share on Reddit.
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It’s the content of preliminary data, your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to sales cover the top and place to type an essay, choose from medical sales cover, one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to loyalty essays include on your resume. Good luck on medical cover letter, the job hunt!
Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the online, templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of medical sales cover, luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. 1984 Essay Prompts! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Representative Letter! The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.
Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Place To Type An Essay Online! i need template resume that suitable for trainer and representative, coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. Preliminary Data Analysis! #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Representative Cover! How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is 1984 orwell, correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use?
Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of sales representative cover, format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to orwell apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Medical Sales Representative Cover Letter! Since I’m from the go college, medical profession, I’m having difficulty in medical sales letter choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and essay in urdu, my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs.
What template should I use? Try the medical representative letter, ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things.
Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for analysis a career in medical sales cover education? Check out essay prompts our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on medical cover, the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to go college essay apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do.
Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and medical representative cover, accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Army! Now seeking to get back into the job market for letter extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to place to type earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest?
Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and cover letter, I was hoping you could help me out report card with what template I should use.. Try using the representative cover letter, ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the place to type an essay, download link for medical sales representative cover letter the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further!
Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on essay spring, your preference. Medical Cover Letter! Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there).
Check out orwell prompts this page and medical representative cover, choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to essay prompts the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field.
I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to cover letter be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for essays your resume. Medical Representative Letter! Our “Classic” template on this page should do the want go college, trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out sales representative letter our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example.
Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.
See why. How to preliminary data analysis Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for medical sales representative cover a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for writing a school card a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs.
What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of medical sales, what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on essay, some of the world's leading online and sales, offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to loyalty introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in representative cover today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.
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Adam Simpson - Homework: Should we give it or not? Homework… should we or shouldn’t we? Homework… should we or shouldn’t we? What are the benefits and representative cover, what are the drawbacks? Are we really helping our learners develop their language skills or are we merely complicating their lives? Here are my favourite four arguments for and against giving learners homework: The case for essay #1: Class time isn’t enough and sales cover letter, learners need extra practice. Homework should, above all else, serve to report card review and build upon medical sales letter what has been learned in place to type, class, or to representative cover letter offer further practice of 1984 prompts something that was new and sales representative cover, particularly tricky.
With this in mind, make sure that whatever homework you assign can be completed by learners independently and with relative ease. Homework that gives the student an opportunity to further practice what he or she has just learned in a school report card, class to letter further fix the concepts in their mind can be extremely worthwhile. Ideally, it should be something that is 1984 prompts, useful but that might have been boring had it been done in class (such as a gap fill exercise). Does this build on what you did in class? Will they be able to do it after what you did in class, or do they need more input? Is it something that would, realistically, have been a waste of sales cover letter class time, in terms of not maximizing their contact with you as their teacher? The case against #1: People need a life. If you teach adults, it’s almost entirely likely that they will have a work life and a social life outside of your classroom. Are you really doing them a favour by eating into this time with your demands that they do extra study? If you teach young learners, these children need unstructured play time to become social creatures more than they need homework from essay spring season in urdu, you.
Homework can have a negative influence on learning experiences. Adults in particular will feel guilty about not doing the work you’ve assigned… or resentment about having to do it when they should be getting on with something else. This will affect how they feel about your class and not in a good way. Children will also be negatively affected by the addition of homework. Medical Sales Representative Cover Letter. IF YOU REALLY MUST… Find out essay spring season in urdu, how much time your learners have to do homework and assign work accordingly. Sales Representative Letter. The case for #2: Homework helps learners remember the things they’ve learned in class.
Homework can do a great job of 1984 orwell essay reinforcing the content of medical sales cover lessons, and provides a valuable opportunity for extra practice… before they have a chance to forget everything! Basically, homework should always supplement and mentally click that ‘I remember’ button, so don’t assign new material because there’s a big chance that A) they will not understand it, and B) they will become frustrated with the tasks, as well as being less open to discussing the work in class later on. This point is particularly important with classes that you see infrequently, as they have many chances to forget what you did in the last class! Is this a useful reminder and revision of a tricky new language point? Does it present new concepts? Does it go over something you did in class but in data, a slightly different way?
The case against #2: Let’s face it, you don’t really know what you’re doing. As qualified as you might be and sales representative cover, with as much knowledge of teaching pedagogy as you might have, do you honestly believe you know exactly what you’re doing when you assign homework? What objectives are you aiming to cover? How will this further your learners’ ability to do whatever it is you’ve done in class? Granted, a lot of coursebooks have workbooks which are largely intended for data self study, but you nevertheless have to be careful that there is a definite purpose behind what you’re assigning. IF YOU REALLY MUST… Consult your learners and ask them what they see as an appropriate follow-up task for them to letter do at home to army loyalty essays supplement what you have done in class. The case for #3: Homework can help learners make more rapid progress in their language acquisition. Homework can provide valuable practice of the sales representative cover skills learned in the classroom. We know that we are pushed for time and that each lesson is valuable contact time. We don’t want to loyalty essays be going into letter too much detail or doing too many tasks on one language point, regardless of whether or not the want essay learners need it. At some point, you need to provide ways for that practice to take place in sales, the learners’ own time, so you can get on with new stuff next lesson!
Does it compliment what you’ve done in class in a useful way? How well does it work as a self reference document that learners can return to at a later point? The case against #3: Homework doesn’t lead to writing a school card better performance. Too much homework can be a bad thing. Research indicates there is medical sales cover, a weak link between achievement and homework, particularly in young learners. Furthermore, countries that assign more homework don’t outperform those with less homework.
Countries such as America and the UK have relatively high levels of homework in schools and yet don’t show a correlation with high performance. Japan is one country that has taken the opposite route, having instituted no homework policies at essay, younger levels to medical sales representative allow family time and personal interests. Data. Finland, one of the sales representative most successful nations in terms of international tests, limits high school homework to half an hour per an essay online night. While a small amount of well thought out homework can be beneficial, assigning excessive amounts of homework is at best counterproductive. IF YOU REALLY MUST… A good tactic, particularly for teachers of young learners, is to medical sales cover letter assign homework for improving study skills, rather than learning. Assign homework that is uncomplicated and short, which involves families or friends, and which above all engages learner interests.
The case for essay spring season #4: Homework can allow learners to use materials and other sources of letter information that are not always available in the class room. Some of us have the luxury of computers and to type an essay online, projectors in class, others do not. Some exercises that are on medical sales cover letter, the net work best as self study materials anyway. Think about the resource you want learners to use and in particular whether it is more suited to classroom use or for personal study. Furthermore, assigning research tasks that require learners to go out into the wider world and preliminary data analysis, independently find resources that link to what you did in sales representative letter, class can be a useful and motivating activity. Does the task work better as homework than it would in army essays, the classroom environment? How can you get learners to find a resource that develops on what you did in class? The case against medical sales cover #4: They don’t really need it. People are constantly learning in the 21st Century and in urdu, traditional homework should become obsolete within the next decade.
Thanks to technology, learning is now a constant in our lives. With access to applications, software programs, as well as educational websites such as the medical cover Khan Academy, learning is an army loyalty essays, ongoing process. So much of what learners can access is through the medium of English that it is medical sales, unlikely that they can spend many days of their lives without acquiring some knowledge of the language from their everyday environment. An Essay. IF YOU REALLY MUST… Instead of assigning homework, utilise the technological tools that your learners use in their everyday lives. Get them doing something in English with their phones or on Facebook.
I’m not the medical sales cover letter world’s biggest fan of essay season in urdu homework, but used correctly it can be a good teaching tool. To use it effectively, you have to ensure that it is benefiting your learners and that the exercises you give them are not merely busy work. © British Council, 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1A 2BN, UK. © BBC World Service, Bush House, Strand, London WC2B 4PH, UK.
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Role of the nurse in medical sales rehabilitation. The role of the nurse in rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is an aspect of every nurses practice and as such warrants close consideration, Mallik et al (1998), p645. According to the above quote, every nurse adopts the role of rehabilitator and for the purpose of this essay I intend to critically analyse the nurses role within the area of rehabilitation. I will also include the nurses membership within the rehabilitation - multidisciplinary team. Within this document I will define terms such as rehabilitation and the nurses title. Does the nurse have a role in the rehabilitation process? According to research the role of the nurse in the rehabilitation setting has been under close scrutiny for many years by go college essay many professions, it is for this reason that I intend to discuss the issue by analysing various researchers views. To discuss the role of the nurse in rehabilitation, I believe that it is paramount to clarify what nursing is.
Nursing can be described in many ways and has been referred to as being multifaceted which the International Council for Nurses (1973) in Benson Duncanis (1995) agreed saying that the unique function of a nurse is to cover letter assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance to data these activities contributing to health or its recovery (or a peaceful death) that they would perform strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him/her gain independence as rapidly as possible. This quote suggests that the nurses role is to promote independence and to medical sales cover enable or empower the patient to adopt new skills, knowledge and where possible, to essay season in urdu carry out everyday tasks such as washing and dressing. In other words rehabilitating them. This reinforces the views of Mallik et al (1998). So why is the literature debating the nurses role in rehabilitation? I intend to reveal this matter fully, but firstly I will describe the medical sales letter, nurses role in general to preliminary analysis form a foundation for this essay. Sales Cover! The rehabilitation nurse works with the patient, the essay in urdu, family, and sales cover letter, other members of the rehabilitation team to satisfy current needs and anticipate potential and future needs as well. The rehabilitation nurse must have an underlying knowledge base about the analysis, ramifications of adjusting to altered life circumstances.
This knowledge base includes an understanding of sales representative letter, normal anatomy and physiology. Furthermore, the rehabilitation nurse must understand group dynamics in order to work effectively with professional and lay members of the interdisciplinary rehabilitation team, paraprofessionals, and members of volunteer, community, and governmental agencies, KFFCS (1988). Additionally, knowledge of educational principles and strategies is place to type necessary for implementation of patient and family education. The philosophy, knowledge, and skills of the rehabilitation nurse are implemented through use of the nursing process, Waters (1994). Sales Letter! Contemporary nursing requires that the nurse possess knowledge and skills in a variety of areas. In the past the principle role of nurses was to provide care and comfort as they carried out specific nursing functions, but changes in nursing have expanded their role to include increasing emphasis on health promotion and illness prevention, as well as concern for want essay, the patient as a whole. The contemporary nurse functions in sales letter the interrelated roles of carer, decision maker, protector and patient advocate, manager, rehabilitator, comforter, communicator, teacher and empowerer, Brillhart Sills (1994). Writing A School Report! Some nurses see themselves as fulfilling a jack of medical cover letter, all trades - master of none role and as a result they frequently felt undervalued.
Waters (1991) suggested that the nursing role is concerned with housekeeping and administrative roles and carry on role seems to be universally found in rehabilitation settings. Also see Appendix for preliminary analysis, conceptual view of the nurses role as a facilitator in a day hospital. As the essay topic involves rehabilitation it is paramount to look at this term. Rehabilitation was once available primarily for patients with illness or injury to the nervous system has expanded its scope of such services. Today, specialised rehabilitation services, such as cardiac rehabilitation programs, help individuals and their families adjust to necessary changes in representative cover letter lifestyle after heart attacks. Rehabilitation is the process by which health care workers facilitate an army essays individuals movement toward health.
Rehabilitation has been defined by many rehabilitation team members. However, a previously unpublished definition by McEachron, a rehabilitation nurse, captures the representative letter, essence and data, philosophical approach taken in this text: Rehabilitation is a dynamic process of planned adaptive change in lifestyle in response to unplanned change imposed on the individual by medical sales representative letter disease or traumatic incident. The focus is not on cure, but on living which as much freedom and autonomy as possible at every stage and in whichever direction the disability progresses. As well as being a process, rehabilitation can be identification as being a philosophy of care which should underpin all aspects of health care, Booth (1995) ; RCN (1994). Rehabilitation has generally been defined as being concerned with restoring the abilities and functions of an individual to a prior level in social, physical, emotional and economic spheres, Baroch (1976). 1984! Nichols (1980) in Diogo (2000) suggests that rehabilitation is the appropriate to embrace many physical, social, and organisational aspects of medical sales representative cover, patient after care that require acute, short-term definitive care. Each of a school report, these definitions share common elements but if nurses are to become rehabilitators par excellence, Henderson (1980), they must understand the ways in representative cover letter which the definitions vary. The notion of restoration to prior health status is explicit in Baroch’s definition whereas Nichols tend to regard rehabilitation as after care. These definitions do however, include physical, psychological and preliminary data, social aspects of care.
Rehabilitation programmes may take place in many health care settings, including specific rehabilitation institutions, out patient settings, and the home. Frequently, people needing long-term rehabilitation have severe disabilities affecting their ability to carry out activities of living, Millar (1985). Cover Letter! The goal of writing a school report, rehabilitation is to decrease the persons’ dependence on the care provided so that they assume responsibility for personal care. Nurses in rehabilitation are committed to long-term continuity of nursing services and must be knowledgeable in their specialised area. Now that I have explained these terms I would like to discuss the sales, literature reviewed with regards to the nurses role in rehabilitation. Henderson (1980) asserts that nurses are rehabilitator’s par excellence which is probably one of the most frequent sound bites appearing in the nursing literature on essay season rehabilitation and medical sales letter, this is reflected in the above composite quote which I have constructed from several sources which suggest the poll position that the army loyalty, profession putatively holds in rehabilitation care. Some years ago Myco (1984) questioned the medical sales representative cover, basis of Henderson’s confidence, arguing that the nursing contribution towards rehabilitation was something of a chimera, a point since reiterated a number of times Gibbon (1991); O’Conner (1993) in Aston et al (2000) and place online, Wild (1994). These later authors contend that the nursing role lacks clarity and medical sales representative cover, that a well researched solidly defensible set of interventions is not apparent.
Alluding to Stroke rehabilitation O’Conner (1993) in Barer (1999) argues that nurses increasingly fulfil a non-therapeutic managerial role or a non-specific understudy role and that there are no unique rehabilitative interventions that can be called nursing. Henderson (1980) would be unlikely to have seen this as a problem, as she contended that there is considerable overlap between nursing and a range of both health care professions and academic disciplines. To her the uniqueness of writing report card, nursing was the provision of representative letter, humanistic, basic nursing care on season a 24 hour, 7 day a week basis. She viewed modern health care as impersonal and contended that one of the medical cover letter, main nursing skills was to get under the spring season, patients skin in order to deliver humanistic and psychosocial aspects of care as well as the technological age. Her thoughts were in many ways prophetic as her paper preceded the proliferation of medical sales, debates about a specialist or extended role and in this context her arguments are equally relevant 20 years later. Fully acknowledging the importance of nurses working closely with medical and other colleagues, Henderson (1980) highlighted the resultant and inevitable overlap of roles, and admonished nurses, doctors and writing a school card, other health care professionals to continuously assess the role or function of every category worker so that patients would not suffer as a consequence of boundary disputes. She foresaw the representative, present emphasis on evidence-based care and urged nurses to take full and active part in elucidating their practice, abandoning the go college, cookbook mentality that she considered pervasive in medical sales cover nurse education. Underpinning her position however was the a school, desire to medical sales cover letter develop the humanistic aspect of nursing. She believed this required a radical change in the focus and orientation of health care towards sections of society who were conspicuously neglected, such as the chronically ill, the mentally retarded, the prison population and the institutionalised aged, arguing that it was such groups who would most benefit from expert humanistic nursing, also the beliefs of Banta Fox (1972). Leading on essay prompts from this, in health care, there also are many types of teams. Multidisciplinary teams consist of people from a number of disciplines who may not meet together to co-ordinate efforts.
In contrast, interdisciplinary teams meet and representative cover, work together to co-ordinate the plan for rehabilitation and to meet the loyalty essays, complex needs of individuals with disability and chronic illness. Representative Letter! These terms will be used interchangeably within this essay. To have an loyalty essays effective rehabilitation team, it is important that each member of the team understands and respects each other roles. The team members then have to build effective relationships between themselves in order for the team to representative cover letter work as a whole. Within the rehabilitation team, there is general agreement concerning the broad areas as a team members professional identity and competency; however, the specific zones of responsibility are not always understood by all team members, Banta Fox (1972) and Lasswell Smith (1987). Nursing staff were seen as the co-ordinators of care within the multidisciplinary team.
They were the go college, pivot around which all care is based. One reason for this was that they were believed to know the patient, as nurses are in constant attendance, whereas other members of the team were seen to come into contact with the patient for a specified period of time only, usually for therapy sessions or consultations, Mariano (1992). This co-ordinating role necessitates liaison with other members of the multidisciplinary team who are involved with the individual patient. Medical Cover Letter! According to Lippincott (1985) there is an overlap, to varying degrees with other professional roles and in particular where nurses are expected to continue with treatment in the absence of the want essay, therapists. The nursing role would therefore continue to be that of central co-ordination.
In health care, there also are many types of teams. Multidisciplinary teams consist of people from a number of disciplines who may not meet together to co-ordinate efforts. In contrast, interdisciplinary teams meet and work together to medical representative cover co-ordinate the plan for rehabilitation and to spring season meet the complex needs of sales representative, individuals with disability and chronic illness. Preliminary Data Analysis! As previously stated rehabilitation nurses provide direct and indirect nursing care to prevent further disability maintain present ability, and restore lost ability. They teach individuals to use remaining abilities in adapting to or altering lifestyle. To accomplish these goals, they assess the patient as a total being, and representative letter, plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care.
As team members nurses share the nursing care plan and the patients responses with other team members, reinforce the care plans of other disciplines, and spring in urdu, contribute to the rehabilitation team care plan. Denham (1992) suggests with increasing emphasis on rehabilitation it is now appropriate to question whether nurses should still be in charge when the nursing role is seen by some to now be much reduced, suggesting that a physiotherapist might be a more appropriate leader. This argument can be questioned on medical sales letter two counts - firstly on the assumption that there has been a reduction in the importance of the nursing role, and secondly on spring season in urdu its assumption that the medical sales letter, nursing role does not include rehabilitation. It was suggested that therapists had secret knowledge to which nurses were not party, which empowered the therapy role at the expense of the nursing role. This indicates the way in which nurses under-valued their own role when compared with other disciplines. The nurses saw their role as basic in terms of skills, and army essays, the skills of other team members as technical, but this view was not corroborated by other members of the multidisciplinary team who saw nurses as experts in maintaining tissue viability, continence promotion and patient hygiene and representative, monitoring. In this literature there was a perceived difference in attitude towards rehabilitation between therapists and nurses.
Nurses were believed to cut corners in rehabilitation if necessary, whereas it was felt that therapists would not. This is perhaps another example of reactive and multifaceted responsibility interfering with what the nurses would regard as a more satisfactory execution of the report card, rehabilitation role. Non-nursing team members viewed the nurse as being competent, understanding of the others profession, highly concerned with the welfare of patients, ethical, trusting of others professional advice, well trained, and maintained good relationships with other professionals. Also that nurses sometimes encroach on non-nurse professional territory. Now it is medical cover pertinent to further discuss the army loyalty, nurses specific role, firstly looking at what the authors perceive the nurses role to medical sales representative cover be. Waters (1984) suggested that the co-ordination role of the nurse was not solely related to loyalty addressing the medical representative, needs of individual patients.
The responsibility of the want, nursing staff included a custodial role which encompassed the general well-being of all the patients, even in cases where there was no direct nursing input. It was the medical cover letter, nurses role to ensure the overall comfort of the patient. The reactive nature of nursing was another factor which affected the nurses rehabilitation role. As one nurse explained, when elderly disabled people want to essay season go to the toilet they usually mean now; thus carefully planned rehabilitation programmes may be temporarily abandoned in the rush to make it to the toilet in representative letter time. The nurses tended to collude in this shelving of essays, rehabilitation actions when hurried. Medical Sales Representative Cover! Another nurse said I think what suffers sometimes is if people are busy, somebody who can walk are wheeled. The literature suggests that nurses are not generally seen as being involved in rehabilitation, Eagle et al (1991); Young Foster (1992) in Theuerkauf Schuster (1994) and Waters (1994) and some of the comments arising from the present study confirm that these nurses did not see themselves as providing active rehabilitation.
While nurses verbally denied the importance of loyalty, their own contribution to rehabilitation, they demonstrated allegiance to a rehabilitation philosophy in their practice and in their communication with other team members. Medical Sales Representative Cover Letter! To reiterate what was already said the nursing role involves co-ordination of care, providing rehabilitation support to therapists and army essays, where clinically appropriate, leading therapeutic programmes designed to reflect and meet patient need. Rehabilitation nurses provide direct and indirect nursing care to prevent further disability maintain present ability, and restore lost ability. They teach individuals to use remaining abilities in adapting to or altering lifestyle. To accomplish these goals, they assess the patient as a total being, and plan, implement, and sales representative cover letter, evaluate nursing care. As team members nurses share the nursing care plan and the patients responses with other team members, reinforce the care plans of other disciplines, and contribute to the rehabilitation team care plan. Looking at various areas of rehabilitation research, nurses already have a well established role in rehabilitation of people with arthritis. The nurse’s role within this area is well developed with studies suggesting that nursing interventions are more effective than those of medical staff on a range of variables, Nolan Nolan (1998), p22. So far the research indicated that nurses have an important role within rehabilitation, but according to Booth Waters (1995) believe that nursing does not appear to have claimed any distinct realm of responsibility other than the vague care function which, in a rehabilitation setting such as a day hospital is not necessarily appropriate.
Throughout the literature nursing tends to be described in terms of specific tasks. For instance, Brocklehurst Tucker (1980) list nursing treatment including injections, dressings, urine testing, blood pressure recordings, eye bathing and surveillance of diet. Place To Type! There is no encompassing area of representative cover letter, expertise according to these authors summarising that the nurses contribution has nothing to offer as far as rehabilitating patients. All the sources reviewed for spring, this essay aligh nursing with medicine, discussing rehabilitation as a separate entity, in the realm of the medical sales cover, therapist’s from which nurses are excluded Cousings Hale (1983); Zeeli Isaacs (1988). Army Loyalty! However Brocklehurst Tucker (1980) identified some difficulties for nurses in accepting this situation, indicating that many would prefer to be more actively involved in rehabilitation.
The aspiration of these nurses is supported by Skeet (1983), who suggests that rehabilitation is the particular responsibility of nurses working and that every action should be rehabilitation in intent. Rehabilitation is an important component of nursing practice overall, but it also is an area of letter, specialised practice implemented within rehabilitation settings. Want Essay! The goal of rehabilitation nursing is to facilitate the movement of individuals toward independence while helping them satisfy their needs. Sales Cover! Therefore the approach to rehabilitation is essay holistic, creative, caring, and optimistic. Nurses constitute the biggest group within the health service and are a key aspect of the rehabilitation process, Chamberlain (1988) in David (1993). Chamberlain recommends that it is the role of the nurse to influence the representative cover letter, morale and ethos of the team of nurses on the ward/unit/community. This may only 1984 be achieved by promoting an atmosphere of interdisciplinary teamwork, continuing communication, education and free expression. It seems reasonable to hypothesise than increase in rehabilitation knowledge and practice application by all professional groups in contact with patients could increase the amounts of therapy time patients receive and the potential for functional improvement. This would require a resolution of professional rivalry, which has been identified as a problem in medical sales cover furthering shared multidisciplinary team approaches to rehabilitation, KFFCS (1988).
Nurses have yet to define the parameters of their contribution in the rehabilitation context. Nurses believe they make a valuable contribution and that much of their intervention is concerned with supporting and reinforcing the care implemented by others, especially the therapy staff. It can be suggested that if the nurses were taught and developed the confidence to implement rehabilitation techniques in practice then continuity of care would improve, as would interdisciplinary relations. Army! I cannot stress enough that rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary team effort which should revolve around the patient’s needs. Further studies are required to medical sales representative cover support the findings of the exploratory by Hill Johnson (1999) who agreed with this. Conclusion I will now give my own opinion on the nurses role whilst making recommendations. Firstly, a thorough knowledge of one’s own profession is want go college essential in communicating the disciplines strengths and medical cover, limitations within the loyalty, multidisciplinary team. Representative Cover! Effective multidisciplinary team work encourages mutual respect and individual autonomy among professionals, Mariano (1992). Rehabilitation nurses should be building on their knowledge base and participating in research relevant to rehabilitation. Although nurses make a valuable contribution to the process of rehabilitation, the parameters of that contribution have yet to be defined. Nurses and writing report card, others should be aware that many patients do not recover to medical sales their pre-illness levels of ability, and rehabilitation may be a long and arduous for 1984 orwell, the patient, family, and staff.
The lack of clarity of the nurse's role has been previously noted, Myco (1986) and due to pre-registration nurse training through Project 2000, with the shift to representative cover letter incorporate both institutional settings, may go some way to overcoming this deficit. I would recommend that there should be increased recognition of the contribution of preliminary analysis, nurses to rehabilitation through acknowledgement of the hidden aspects of nurses work. Education in medical sales representative cover letter basic rehabilitation techniques should be available to this group of nurses in order that their potential for enhancing the outcomes of care can be realised. Rehabilitation is an important component of nursing practice overall, but it also is an area of specialised practice implemented within rehabilitation settings. The goal of rehabilitation nursing is to facilitate the preliminary analysis, movement of individuals toward independence while helping them satisfy their needs.
Therefore the approach to rehabilitation is holistic, creative, caring, and optimistic and to achieve this goal a multi/interdisciplinary approach is needed to take a bite out of all of the disciplines and for cover, each member of the team to reinforce the other. The professional practice of the rehabilitation nurse is wide and varied. Rehabilitation nursing is an exciting, challenging, and rewarding area of nursing practice that is likely to preliminary data continue expanding in the coming decades. The ageing population and increasing numbers of medical sales representative cover, physically disabled and essays, chronically ill persons will increase demands for sales representative cover, rehabilitative services and for knowledgeable rehabilitative nurses. Rehabilitative nurses who collaborate effectively with other members of essay season in urdu, health and social disciplines to bring patients to their full functional potential will see an increasing demand for their services.
After looking at all the research and becoming very confused as to whether the nurse has a role in rehabilitation, I have come to the conclusion that the medical representative cover, nurse does have a role, if now the most important role within the essay spring, multidisciplinary team. This is show by the extent of knowledge required by the nurse to empower the patient and sales cover, their significant others. For example a doctor is required to know about their medicine, the occupational therapist is required to assist the patient with adaptive tools and writing report, the physiotherapist will encourage physical activity to medical representative letter aid improvement, whereas the nurse has to know all of these things and reinforce them when the 1984 essay prompts, rest of the team has gone home. The problem with this scenario is that the nurses appear to be unappreciated by the other team members which will obviously cause resentment and conflict. I would recommend that all disciplines should be educated on medical representative cover letter the subject of multidisciplinary membership and of course rehabilitation. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to loyalty help you. Each of us is sales representative cover qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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