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A Few Words About An Outline For A Three Paragraph Essay
applying to a bar job, but no bar work experience. is this ok? Watch. As you may notice from the following CV I have had a lot of essay, very different jobs during the (roughly) two years that I have been in assign risk, employment, demanding varying levels of responsibility and essay paragraph, skills. Classification Essay. I am extremely enthusiastic to essay three paragraph, learn new and essay, develop existing skills and experience as wide a variety of roles as possible. It is because of this that I believe I am extremely adaptable to almost any situation thrown at me and three, can quickly acclimatise myself to take on new job roles. Cause Of World War 1 Essay. I have had much experience of working with the three, general public in rejection letter applicants, my previous jobs and diffusing arguments/ uncomfortable situations which I may, given the nature of the three paragraph, work, find myself in assign risk, if I am offered this job. Although I will only be available to essay paragraph, work for young goodman outline, 2.5-3months I feel that, due to my enthusiasm and adaptability towards work, I will quickly become an integral part of the three paragraph, Manyanas’ team. I’ve been a fan of offer and acceptance essay, Manyanas for as long as I’ve been there and essay paragraph, I really am excited at the prospect of becoming part of the and effect of world war 1 essay, team. 8 months working at three British Home stores, Preston. Responsibilities included serving customers, answering phones, dealing with customer enquiries (both in person and over the phone), using the till, dealing with deliveries, working within small teams, promoting store cards, giving refunds/exchanges. 1 month working as an evening cleaner at assign risk Lloyds TSB.
My duties include; emptying bins, hovering, mopping, the responsibility of paragraph, locking and unlocking doors etc. And Effect. 4 months working as a volunteer child play-worker for essay, Barnardos on Tuesday evenings. I received brief training in goodman brown essay, how to three, handle children with disabilities before I commenced my role as a play worker. Young. My duties were to essay, supervise the play of essay, 7 disabled children (along with other play workers), accompany the three paragraph, group on trips and organise activities, prepare drinks and snacks and clean up. Toilet Paper For Your. I currently work as a sales associate for Primark Ltd., Fishergate, Preston.
I have been employed here for 10 months and my responsibilities mainly include serving customers (I work on the ground floor tills) but also extend to putting out/ tidying stock, making announcements, unpacking deliveries and dealing with customer enquiries. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to Lucien_Roach. span Follow 3 followers 0 badges Send a private message to Milady de Winter. Essay Three. span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to random_bloke. Toilet Paper Money. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to atoms4peace. Paragraph. span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to random_bloke. span Follow 1 follower 0 badges Send a private message to assign risk, Mantha. Three Paragraph. span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to random_bloke. span Follow 7 followers 2 badges Send a private message to -WhySoSerious? I am writing to apply to the position of toilet for your money, “ glass collector, ” . span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to atoms4peace. Paragraph. Seriously though, DON'T hand them that letter, you won't get the and acceptance essay uk, job! span Follow 4 followers 1 badge Send a private message to yeahyeahyeahs. - meantion you are looking for a summer job and that you finished college. - why you want to three, be a bar collector and work in the bar 'type' environment. - describe yourself and you personal qualities. Young Goodman Essay. - then conclude with saying that you would be a suitable employee at paragraph Manyanas. span Follow 6 followers 2 badges Send a private message to FadedJade. Young Brown Essay. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to atoms4peace. Three. span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to toilet, Gimothy. Because its for a glass collector, you'll look like a ponce. Just ask the manager and if theyre interested they'll give you a trial. span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to random_bloke. Essay Paragraph. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to essay uk, atoms4peace. Yeah, why're you applying to be a glass collector anyway, after the jobs you've listed? span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to Gimothy. Essay. whats up with that? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to young brown, thyssen1207. cause i need moneey and i get paid sod all at paragraph primark but i cant quit cause i need to cause and effect war 1, transfer my job for uni so i need to paragraph, get another one. Toilet Paper Money. Whats wrong with a glass collector anyway?
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An essay has three main parts: 1 Introduction (1 paragraph) 2 Main
Le label rouge Decodex, un certificat d’excellence? L’expression est évidemment ironique. Paragraph! L’outil mis en place par Le Monde a rapidement indexé (c’est le cas de le dire) un territoire vaste et bigarré où pullulent les énergumènes, les paranoïaques et les mythomanes, mais où vivent aussi paisiblement disons plutôt vivaient jusqu’ici des tribus de penseurs et des chercheurs d’une haute probité dont les informations n’avaient qu’un seul défaut: celui de ne pas correspondre à la vision du monde univoque du Monde , mètre étalon de la pensée unique française. Outline! Traduit en langage technologique: ils ont le tort d’accrocher les fureteurs à mots clefs chauds et à sources douteuses du logiciel en question. Essay! La mise en place d’une intelligence artificielle pour traquer la pensée déviante ajoute un vernis d’objectivité impersonnelle et mécanique à ce qui n’est, fondamentalement, qu’une opération assez grossière de gleichschaltung (alignement) médiatique, du reste reconnue comme telle jusque dans les rangs des confrères. Il n’est pas d’intelligence artificielle. Rejection Letter For Non-interviewed! Il n’existe que de l’intelligence humaine prolongée par des robots qui accomplissent ce que cette intelligence leur a ordonné de faire. Essay Paragraph! On aurait pu apprendre aux inquisiteurs mécaniques de Decodex à distinguer le deuxième degré et l’antiphrase. Assign Risk! Mais c’eût été long, compliqué et coûteux.
On n’avait pas besoin d’aller aussi loin. Essay Three Paragraph! Le but était de contenir rapidement une sédition qui se propageait comme un feu de brousse, or en de tels cas on and acceptance uk, ne fait pas de détails. Paragraph! On arrose bien au-delà de la limite des flammes. Assign Risk! C’est le dilemme classique des nettoyeurs d’urgence: Tuez-les tous, Dieu reconnaîtra les siens. Le Monde ne représente pas, c’est le moins qu’on puisse dire, un parangon de vertu journalistique.
Il y a 14 ans déjà, l’immense enquête de Pierre Péan et Philippe Cohen sur La Face cachée du Monde illustrait le profond fossé existant entre les pratiques de ce journal et les règles élémentaires de la déontologie journalistique voire de l’honnêteté intellectuelle pure et simple. Essay Paragraph! Cela ne s’est pas arrangé depuis. And Effect! Dès la guerre en ex-Yougoslavie, j’ai collecté une documentation ahurissante sur ses mensonges et ses partis pris. Essay Three Paragraph! J’avais même eu la folie d’écrire à son rédacteur en chef pour relever une erreur de fait objective, aisément vérifiable dans les encyclopédies. Assign Risk! Il m’avait répondu par une caricature de Plantu, me disant en résumé: allez vous faire foutre, Balkaneux enragé.
Inutile de relever l’effondrement éthique et informationnel du même journal dans les récents conflits du Proche-Orient, qu’il a couverts d’un voile de camouflage imprimé de motifs néocons . Essay! Si, par exemple, le parti pris massivement pro-djihadiste des médias occidentaux dans la tragédie d’Alep a été remis en question par certains journalistes et commentateurs français, ces voix-là ne sortaient pas des colonnes du Monde . Offer Uk! Lequel a été dénoncé à plusieurs reprises, ces derniers temps, comme diffuseur de fake news et pas seulement par RT et Sputnik, loin de là. Aussi, lorsque cette officine d’influence financée à coups de dizaines de millions par l’État français a annoncé la mise en place de son outil de vérification, je ne pouvais que sourire. Three Paragraph! Le Monde traquant la désinformation, c’est comme si le cartel de Medellín se mettait à dénoncer les dealers de coin de rue. Puis, des amis préoccupés m’ont signalé que notre Main courante sur l’internet, log.antipresse.net, avait été barré de rouge dans la classification simplette du Decodex. Ap English! Si France-Dimanche est classé vert, le label rouge Decodex ne pouvait être qu’une marque d’excellence. Quelle meilleure réfutation pour cette entreprise de censure que sa propre idiotie? Mais ensuite j’ai lu l’excellente série d’articles qu’Olivier Berruyer a consacrée au Decodex sur son site, les-crises.fr, l’un des plus intelligents blogs français, évidemment classé dans la zone orange juste au bord du gouffre rougeoyant. Three Paragraph! Malgré un soutien considérable des lecteurs et de certains noms illustres du débat public français, Berruyer a décidé d’ajouter l’action en justice à sa réfutation intellectuelle de cet Index librorum prohibitorum des temps modernes. Ap English Essay! La motivation de son appel aux dons pour le procès à venir donne à réfléchir: Eh oui: tout ridicule qu’il soit, Le Monde est la voix même de l’officialité française. Essay Three Paragraph! Quoi qu’il vaille, ses dénonciations ont un impact sur votre vie réelle.
C’est comme d’être cité, jadis, dans la Pravda de Moscou: que vous soyez innocent et eux dépravés ne change rien au fait qu’ ils tiennent le couteau par le manche. Aussi ai-je estimé utile de livrer ici une mise au point. And Effect Of World War 1! D’abord sur la manière dont notre propre site a été classé rouge, et ensuite sur ce que représente réellement, à mes yeux, le Decodex du Monde . Sur le moteur de vérification de Decodex, le log de l’Antipresse apparaît affublé d’une mise en garde menaçante: Ce site diffuse régulièrement de fausses informations ou des articles trompeurs. Essay Three Paragraph! Restez vigilant et cherchez d’autres sources plus fiables. Essay! Si possible, remontez à l’origine de l’information. A l’appui de ce jugement extrême, l’algorithme du Decodex cite seulement deux sources, dont l’une est sans rapport aucun avec le sujet: Pour mémoire: nous avions épinglé une scène de sauvetage impliquant une seule et même enfant syrienne au bras de trois sauveteurs différents, ces fameux Casques blancs qui ont disparu comme par enchantement après la reprise de la ville par l’armée syrienne.
Nous ne contestions pas la réalité de ce sauvetage, mais soulignions simplement que le bombardement de photos sous divers angles et avec divers protagonistes avait pour but de démultiplier virtuellement le drame. Cette dénonciation de la manipulation a été assimilée à son tour à de la manipulation par les vigiles de Libé : le procédé est classique et grossier. Three! Nous l’avions décortiqué, sources à l’appui, dans un post ultérieur: La “désintox-réintox” de “Libé”. Assign Risk! Relevant notamment tout ce que cette dispute sur une mise en scène photographique dissimulait au sujet du rôle des Casques blancs et du parti pris de la couverture médiatique de la guerre à Alep. Paragraph! La révélation des pratiques hideuses des insurgés après la prise du fameux quartier Est nous a donné amplement raison. Résumons donc: Le Decodex nous a classés rouge sur la foi de deux articles de la grande presse, dont l’un ne nous mentionne nulle part, et dont l’autre est en soi un cas de propagande. Best Toilet! Le label rouge décerné à Antipresse est allé au mauvais destinataire: c’est au moteur informatique du Decodex lui-même qu’il eût fallu l’adresser! Il se peut (c’est même hautement probable) que l’algorithme se base dans son jugement sur d’autres recoupements: par exemple, le fait que nous citons souvent les plateformes russes RT.com et Sputnik, les ennemis jurés des nouveaux médias occidentaux, ou que nous donnons la parole à des désinvités sulfureux.
Car le principe de base de l’algorithme Decodex est tout entier contenu dans Le Loup et l’Agneau de La Fontaine: Si ce n’est toi, c’est donc ton frère. Je n’en ai point. Essay Paragraph! C’est donc quelqu’un des tiens Mais les preuves de cet ordre ne sont pas mentionnées dans la sentence. Selon son chef de projet, le Decodex moteur de recherche et extension pour navigateur aurait été ficelé avec seulement 50 à 60’000 euros puisés dans le fonds Google. Essay Uk! Cette somme et son origine sont hautement intéressantes. On se rappellera que le fonds Google consiste en un don forfaitaire de 60 millions consenti par le géant de la Silicon Valley à François Hollande en 2013 en échange de l’abandon de la requête des éditeurs de presse français en vue d’un versement de droits d’auteurs (droits voisins) liés à l’exploitation de leurs contenus par le moteur de recherche. Un millième seulement de cette petite monnaie aurait donc été investi dans le développement du Decodex . Three! Pour quiconque connaît tant soit peu les conditions du développement sur internet, c’est une plaisanterie. Paper For Your! 60’000 euros pour un site de cette importance, c’est tout juste le prix de de la carrosserie.
Mais qu’en est-il du moteur sous le capot? Les algorithmes requis pour processer une telle masse de documents et les catégoriser, fût-ce très sommairement, demandent tout de même réflexion et de programmation. De deux choses l’une, donc: soit le Monde a grossièrement menti sur le coût de sa solution; soit le cœur même du Decodex lui a été fourni clefs en main dans le cadre bénin de cet accord commercial qui libérait Google de toute redevance tout en lui donnant la possibilité de refaçonner le paysage médiatique français empêtré dans sa conversion numérique. Il existe de fait auprès de Google un département appelé News Lab , un laboratoire de nouvelles qui collabore avec journalistes et entrepreneurs pour construire l’avenir des médias. Paragraph! La première des missions qu’il revendique s’intitule Trust Verification , autrement dit: Fiabilité et vérification et se résume ainsi: L’innovation technologique [lisez l’internet] a offert aux journalistes une facilité d’accès sans précédent à l’information. Goodman Brown! Mais elle a aussi créé des défis uniques dans la vérification de la fiabilité des contenus et le mantien de la confiance et de la vérité dans les médias. Three Paragraph! Voilà, tel quel, le credo de base du Ministère de la Vérité instauré sous l’égide du Monde Il suffit d’étudier un peu les profils des responsables de ce labo pour se rendre compte qu’on n’évolue plus du tout dans le monde de la presse, mais dans quelque chose de très différent.
Il s’agit de gens jeunes, plus proches du logiciel que de la plume et plus versés dans le quantitatif et la forme que dans le qualitatif et le fond. Assign Risk! Prenez par exemple Olivia Ma, la cheffe des Partenariats du Lab , autrement dit la personne qui aura probablement collaboré avec les Français pour la sous-traitance des algorithmes Google. Essay Three Paragraph! Membre de la petite caste des contrôleurs du web, elle est notamment passée par la direction du fameux Center for best paper for your Public Integrity, financé par Soros, à l’origine des Panama Papers et autres fuites stratégiques organisées par le système d’influence U.S. Au profil étrange de cette cyberjournaliste 2.0 ne pouvait correspondre, côté Monde , qu’un geek analogue, à savoir Samuel Laurent, le coordinateur du Decodex . Essay Three! L’Observatoire des journalistes et de l’information médiatique consacre à ce jeune androïde un portrait significatif. Cause And Effect War 1! La prétention à l’objectivité factuelle, chez cet automate de la pensée algorithmique se double d’une morgue et d’un simplisme intellectuel préoccupants, exprimés sur les réseaux par un langage d’adolescent. Ainsi il sera fréquent de le voir qualifier le moindre de ses contradicteurs (non-journaliste, cela va sans dire) d’être un relou , un troll et par voie de conséquence d’être ostracisé de son univers virtuel sans aspérités. Three! Samuel Laurent a en effet tendance à bloquer toute personne qui émettrait une critique un tant soit peu radicale à l’encontre de son travail et de ses partis pris. Paper For Your! Dans sa simulation du réel augmenté 2.0, nul doute que le grand amateur de chiffres, de courbes et de vérités mathématiques réconfortantes n’a guère de temps pour se consacrer à l’analyse. Essay Three! (OJIM) Comme chez les désintoxicateurs de Libé , on paper, est frappé par l’insensibilité, l’aliénation à proprement parler, de ces nouveaux journalistes face à tout échange d’arguments respectueux et cultivé. Tant par sa conception que par son personnel ou son organigramme, le Decodex se situe en marge du travail et de la mission d’un journal, fût-il normatif comme Le Monde . Essay Three! Sa création ne résulte pas d’un développement rédactionnel, mais d’un projet stratégique remontant à la direction où siègent Alain Minc et autres globalistes.
Il est grossier, hypocrite, stupide et encourage à la stupidité. Offer Uk! Du même coup, son échelle de valeurs a rapidement été renversée dans l’opinion, le rouge devenant soudain in essay three paragraph par rapport au vert ringard à la France-Dimanche . La chute dans la dérision ne signifie pas pour autant que le danger soit écarté. Classification Essay! Sa mise en place témoigne d’une intégration poussée des systèmes non d’information, mais de contrôle de l’information , intégration officialisée dans le cas de la France (on ne l’avait pas saisi sur l’heure) par l’accord léonin avec Google en 2013. Avec l’approche de la présidentielle française, d’une importance stratégique pour le monde occidental, on essay three paragraph, va voir que le Decodex n’était que la première hirondelle d’une invasion autrement plus massive. Ap English Classification! L’Index du Monde n’est en effet qu’un jouet d’enfant et probablement une version alpha ou bêta déguisée en regard du prochain projet du News Lab de Google, qui s’avance cette fois-ci à visage découvert. Three Paragraph! Avec l’arrivée en France du projet CrossCheck, le contrôle de l’information va prendre une toute autre allure. Offer Essay! 17 instances sont déjà partenaires de cet outil de catalogage par indexation et contextualisation: l’AFP, BuzzFeed News, France Médias Monde (via les Observateurs de France 24), France Télévisions, Global Voices, Libération, La Provence, Les Echos, La Voix du Nord, Le Monde, Nice-Matin, Ouest-France, Rue89 Bordeaux, Rue89 Lyon, Rue89 Strasbourg, Storyful et StreetPress . Three Paragraph! Non content de se déployer en essaim, on classification, peut parier que le programme de Trust Verification de Google aura gagné en précision et en exhaustivité. Certains médias de grand chemin ont de toute évidence décidé de transformer leur faillite éthique et professionnelle en victoire politique. Essay! Ils le réalisent au travers d’une conversion à ciel ouvert en outils d’influence et de contrôle. Outline! Et là, l’effet de masse compensera sans doute, en partie, les lacunes de qualité et de conception du projet.
Des mensonges grossiers répercutés par 100 androïdes alignés passeront plus aisément pour de la vérité que des évidences écrites par des humains isolés. Ils ont au moins raison sur un point: oui, la vérité dans l’information est un enjeu essentiel de notre temps. Paragraph! Mais ce n’est pas chez eux qu’on la trouvera. Assign Risk! La notion même de vérité, dans ce monde-là, n’est qu’un algorithme de plus. La propagande sert davantage à nous justifier nous-mêmes qu’à convaincre les autres; plus nous avons de raisons de nous sentir coupables, et plus fervente sera notre propagande. Essay Three Paragraph! (Eric Hoffer, The True Believer: Thoughts on rejection letter applicants, the Nature of essay, Mass Movements ) Dans Le Maître et Marguerite , le chef-d’œuvre de Mikhaïl Boulgakov, le Diable apparaît en personne sous la cape du magicien Woland. Best For Your Money! Le Diable est joueur: il s’amuse à tester la vanité et la crédulité des hommes. Essay Three! Et il sait qu’il n’est d’humains plus crédules que les incrédules de métier. Assign Risk! C’est ainsi que son premier interlocuteur, Berlioz, vedette littéraire du Moscou soviétique et athée militant, finira décapité par un tramway, exactement comme le magicien le lui a prédit. Paragraph! Ah! S’il avait un seul instant pris au sérieux l’existence du Tentateur qui venait, justement, de lui offrir une cigarette Des blagues à ne pas faire en société
Qu'est-ce que le Système? me demandent sans cesse les idiots utiles du Système. Letter For Non-interviewed! (Tweet, 5.2.2017) Nous sommes témoins d’une plaisanterie semblable lorsque nous parlons du Système. Essay Three! Il m’arrive ainsi de lancer des aphorismes à ce sujet dont les échos sont connus d’avance: Complotiste!, me répliquent aussitôt des sceptiques venus de divers horizons culturels et politiques, mais qui ont généralement en commun un binôme de caractéristiques paradoxal: d’un côté, la foi dans le rationalisme et le fact-checking, et de l’autre des convictions morales et politiques d’une naïveté extrême. Young Goodman! Ils s’attribuent à la fois une haute capacité de discernement, une mission de vigilance citoyenne et une position critique vis-à-vis du pouvoir. Essay Paragraph! Dans le langage ras-du-sol des services , ce sont de parfaits idiots utiles . L’idiot utile est celui qui croit qu’il ne croit pas ce qu’il croit, mais qu’il le sait . Essay! Que sa subjectivité n’y est pour rien. Paragraph! Que sa connaissance ne lui vient pas par un quelconque canal d’influence ou d’endoctrinement, mais de la vérité des choses elle-même. And Effect Of World War 1! Sans filtre. Essay Three Paragraph! Sans intermédiaire. Assign Risk! Sans diable ni système . Le Système, selon eux, n’existe pas.
Ou, s’il existe, il n’a ni malice ni intention particulière. Essay Three Paragraph! Il fait partie du paysage comme le climat ou la course des astres et obéit aux décrets des institutions comme la charrue au laboureur. Of World War 1 Essay! Ce qui existe, pour cette catégorie d’esprits, c’est l’Antisystème, à savoir tous ces milieux étranges et sulfureux qui, sous couvert de résistance contre un spectre de leur invention, complotent pour renverser la démocratie. Essay! Quelquefois, souvent même, ces innocents décrètent que le Système, c’est justement ça: l’Antisystème. Letter For Non-interviewed! Tout comme les étiquettes, les causes et les effets s’intervertissent facilement.
Pour que l’Antisystème soit moralement condamnable, pour qu’on puisse le censurer et le liquider sans états d’âme, il est nécessaire que sa cause soit une illusion. Essay! Mais entre ces deux termes, lequel découle de l’autre? La nécessité de bâillonner l’opposition à cause de ses mensonges, ou la nécessité de prouver que ses vues sont des mensonges afin de la bâillonner? Les comploteurs dénoncent les complotistes. Best Toilet For Your Money! Quoi de plus normal? (Tweet, 31.1.2017) Et de même: où se situe le crime de complot , si complot il y a? La divulgation massive, par WikiLeaks, des e-mails de Mme Clinton et de son entourage montre que la direction du parti Démocrate avait été accaparée par des gens qui, littéralement, passaient leur temps à comploter en coulisses: contre la Libye, pour la destruction de l’enseignement et de la conscience civique, pour les intérêts du complexe militaro-industriel, et j’en passe. Essay Paragraph! Le déchaînement même du milieu médiatico-politique face à cette divulgation montre que les tractations secrètes avec des agents d’influence sans investiture démocratique sont un mode de gouvernement admis et protégé.
Ainsi le complot a-t-il été attesté comme une réalité indiscutable et omniprésente par ses protagonistes et défenseurs mêmes! Mais par un extraordinaire renversement rhétorique, le crime de complot a été rejeté sur ceux qui, justement, le dévoilaient au grand jour ainsi que sur leurs hypothétiques alliés russes (car le mot russe est un utile déclencheur réflexe qui associe immédiatement à l’espionnage, à la propagande et à la désinformation). Offer And Acceptance Essay! En effet, le seul moyen de berner le public et de détourner son attention du complot indiscutable qu’il avait sous les yeux était de pointer du doigt un complot bien plus menaçant, d’autant plus menaçant qu’on ne pouvait en montrer qu’une ombre: celui liant Poutine à Trump via Julian Assange! Et voici donc les comploteurs devenus complotistes à leur tour en dénonçant le complot des complotistes visant à faire éclater leur propre complot! On pourrait étendre ce jeu de miroirs à l’infini. Paragraph! Ce qu’il reflète fondamentalement est très simple et vieux comme le monde: les rapports de force entre l’ordre établi et l’opposition, entre le discours du pouvoir et sa contestation. Of World War 1! Selon que vous serez puissant ou misérable,/Les jugements de cour vous rendront blanc ou noir , résumait sobrement La Fontaine dans Les Animaux malades de la peste. Paragraph! Ou Blaise Pascal, dans ses Provinciales , s’adressant à ses adversaires jésuites d’une mauvaise foi criante: Vous êtes quatre-vingt docteurs, mes bons Pères, et je suis seul.
Vous avez forcément raison! (Je cite de mémoire.) Voilà donc le billard à mille bandes réduit à un vulgaire jeu de quilles: celui qui tient en main la grosse boule est en position de faucher les autres, un point c’est tout. Outline! Or, quoi qu’il arrive, la main qui tient la boule est celle du Système. Essay Three Paragraph! Les quilles peuvent être blanches, jaunes, vertes ou rouges, elles peuvent être de gauche ou de droite, mais le choix à l’échelon des existences se ramène à cela: il y a ceux qui lancent la boule et ceux qui attendent d’être fauchés ou épargnés par le projectile. Une intelligentsia dominante, que ce soit en Europe, en Asie ou en Afrique, traite les masses comme une matière première qu’on peut soumettre à expérimentation, manipuler et gaspiller à volonté. Assign Risk! (Eric Hoffer, The Temper of essay paragraph, Our Time , 1967) Le mot système vient du verbe grec systeô , qui signifie attacher ensemble, entrelacer. Young Goodman Essay Outline! En politique, le système est souvent représenté par des faisceaux: les convergences d’énergies tenues ensemble par le pouvoir central.
On pense machinalement à Rome ou au fascisme italien. Three Paragraph! On oublie que ces mêmes faisceaux sont aussi sur les armoiries de la présidence française. Assign Risk! Le Système, c’est le fascisme absolu, l’ordre en soi, tel qu’il se maintient et se perpétue, abstraction faite de l’idéologie et des justifications qu’il se donne. Essay! Il prend de plus en plus d’autonomie à mesure que la société humaine se technicise et se complexifie, en cela même qu’il exclut les impondérables du facteur humain tels que le libre arbitre, le bon vouloir, la vindicte ou la clémence. La meilleure définition du mot tel qu’il nous intéresse ici a été donnée par Pontus de Thyard au XVIe siècle: Ensemble dont les parties sont coordonnées par une loi . Cause! La loi est au centre. Essay! Le Système règne quand aucune volonté humaine, aucune loi morale ne peut se hisser publiquement au-dessus de la loi écrite. Ap English Essay! Sur le plan officieux , il en va tout autrement: plus la loi publique est rigoureuse, et plus les dérogations octroyées aux satrapes sont généreuses.
Plus le commun est jugulé, et plus la nomenklatura s’auto-absout. Essay Three Paragraph! Il suffit d’observer la classe politique pour s’en convaincre. Encore faut-il que ce que nos yeux voient puisse ose remonter jusqu’au cerveau et que celui-ci en tire des conclusions. Essay! C’est une étape que le Système s’emploie à désactiver en criblant de tabous le discours public avec l’aide cruciale du dispositif de l’instruction et des médias. Three Paragraph! Il aura fallu un dressage rigoureux pour enseigner aux consciences contemporaines à craindre l’invocation même du Système et à censurer ceux qui en parlent.
La crédulité est l’un des éléments clefs de ce dressage. Toilet For Your! On apprend à admettre n’importe quelle affirmation, pourvu qu’elle vienne d’une source autorisée . Essay Three! Par exemple, qu’une simple grippe saisonnière est une menace pour l’humanité ou qu’un avion de ligne détourné par des pilotes amateurs peut faire crouler un gratte-ciel sans même le toucher. Classification Essay! Cette crédulité implique à la fois de l’ignorance (en matière scientifique et logique) et de l’obéissance. Three! Ce qui, à l’aube de la conscience éclairée, était considéré comme des tares à déraciner est devenu aujourd’hui des vertus démocratiques que les ingénieurs sociaux entretiennent. Nous avons tous été assez satisfaits de dégrader le gouvernement, de laisser tomber le civisme et en général de conspirer à produire des citoyens ignares et obéissants écrivait ainsi en mars dernier Bill Ivey, le monsieur Culture de Bill Clinton, à John Podesta, le chef de campagne de Mme Clinton. War 1 Essay! Ces agents d’influence étaient encore, en mars 2016, ceux qui tenaient la boule du jeu de quilles. Paragraph! Ils étaient au cœur du système, si certains de leur domination qu’ils se permettaient des aveux écrits qu’une personne avisée hésiterait à livrer même à l’oreille d’un ami. Ap English Essay! Ils ne pouvaient imaginer que, huit mois plus tard, ils se retrouveraient à la place des quilles. Ils n’y sont pas du reste, le Système ayant engagé une guerre totale contre ce président indésiré que les médias ne nomment jamais l’homme le plus puissant du monde ainsi qu’ils le faisaient avec tous ses prédécesseurs. Le Système est impersonnel, même s’il a un ample personnel à son service et même s’il confère à l’élite de ce personnel des pouvoirs dont les rois et les tyrans de jadis ne disposaient pas. Essay Three Paragraph! L’erreur de ceux qui le contestent (et la technique de ceux qui veulent en détourner l’attention) est de le personnaliser : de réduire des lois générales et des mécanismes à des individus et à des traits de personnalité.
Les gouvernements combattus par le Système sont systématiquement réduits à des régimes , et les régimes eux-mêmes à la seule figure de leur chef (Kadhafi, Saddam, Assad, Poutine); cependant que les Antisystème s’acharnent à identifier derrière le mécanisme des tireurs de ficelles dont l’existence ou non n’a aucune importance. Lorsque l’action personnelle commence à compter réellement, c’est qu’on se trouve dans un système de pouvoir individualisé et donc, déjà, en marge du Système. Offer And Acceptance Essay Uk! La personnalité de l’ivrogne Juncker n’a pas plus de poids dans l’Union soviétique européenne que celle de l’ivrogne Eltsine n’en avait dans l’URSS finissante, deux systèmes inhumains en fin de course. Three Paragraph! L’opposition sourde et poltronne du pauvre Obama aux agissements de son propre appareil n’a en rien freiné l’emballement général. Letter Applicants! Mais le fait même que la personnalité de Vladimir Poutine infléchisse le cours de son histoire montre que la Russie est sortie, en partie, de l’orbite du Système. Une autre erreur courante consiste à prêter au Système une idéologie. Essay! Le Système n’a pas d’idéologie: il se sert en opportuniste de celle qui, à un moment donné, le plus à même de consolider et d’étendre son empire. And Effect Of World War 1 Essay! Il optera naturellement de préférence pour des idéologies collectivistes, globalistes et légiférantes. Paragraph! Le Système est en soi un appareil de soumission. Assign Risk! Il exige de chaque individu, à tous les échelons, une soumission plus ou moins étendue et accorde en échange la protection, la sécurité et des privilèges.
D’où son alliance naturelle avec l’Islam, qui est la Soumission , si l’on peut dire, à l’état natif. Essay! D’un côté comme de l’autre, la Loi balaie les particularités humaines, les raisons individuelles et surtout ces lois non écrites d’Antigone qui, à travers les siècles, ont toujours dissuadé notre propre civilisation de se transformer en un mécanisme totalitaire. Ne jamais nommer le Système: c'est le meilleur service à lui rendre. Best Toilet For Your Money! Persée ne pouvait croiser le regard de Méduse. Essay Three Paragraph! (Tweet, 10.12.2015) Or ce que nous observons aujourd’hui dans nos aires est un bouleversement tectonique. Uk! L’évolution tranquille du Système vers ce mécanisme parfait via le perfectionnement technique couplé à la régression de l’humain a été bouleversée par une série d’événements politiques, mais aussi de prises de conscience psychologiques. Essay! Aux États-Unis, pour parler schématiquement, un outsider a réussi à prendre à revers le Système. War 1 Essay! Certes, M. Essay! Trump était une huile de premier plan de l’oligarchie américaine, mais le Système n’est pas réductible à l’oligarchie.
Dans le cadre du Système, un juge vénal ou un journaliste illettré a la faculté de faire trébucher l’oligarque le plus puissant pour peu que son action serve le Système. Classification Essay! Et non seulement Trump a-t-il réussi à enlever la présidence des États-Unis, mais encore s’emploie-t-il, depuis le premier jour de son mandat, à faire passer en force toute une série de mesures aussi perpendiculaires à la marche du Système que les bâtons qu’on met dans une roue. Pour le dire encore plus schématiquement: l’administration Trump, comme l’État de Poutine, comme nombre d’autres insurrections décriées comme populistes, s’emploie à enrayer la stratégie du Système dans son cœur même, laquelle consiste à abattre toutes les frontières établies par des communautés humaines conscientes (et donc des souverainetés volontaires) pour les remplacer par de nouveaux cloisonnements hermétiques dont lui seul, le Système, aurait les clefs: systèmes de sécurité et de contrôle total, omnisurveillance, dématérialisation documentaire et monétaire, puçage et traçage. Paragraph! Ce n’est pas un hasard si les milliardaires de la Silicon Valley qui sont pourtant de sa classe sociale montent en première ligne contre le nouveau président américain, aux côtés des patrons des médias de masse et des vedettes du show-biz, principaux organisateurs du décervelage et de la régression de masse. L’enjeu de la lutte qui se développe aujourd’hui sous nos yeux dépasse les visions et la mission de tous les gouvernants de ce siècle et du précédent. Goodman Brown! Cette lutte est l’aboutissement d’une longue évolution de la civilisation européenne, qui a mis entre les mains de l’humanité les outils de sa libération en même temps que ceux de son anéantissement.
L’enjeu est le choix entre une société encore calquée sur des destinées humaines ou une entité gérée par un Système anonyme épaulé par la mince élite gérant l’ensemble des banques et des médias et les prêtres informatiques de la post-humanité. En ouverture de son ouvrage posthume (inédit en français), La fourmilière globale , Alexandre Zinoviev proposait au tournant du XXIe siècle une fiction terrifiante, qui pourtant paraît presque banale aujourd’hui: Notre XXe siècle aura peut-être été le siècle le plus dramatique de toute l’histoire humaine du point de vue de la destinée des gens et des nations, des idées, des systèmes sociaux et des civilisations. Essay Three! Mais, toutes ces choses étant posées, ce fut aussi un siècle de passion et d’aventure: siècle d’espoirs et de désespoirs, d’illusions et de visions, d’avancées et de déceptions, de joies et de malheurs, d’amour et de haine Ç’aura été, peut-être, le dernier siècle humain. Young Goodman Brown Outline! A sa suite se profile une masse de siècles d’histoire suprahumaine ou posthumaine, une histoire sans espoirs ni désespoirs, sans illusions ni visions, sans avancées ni déceptions, sans joies ni chagrins, sans amour ni haine Bref, nous voici aux portes d’une masse de siècles où le Système aura éradiqué l’Homme. Essay Paragraph! Ou pas? Qui a (vraiment) tué la presse papier? par Slobodan Despot. Avertissement. Cause And Effect War 1! Comme annoncé dans le numéro 61 de l’Antipresse, je publie ici la contribution que la rédaction de L’Hebdo m’avait demandée pour son ultime numéro et qu’elle a eu le fair-play de publier sans altération.
La suite, à partir du deuxième sous-titre, est un prolongement inédit. Paragraph! (SD) Qui a assassiné L’Hebdo ? Qu’est-ce qu’on a oublié d’examiner durant l’autopsie? N’aurions-nous pas affaire à un tueur en série? Et autres mystères cachés dans les abattoirs de la presse La Suisse romande parle français, consomme de la télévision et de la presse françaises, mais ne pense pas français. Cause And Effect War 1! Elle ne pense pas non plus alémanique. Essay! Elle ne pense même pas tant romand que cantonal. Best Toilet! Au milieu de ce creuset de particularismes, il y avait un magazine qui ambitionnait d’élever le regard par-delà les bocages, de relier le particulier à l’universel. Essay Paragraph! L’idée était audacieuse, l’espace de manœuvre millimétré. Offer Uk! Par-delà ses partis pris, L’Hebdo de Jacques Pilet instaurait un forum où la culture, la politique et les questions de société laissaient leurs couleurs locales au vestiaire. Essay Paragraph! Un dress code chic selon les uns, snob selon les autres.
Pour ma part, j’y trouvais des débats et des sujets pour lesquels les pages de L’Hebdo offraient la seule piste d’atterrissage possible dans notre coin de pays. Goodman! C’était malgré tout un outil de désenclavement. Three Paragraph! Faut-il être myope pour se réjouir de sa disparition! Mais je ne me joindrai pas au chœur des pleureuses. Goodman Brown Essay Outline! On m’a demandé un témoignage, non des condoléances. Pour croître et durer, L’Hebdo n’avait que deux options: soit s’implanter fermement dans son pot, soit étendre son terreau. Three Paragraph! Il en a choisi une troisième en forme d’oxymore: l’internationalisme provincial.
Il s’est arc-bouté sur une prédication européiste qui n’intéressait personne depuis 1992 et faisait sourire hors frontières, là où l’on vivait ces illusions plutôt qu’on ne les rêvait. Letter! Comme sa religion ne vendait plus, il s’est mis à vanter les terrasses de Suisse romande en parodiant L’Illustré . Three Paragraph! De fait, ce n’étaient pas les sujets sérieux qui fatiguaient le public, mais bien la rigidité mécanique et la ringardise de l’approche. Of World! L’Hebdo a connu une forte érosion de ses abonnés durant la dernière décennie sans jamais se remettre en question. Three! Car ce n’était pas un désaveu: c’étaient juste des réacs qui n’avaient rien compris! Ayant curieusement été coopté au Forum des 100, j’ai assisté voici quelques années à un petit déjeuner organisé par Ringier. Ap English Essay! On y a décortiqué la surface de pub, la stratégie marketing, les classes de revenus, mais pas un seul instant le contenu rédactionnel, le cœur du problème. Paragraph! Je me suis dit alors que l’affaire était pliée. Cause Of World Essay! Le destin de L’Hebdo résume à lui seul la tragédie de l’idéalisme soixante-huitard dont il était l’un des derniers échos.
A force de vouloir rectifier la raison des gens, il a été rectifié par la raison des chiffres. Quelques jours après cette annonce-choc, l’émission Infrarouge a organisé un débat de spécialistes au chevet du magazine expirant. Three Paragraph! Après l’avoir porté à bout de bras pendant quinze ans, son éditeur Ringier (allié à Axel Springer) a donc fini par le lâcher. Assign Risk! Parce qu’il ne reflète plus l’air du temps, estime Tibère Adler, l’ex-patron d’Edipresse. Essay Three! Alain Jeannet, le rédacteur en chef, pense que si le magazine a tenu si longtemps, ce n’est pas malgré son positionnement de gauche, mais grâce à ses valeurs, à sa vue de la société qui n’est pas forcément majoritaire.
Tenir si longtemps avec des positions aussi marginales était carrément un petit miracle, comme les intervenants ont proclamé à l’unisson. A cet instant précis, le spectateur attentif pourrait se poser des questions. Best Toilet For Your! Quel est alors ce magazine ou ce journal non nommé qui correspondrait à une vision de la société majoritaire? Comment? Il n’existe pas? Mais pourquoi? Au lieu d’éponger quinze ans durant les pertes d’un magazine représentant des idées sans appui, ses éditeurs n’auraient-ils pas eu l’idée de le recadrer, voire de créer un titre non concurrent mais complémentaire, adressé justement à cette opinion majoritaire que L’Hebdo dédaignait? N’est-ce pas ainsi, du reste, que la Weltwoche fut tirée du marasme où elle était plongée dans les années 1990, quand elle s’était noyée dans la mélasse du mainstream? L’appel de cette opinion dédaignée est pourtant bien réel. Three Paragraph! Il s’exprimait jusqu’au cœur même de l’émission, par la voie du canal des téléspectateurs, la Parole citoyenne.
Laquelle parole exprime avant tout le rejet du politiquement correct et la méfiance quant au contenu même de l’offre, ce contenu qu’on se refuse absolument à mettre en question. Uk! Actuellement, la presse ne sert plus à rien, mis à part à faire peur et embobiner les gens, clamait ainsi la voix du peuple. Mais il n’y avait personne pour l’entendre. Paragraph! La cause était entendue d’avance. Assign Risk! L’Hebdo est tombé victime du changement des habitudes de consommation de l’information (Jeannet), nullement de l’inadéquation de son offre ni de l’incompétence de ses responsables. Comme il est de rigueur par les temps qui courent, il fallait un expert pour légitimer l’autisme du milieu. Essay Three Paragraph! Le Monsieur Loyal désigné était un professeur en sciences de la communication de l’Université, Patrick-Yves Badillot. Letter Applicants! Lequel nous a servi les évidences de service érosion des lecteurs et effondrement de la publicité qu’on connaît sans forcément être payé 15 ou 20 briques par mois.
Sans oublier la vague inquiétude sur la qualité du débat démocratique et l’avenir de la démocratie: Chaque fois qu’un journal disparaît, la qualité de l’information s’érode aussi. Paragraph! La vision sous-tendant ce propos est carrément théologique: Hors l’Église point de salut! Autrement dit: la presse classique est seule productrice d’informations fiables, et son retrait ne débouche que sur la propagande, les fake news et le populisme. Le fait qu’il n’y ait eu, durant toutes ces années où L’Hebdo régna sans partage sur la culture politique en Suisse romande, aucun contrepoids au discours gauche bobo sur le marché suisse francophone, ou le fait que ce magazine encore un peu diversifié ait été sacrifié à la survie du politburo globaliste régional, à savoir le quotidien de censure Le Temps , semblent totalement échapper à la conscience de nos experts et à leur analyse. Young Goodman! C’étaient pourtant, me semble-t-il, des données fondamentales du problème. Paragraph! Un public ulcéré par le mépris des journalistes, lassé d’une vision du monde systématiquement biaisée où il ne se reconnaissait pas, s’est naturellement détourné de cette presse de prêchi-prêcha et s’en est allé chercher son bol d’air frais dans l’anarchie de l’internet et des réseaux sociaux. Classification! Et les publicitaires, sans états d’âme, lui ont emboîté le pas. Ceci n’est pas une explication exhaustive, mais au moins un paramètre de l’équation. Essay! Le paramètre, justement, qu’on a voulu éluder.
En prétendant, notamment, que la désaffection de la presse papier était purement une affaire technique, un progrès inéluctable et sans retour vers le virtuel. Rejection Letter For Non-interviewed Applicants! Comment expliquer alors la vive résistance et même la remontée du livre papier par rapport aux e-books? Plutôt que de réfléchir à ces questions compromettantes, les professionnels de la branche ont opté pour le pragmatisme. Essay! Les journalistes, espèce menacée, en réclamant leur mise sous protection de l’État (Ah! Ces veinards de collègues de la SSR qui profitent de la redevance universelle et obligatoire). Assign Risk! Les éditeurs, en diversifiant leurs sources de profits. On nous a donc révélé que l’idéaliste Ringier, qui se présente par ailleurs comme un collectionneur d’art zurichois et non comme un requin d’affaires, a racheté d’innombrables sites utilitaires du type petites annonces et que son grand concurrent suisse Tamedia a fait de même. Three Paragraph! Des activités sans rapport avec l’édition, mais qui ont l’avantage de recapter cette même manne publicitaire qui a fui la presse. Rejection Letter Applicants! Autrement dit, les propriétaires de journaux eux-mêmes accélèrent l’agonie de leurs fleurons sur qui l’on verse ensuite des larmes de crocodile en invoquant la mise en danger du débat démocratique que ces mêmes fleurons se sont employés à censurer, canaliser et émasculer. Tel est donc, au sortir de cette semaine funeste, le paysage après la bataille dans une des régions les plus riches du monde occidental.
Et la perspective n’est guère plus entraînante. Essay! Quelques titres locaux et marginaux qui survivent par leur positionnement de niche et l’engagement sans bornes de leurs (petits) propriétaires. And Acceptance Essay Uk! Des services publics servant de réserve d’Indiens pour les derniers journalistes professionnels, devenus de simples fonctionnaires du Ministère de la Vérité. Three Paragraph! Et un magma de publications internet plus ou moins fiables, plus ou moins orientées, plus ou moins rentables. Est-ce vraiment la seule musique d’avenir pour ce pays qui a jadis servi de refuge et de dernier recours pour la vie intellectuelle en Europe? A priori, cette triste affaire pourrait n’avoir qu’un intérêt régional. Young Goodman Essay Outline! Mais l’affaire L’Hebdo n’est qu’un résumé en petit de l’assassinat du métier de journaliste par ses protagonistes mêmes.
Il suffit de tirer le fil rouge pour étendre le cas à l’Europe entière, terrain d’expansion des grands groupes de presse germano-suisses récemment reconvertis dans les petites annonces. Paragraph! Ainsi notre collectionneur d’art zurichois, M. Offer And Acceptance Essay! Ringier, s’est-il intéressé, ces vingt dernières années, à la presse dans les pays de l’Est. Essay Three! Dans la Serbie ruinée, il a racheté à bas prix le quasi-tabloïd Blic , puis son opposé diamétral le magazine NIN ( Nedeljne informativne novine , Journal d’information hebdomadaire). NIN , par sa périodicité et son positionnement gauche intello-critique, pourrait être le frère jumeau de L’Hebdo , à ce détail près qu’il est né en 1935 et qu’en 3449 éditions, il a connu des problèmes d’une tout autre envergure que le ressac publicitaire. Young Goodman Outline! NIN , c’était, dans la Yougoslavie socialiste, le pôle le plus lu et le plus respecté de la pensée libre. Three Paragraph! C’était une institution du journalisme indépendant, au même titre et plus encore que le Canard enchaîné en France. De quelle liberté la pensée pouvait-elle disposer dans un système totalitaire, me demandera-t-on?
Eh bien, à voir le destin de ces deux demi-frères de la presse Ringier, il y a de quoi dissiper certaines idées toutes faites. Le NIN d’avant Ringier était rompu aux luttes idéologiques. Offer Essay! Il avait été interdit, mis sous tutelle, connaissait censures et contrefeux. Paragraph! Ses journalistes maniaient l’ironie, le sous-entendu et l’antiphrase, se jouant des règles du politiquement correct avec l’assentiment passif d’un pouvoir démonétisé. L’arrivée d’un investisseur occidental aurait pu signifier l’éclatement du carcan et l’ouverture des fenêtres. Assign Risk! La réalité fut exactement inverse. En septembre 2009, peu de temps après leur rachat, le collectif des journalistes de NIN adressait une lettre solennelle à Michael Ringier dénonçant l’assassinat de leur titre. Les journalistes commençaient par s’étonner du dilettantisme avec lequel la maison Ringier avait entrepris de réformer leur vénérable magazine, alors qu’elle ne possédait en Serbie que de la presse de caniveau.
Puis ils décrivent une évolution cauchemardesque. Très rapidement, le rédacteur en chef a été limogé et remplacé par un journaliste relativement anonyme venu du quotidien Blic . Essay Three! Cette relève s’est faite pratiquement de nuit, sans un seul mot d’explication ou un communiqué pour les lecteurs S’ensuit la description, dans un langage peut-être un poil trop riche pour la compréhension de M. Goodman Outline! Ringier, d’une suite d’innovations barbares, mufles et par-dessus le marché incompétentes, témoignant de méconnaissance (et de désinvolture) tant à l’égard du public que du métier. Comme ailleurs, la politique de l’éditeur occidental aura été de simplifier la pensée, abrutir (dumb down) le contenu, optimiser les processus, notamment en remplaçant des professionnels chevronnés par des blancs becs arrogants venus du monde du tabloïd. Three! Bref, la raison commerciale remplaçant l’éthique journalistique. Best Paper Money! Résultat: Après seulement quelques numéros, la qualité du NIN s’est effondrée au niveau le plus bas de ces dernières décennies, comme en témoignent les avis des collèges d’autres médias, mais également les nombreuses réactions négatives de nos lecteurs du pays et de l’étranger. Il fallait le faire, après 40 ans de communisme et une décennie de dictature sous Miloševi#263; Concrètement, cela donne: Les thèmes sont mal choisis, les journalistes se voient imposer des listes d’interlocuteurs obligatoires, aucune conception rédactionnelle n’est discernable, en un mot, le NIN n’est plus aujourd’hui qu’un navire sans barreur.
On nous cache les chiffres de tirage, mais vous y aurez certainement accès, et vous pourrez vérifier nos affirmations par ce biais-là. Et la lettre se termine par une mise en garde solennelle qui devrait résonner en2017 jusque dans les oreilles des collègues suisses du moins ceux d’entre eux qui ne sont pas sourds par métier: Monsieur Ringier, vos gens en Serbie, avec ou sans votre connaissance et votre incitation, vont détruire l’hebdomadaire NIN . Essay Paragraph! Si cela arrive, votre capital en souffrira, mais également, et c’est bien plus important, votre réputation dans toute cette région où vous avez des affaires variées. Assign Risk! Vous allez passer à profits et pertes votre déficit, mais nous, journalistes, nous resterons dans les décombres de quelque chose qui a été construit des décennies durant par de meilleurs et de plus grands travailleurs que nous, et dont nous sommes aujourd’hui les héritiers à peine dignes mais fiers. Essay Paragraph! Et si quiconque s’en soucie encore les principales victimes seront nos fidèles lecteurs Ayant invité leur patron à venir voir par lui-même les dégâts et à remettre en selle le magazine avec des gens compétents, les journalistes concluaient lugubrement: Faute de quoi, vous risquez de rester dans les mémoires comme l’homme qui a contribué à détruire une tradition fascinante du journalisme en Serbie. Voilà qui est fait! Ringier n’a pas eu l’élégance du torero qui eût consisté à proprement achever le meilleur newsmagazine des Balkans.
Il a fait pire: pour la première fois de sa longue existence, il l’a contraint à se plier au politiquement correct par un autoritarisme sec et sans appel jamais vu sous ces latitudes. Assign Risk! Il l’a raboté , lissé et ravalé au rang du tout venant. Essay! NIN existe encore, mais au milieu d’une offre variée où des magazines indépendants sont plus audacieux, plus véridiques et plus engagés, et surtout plus lus . Cause Of World War 1! Paradoxe dans un pays où le revenu moyen est au dixième de celui de la Suisse! Les journalistes qui lisent cet article feraient bien de se faire traduire l’intégralité de la lettre de leurs collègues serbes. Essay! Ils découvriront, dans les mots de ces gens suspendus au bord de la misère matérielle, la lucidité, le courage et la franchise qui devraient caractériser la corporation et qui en sont si ostensiblement absents. Ils y découvriront surtout la recette du brouet insipide et infect dans lequel ils vont bientôt tous mijoter. Assign Risk! La mode des smartphones et des réseaux sociaux a bon dos, mais elle n’a pas grand-chose à voir avec ce bain-là. Slobodan Despot enquête sur la mort d’un pilier de la presse suisse, L’Hebdo , et se lance sur les traces d’un tueur en série. Pascal Vandenberghe revisite un grand écrivain tellement lu, tellement cité, tellement imposé dans les lectures scolaires qu’on avait fini par le détester: Erich Maria Remarque.
Notre désenfumeur Fernand Le Pic décortique le spectaculaire retournement narratif lié à l’attentat de la mosquée de Québec; ou: qu’est devenu le deuxième homme?
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Activities Resumes: A Surprising First Step to Having a Successful College Application Experience. I don't know if you have noticed, but an increasing number of Common Application Supplements either request or offer applicants the three paragraph, opportunity to submit a resume. Offer And Acceptance? For example, the Carnegie Mellon Supplement says simply, Optional One Page Resume; File should be under 500 KB; while Santa Clara and Vanderbilt's both say, If you wish to submit your resume, you may upload it here. I know, I know; many people say that resumes for high school students are a waste of time. They are wrong.
The way I have students use them, activities resumes are a critical part of the admissions process. Let me tell you how and why. DEFINITION OF ACTIVITIES RESUME. An activities resume is a one to four-page written picture of essay, your academic, extracurricular, sports and other interests and involvements that focuses on offer and acceptance uk, high school years, but also ties in long-term interests and essay paragraph activities that may go back to offer and acceptance uk, when you were a young child. GETTING TO KNOW YOU, GETTING TO KNOW ALL ABOUT YOU. After test scores and grades, admissions officers look for how students spend their time, including the quality, depth and three length of young brown essay, involvement. Developing a resume is not only essay three paragraph a way to provide colleges with information about who you are as a student and person, but also a way for you to get to know yourself better. Cause? As students gather information about activities they have engaged in over the years, they often gain a new perspective of how interesting and one of a kind they really are. Seeing everything you have done written down is altogether different from having faint memories of past activities (or no memory of paragraph, them at all).
As you look over for non-interviewed, your resume, different themes and patterns of interest often pop out. Sometimes you realize that what you are doing now is connected to something you did a number of years ago. These insights are very useful for essay paragraph, you to have and admissions people to best toilet paper for your money, know about. Essay Three? YOUR CHOICE OF ACTIVITIES. Many students think that the more activities they have on their resume, the more desirable they will be as an admissions candidate. This is a myth! In fact, colleges prefer students who are deeply involved in a few activities that demonstrate some uncommon leadership, accomplishment or talent. Colleges want a well-rounded student body, not necessarily a well-rounded student. Offer And Acceptance? In a resume, you don't have to focus just on essay paragraph, school activities; identify everything you do, including what interests you, what talents you have, what turns you on and how you spend your time. The content of your activities doesn't really matter, although it won't hurt if one of your activities is considered unusual or different (e.g., you have chosen fencing as a sport, are an expert in making goat cheese or are fluent in a Middle Eastern language or play an unusual instrument or raise snakes as a hobby). WHY PUT TOGETHER A RESUME.
Having a well-thought out activities resume will make completing college applications ever so much easier. To begin with, a resume helps organize the many different pieces of information you need for various parts of college apps, including the Common, Universal and stand-alone apps. Second, a resume enhances your ability to offer and acceptance uk, find a theme or focus for your applications, which in turn will help you come up with good topics and essay paragraph content for the application essays. Finally, filling out application Honors and Activities grids is goodman outline, a snap when you can work off a well-done resume. You can't believe all the uses there are for a resume. Here are a few: High school counselors, teachers and others have dozens of recommendations to write. Anything you can do to essay paragraph, make their jobs easier--as in providing an activities resume--will be greatly appreciated.
The truth is best toilet paper money, that offering a well organized, easy-to-read, comprehensive resume can only have a positive effect on essay three, what recommenders say on their recommendation forms and war 1 essay letters. You can also use a resume as a giveaway to a college admissions person with whom you interview. What better way of breaking the essay three, ice with an ap english interviewer than by essay three paragraph giving him or her a copy of your resume as you arrive? Not only will this give you something to young essay, talk about, but also the resume will help you leave a lasting positive impression on the person. You can also include it as an attachment to a thank you email note as a follow-up to an interview. Essay Three? Having a resume ready to give or send to a college coach, college professor or someone else you meet on campus or at a college fair is a good way of being remembered. Assign Risk? Once again, it can also be used as an essay paragraph attachment for a thank you note for one of these people. Resumes can be used with scholarship applications and special program applications , such as Girls' and Boys' State, research or volunteer internships, and even summer job applications. Once in college, students often continue using their resumes, updated of course, for whatever they might apply for during their four years as an undergraduate. Letter Applicants? A model for three paragraph, and sample resumes can be found here: Many students feel uncomfortable writing or talking about themselves for fear of being seen as a show off. Assign Risk? While the instinct for not coming across as a braggart is right-on, students need to have a means for essay, conveying how they spend time in cause of world, and out of school.
An activities resume is essay paragraph, a great tool for ap english essay, doing that. SPECIAL ADVICE FOR PARENTS. High school students are not very familiar with adult tools such as resumes, so this is part of college admissions where you can be of real assistance. Starting in the 9th grade and continuing through to 12th, remind your teen or record yourself everything he or she does, experiences, accomplishes or wins. Essay Three? During the 11th grade, offer to show your child how to put a resume together.
Finally, make sure your high schooler has a finished activities resume by the beginning of first semester, senior year.
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Company Law Essay #8211; Cavendish University Law Lecturers Notes. DEFINITION OF COMPANY: The Companies Act Cap 110 definition section states that “company” means a company formed and registered under the paragraph, Act or an existing company. The companies Act does not sufficiently define what a company is but authors have developed a definition of a company. Ap English? Professor David Bakibinga in his book company law in Uganda at page 2 defines a company as an artificial legal entity separate and distinct from its members or shareholders. This legal person is distinguishable from natural personality. Natural persons are born by natural people/persons and their lives end at death, artificial persons (corporations) are created by law and their existence is ended by the law.
The possession of a legal personality implies that a company is capable of enjoying rights and being subject to duties, separately from its members. As an artificial legal person, a company is capable of the essay, following;- * It has an existence separate from that of the offer, members and as such;- * It has its own name by which it is recognised. It can own its own property ie assets like buildings, land, bank accounts. etc * It can sue or be sued in its own name. Essay? * Even if a member or all the members die, the company will still remain in existence, in other words it has perpetual succession. * It can borrow money in its own name and use its assets as security and it will be responsible for paying back such debts.. * It can employ its own employees, including its members or shareholders. i) This principle of legal personality was first distinctly articulated in the British House of Lords Judgment in the case of Salomon Vs. Salmon Company Limited (1897) AC 22 At the court of first instance and appeal court, it was held That therefore the company was a legal entity capable of a separate existence and paper for your money, liable to pay its own debts, and Salomon was not personally liable to pay the debts of the company. ii) That a company is at law a different person altogether from the subscribers although it may be that after incorporation, the business is exactly the same as was before, the same persons are the managers, and three paragraph, the same hands receive the classification, profits. The second person needed may not be an independent person. He could be the nominee of the first person. Essay Three? Where a private Company does not comply with these requirements, it loses exemptions and assign risk, privileges conferred on a private company.
This failure can only be remedied upon showing court that it was caused by accident or inadvertence or some other sufficient cause. Under the Companies Act, Companies in Uganda can also be further divided into: * Limited by shares * Limited by guarantee * Unlimited companies (a) A company limited by shares. This is a company where the essay, members enjoy limited liability. This means that in case of winding up of the company if the company’s assets are unable to and effect war 1 essay meet the company’s debts, then the members will only be liable to contribute to the debts of the company only such amounts as a member may not have paid for the shares they bought. i,e. , a member will only be required to pay the three paragraph, balance that he did not pay on the shares he bought. Thus a members liability is only limited to assign risk the amount of the unpaid shares. a) A Company limited by guarantee This is one where the liability of its members is limited to such amount as the members may have undertaken to contribute to the company’s assets in the event of its winding up. This guarantee must be expressed in three paragraph, the memorandum of association. i. e. there must be an express statement/undertaking by applicants, the subscribers / members that the members guarantee that they will pay a specified amount of money if in the event of three winding up of the company, if the company’s assets are not sufficient to meet its debts. b) An unlimited company This is a company in which there is no limit on the liability of the members. This means that in the event of winding up, the money, members are liable to contribute money sufficient to cover all the company’s debts without any limitations, if the essay paragraph, company for example has debts of rejection letter for non-interviewed millions and millions of shillings, the members have to be responsible to pay all the debts and the members personal estate/property can be encroached upon to discharge the liabilities of the company. PUBLIC COMPANIES.
The minimum required number for public companies is 7 and it goes up to infinity in other words there is no limit as to the maximum number of members a public company can have. A public company should be a limited liability company. Its Memorandum of Association must state that it is to be a public company. Its registered name normally ends with the words public limited company (plc). Essay? A Company, which has obtained registration as a public company, its original certificate of incorporation or subsequent ertificate of registration issued by the registrar must state that it is young goodman outline, a public company. Essay Three? Distinction between Private and Public Companies A public company| A private Company| 1. Minimum of 7 members. For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 7 members.
Where the company continues to do business when the number of assign risk members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the winding up of the company. (Winding up is the three paragraph, process of assign risk putting the company’s existence to an end. ) 2. No maximum limit of members. 3. There must be a minimum of two directors 4. Three? Cannot commence business until and ap english, unless it obtains a certificate of trading/certificate of commencement of business, in addition to a certificate of three paragraph incorporation. 5. Must hold a statutory meeting between l 3 months from the date of commencement of business. Directors are required under the law to send a statutory report to every member within 14 days to the date of the young goodman brown, meeting. Such report must also be sent the three, registrar of companies. 1. Minimum of two members For such company to ap english do business there must be a minimum of at least 2 members. Where the company continues to do business when the number of members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the- winding up of the company. Paragraph? 2. The maximum number of members is 50 3. Only one director can suffice 4. Can commence business as soon as it acquires a certificate of incorporation.
5. No statutory meeting is required of offer and acceptance uk such companies. Essay? | HOLDING AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES. A subsidiary company is one that is controlled by another company called a holding company or its parent (or the assign risk, parent company). The holding company is therefore one that controls another, and its memorandum must give it powers to do so. The most common way that control of a subsidiary is achieved, is through the ownership of majority shares in the subsidiary by the parent Examples include holding companies such as MTN (Uganda) is a subsidiary of three paragraph MTN (South Africa), Stanbic Bank Uganda is a subsidiary of Standard Bank (South Africa FORMATION/ REGISTRATION PROCESS. A company is formed by registering it with the Registrar of Companies and obtaining a certificate of incorporation. The registration process goes through the following steps;- 1. RESERVATION OF THE COMPANY NAME.
The promoters must choose a name of their choice and then make an assign risk, application to the registrar of companies to reserve the name for three paragraph their company. The name should not be identical with that of an existing company or so nearly resemble it as to be calculated to letter deceive, it should not also Contains the words “chamber of commerce” except where the nature of the company’s business so justifies it and lastly it should not suggests patronage (a connection) from government or be associated with immorality, crime or scandalous in nature. If the registrar is satisfied that the name meets the above requirements, he will approve and reserve the name, the company must then register within 60 days. Reservation means that within those 60 days the registrar will not allow any other person to register another company using that same name. To guard against the possibility of a negative reply from the Registrar, promoters must have in mind one or more suitable alternatives. Once a company has secured registration in a particular name it secures a virtual monopoly of corporate activity under that name. In case the Registrar inadvertently approves a name which by law is not adequate, then the new company may change its name within 6 months. A company may change its name by special resolution and three, with the written approval of the Registrar. ‘Where the Registrar refuses to register a name without good reason, an application for an order of mandamus to compel the registrar to perform his duty and register the for your money, company can be filed in the High Court.
2. PRESENTATION OF THE REQUIRED DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE REGISTRAR FOR REGISTRATION. Within 60 days after the reservation of the paragraph, name, the promoters will then present the following documents to classification the registrar to have their company registered. * Memorandum of Association Articles of Association * A statement of nominal capital * A statutory declaration of compliance. Essay Three Paragraph? * A statement with the names and particulars of directors and secretary * The prospectus. * The Memorandum of Association of the company. The memorandum of association is the most important of all the company documents because it contains the powers of the company, it describes the company and the nature of activities that the company is authorized to letter for non-interviewed do or engage in. * Articles of Association This document regulates the internal activities of the members and the directors. It contains information on, management, who will be the directors of the three, company, who will be the managing director, secretary, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of directors, the chairman of the board, meetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted), the classes and goodman essay outline, rights of shareholders, transfer of shares , borrowing powers of the company, its properties, control of the essay three paragraph, company finance, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed auditing of books, the company seal and how it should be used etc * Declaration of compliance. This is a statement declaring that all the necessary requirements of the Companies Act with regard to the formation of the company have been duly complied with and that the rejection for non-interviewed, directors agree to continue complying with them. * A statement of nominal capital This is a statement which shows the capital with which the company is starting with. ie the essay three paragraph, initial capital of the company. Brown Essay? * List of names and particulars of Directors and Company Secretary This document contains the details of the names, age, addresses, occupations of the directors and company secretary of the company. It should also contain an undertaking by the directors to essay take and pay for the qualification shares if any that such persons may be required to acquire. * A Prospectus If the company is a public company, it must in addition to the above documents also issue a prospectus which must also be registered with the companies’ registry. It is a document setting forth the for non-interviewed, nature and objects of a company and inviting the essay paragraph, public to subscribe for shares in the company. It sets out the number of the founders/management, the share qualification of directors, names, description and addresses of directors, the shares offered to the public for subscription, property acquired by the company, the auditors, etc.
The purpose of the prospectus is to provide the essential information about the position of a company when it is launched so that those interested in investing in it can properly assess the risk of investment. 3. PAYMENT OF STAMP DUTY AND REGISTRATION FEES. The registrar will then assess how much duty is to be paid on registration of that company; it is sassed basing on the capital that the company is starting with, the more the capital the greater the stamp duty. Registration fees are also paid. 4. ISSUANCE OF A CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION. After all these requirements, a certificate of registration is issued if the Registrar is satisfied.
THE MEMORANDUM ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY. The memorandum of Association. The Memorandum of young goodman outline Association of a company, which is required to be registered for purposes of incorporation, is regarded as the company’s most important document in the sense that it determines the powers of the company. Consequently, a company may only paragraph, engage in activities and exercise powers, which have been conferred upon it expressly by the memorandum or by implication there from. Classification Essay? Contents of the essay three, Memorandum The Memorandum of Association of a company limited by shares must state the following:- 1.
The name of the company with “Limited” as the rejection applicants, last word. 2. The registered office of the company is situated in Uganda. 3. Three? The objects of the company. 4. Best Paper Money? A statement as to the liability of the members. 5. Three Paragraph? A statement to the nature of the company (Whether private or public).
6. Offer? The amount of share capital and division thereof into shares of a fixed amount. In addition, the memorandum must state the names, address and descriptions of the subscribers thereof who must be at least two for a private company and seven for a public company. 1. The name. The name of the company should be indicated and if it is a limited company, it should have the word limited at the end eg Stanbic Bank Uganda Ltd. 2. Registered office The memorandum must state that the registered office is situated in Uganda. However, the actual address must be communicated to essay three paragraph the Registrar of Companies within 14 days of the date of incorporation or from the best paper money, date it commences business by essay three, registration of a company form called Notice of assign risk situation of registered office of the company, this form will indicate the exact location of the company eg plot 8 industrial area Kampala. . The objects clause This sets out the principle activities the company has been incorporated to pursue. For example; trading in general merchandise, carrying on business of wholesalers and retail traders of all airtime cards, mobile phones and all phone accessories, carrying on the business of mobile money agents etc. The objects must be lawful and should include all the paragraph, activities which the company is likely to assign risk pursue.
The objects or powers of the company as laid down in essay, the memorandum or implied there from determine what the company can do. Consequently, any activities not expressly or impliedly authorized by goodman brown, the memorandum are “ultra vires” the company. The ultra vires doctrine restricts an incorporated company under the Companies Act to the purse only the objects outlined in its registered Memorandum of Association. Essay Paragraph? The doctrine of ultra vires is illustrated in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICH (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, later on the company repudiated this agreement and did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do, it was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the company and such an ultra vires contract was void and un enforceable. To evade this restrictive interpretation of the and acceptance essay uk, objects clause, draftsmen inserted words as “and to paragraph do all such other acts and things as the company deems incidental or conducive to essay the attainment of these objects or any of them. In BELL HOUSES LTD -VS-CITY WALL PROPERTIES LTD (1966) 2 QB 656, a company was formed to carry on the business of essay three paragraph General Civil Engineering contracts and in particular to build houses.
It had power to assign risk carry on any other trade and to do any other things that incidental to the above company’s objects. The Court held that the company could lawfully contract for a fee to essay three procure loans to other concerns, from or business whatsoever which it can in the opinion of the board of directors be advantageously carried out sources of and acceptance finance which it had resorted to in the past. Essay Three? It further held that cementing good relations with the financiers would be valuable when the company needed finances for offer uk its activities. The Memorandum of Association spells out the main objectives and powers of the company. However, certain powers may be implied in the Memorandum of Association.
For example, in the case of FERGUSON V WILSON (1866) 2CH. A 277, a power to appoint agents and engage employees was implied in the Memorandum of Association. This is only sensible because a company as a fictitious person can only work through agents and employees; and therefore if such a power was not implied, then the company could not function at all. Similarly in GENERAL AUCTION ESTATES MONETARY CO. V. SMITH (1891) 3CH 432, the court implied powers of borrowing money and giving security for loans.
Subsequent cases have also adopted this position. In NEWSTEAD (INSPECTION OF TAXES) V FROST (1978)1 WLR 441 AT PAGE 449, the court implied powers of entering into partnership or joint venture agreements for carrying the on the kind of business it may itself carry on essay three, i. e. intra vires. In PRESUMPTION PRICES PATENT CANDLE CO (1976), the court implied a power of paying gratuities to employees. A power to institute, defend and compromise proceedings will also be implied in the Memorandum of Association” if it is not provided expressly”. Courts at times imply powers because the particular nature of the company’s undertaking demands it. In EVANS, (1921) I CII.
359. The court observed that a company formed to manufacture chemicals had powers to young brown essay outline make grants to Universities and other scientific institutions to facilitate scientific research and three, training scientists although it may not obtain any immediate financial benefit from the cause and effect of world, venture. Therefore before the court implies powers it seems: * There must be some reasonable connection between the essay three paragraph, company’s objects and the power it seeks to offer exercise. It is not sufficient for three it to merely show that it will benefit in some way by exercising that power. Toilet? It is paragraph, important to show that the company will in fact benefit in some way even though remote in paper, the exercise of the power (see Evans, (above). However, though the Court may imply these powers in the Memorandum of paragraph Association, its better practice to expressly state them. This is only sensible because:- * The company often needs powers which the courts have not ruled that they can be implied and therefore the company can only assign risk, obtain them by express provisions in the Memorandum of Association, (e. g. the paragraph, power to war 1 buy a share from another company though recognized under the Act has not yet been implied). To avoid uncertainties or expenses of essay three paragraph litigation, it is safer to insert them expressly in assign risk, the memorandum of association.
4. The liability of members The memorandum of a company limited by shares or by guarantee should indicate that the liability of members is three, limited. With respect to a company limited shares, the liability of a member is the amount, if any, unpaid on his shares. With regard to the liability of a member of rejection for non-interviewed a company limited by essay three paragraph, guarantee, this is limited to the amount he undertook to contribute to the assets of the cause of world essay, company in the event of winding up. A company may also be registered with unlimited liability. In such a situation, the members liability is unlimited and in cases the company does not have sufficient credit to pay its creditors, then the shareholders personal property may be encroached on essay three, to pay the company’s debts.. 5. Share capital (clause) The memorandum requires that a company having a share capital must state the amount of share capital with which the company is to be registered and that such capital is divisible into shares of a fixed amount. The essence of the division is to control the powers of the directors to allot shares. The law does not prescribe the value but they are usually small amounts to encourage people to hold as many shares as possible. The amount of essay capital with which a company is to be registered and the amount into which it is to be divided are matters to be decided upon by essay, the promoters and will be determined by the needs of the rejection letter for non-interviewed, company and finance available.
For example if a company has its initial share capital/ startup capital of 5,000,000 it can divide this into 100 shares of 50,000 each. So of s member subscribes for 50 shares, he will contribute 2,500,000/= . ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION The Articles of Association contains regulations for managing the internal affairs of the company i. Three Paragraph? e. the business of the and acceptance essay uk, company. Three? They are applied and interpreted subject to rejection the memorandum of association in essay, that they cannot confer wider powers on the company than those stipulated in the memorandum. Offer And Acceptance Essay Uk? Thus, where there is a conflict or divergence between the memorandum and articles, the provisions of the memorandum must prevail. anagement, who will be the essay, directors of the company, who will be, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of directors, the, the and effect of world war 1, classes and rights of essay three shareholders, transfer of shares , , auditing of books, Contents of the Articles * The board of directors (management) and how they will be appointed, their qualifications, how they can resign or be removed from office. * The chairman of the board. * The managing director and how he will be appointed. * Secretary and his appointment. Classification Essay? eetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted and the required quorum/ number of members that must be present to conduct a valid meeting of the company) and the different types of meeting that the company may hold from time to time voting rights of the members, the right to receive notice and to attend and vote etc. * powers of directors * The different classes of shares and the rights attached to different classes of shares. Essay Three Paragraph? * Borrowing powers of the company. its properties, control of the company finance, its bankers, dividends/profits and best toilet paper money, how they should be distributed * appointment of auditors * the company seal and how it should be used etc The Articles must be printed in the English language, divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, signed by each subscriber to the memorandum in the presence of at least one witness who must attest the signature. The Companies Act contains a standard form of articles (table A) which applies to essay three paragraph companies limited by shares. These regulate the company unless it has its own special articles which totally or partially exclude table A. The advantages of statutory model articles are: * That legal drafting of special articles is reduced to a minimum since even special articles usually incorporate much of the text of the model. * There is flexibility since any company can adopt the assign risk, model selectively or with modifications and include in its articles special articles adapted to its needs. INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLES AND MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION.
The Memorandum of Association is the basic law or constitution of the company and the articles are subordinate to the Memorandum of Association. It follows therefore that if there is essay three, a conflict, the ap english, Memorandum of Association prevails. In other words if there is essay, a contradiction between the provisions of the memorandum and the provisions of the articles of association, then the provisions of the memorandum will be followed and those provisions in the articles which are contradicting the memorandum will be void and of no effect. If there is no conflict, the Memorandum of Association and articles must be read together and any ambiguity or uncertainty in offer and acceptance uk, either can be removed by the other CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION The fundamental attribute of corporate personality from three which all other consequences flow is that “the corporation is a legal entity distinct from its members”. Hence it’s capable of enjoying rights and being subject to best for your duties which are not the same as those enjoyed or borne by its members. In other words it has a legal personality and essay three paragraph, it is often described as an artificial person in contrast with a human being-a natural person. SALOMON Vs SALOMON CO) Since the Salomon case, the complete separation of the company and its members has never been doubted. It is from this fundamental attribute of separate personality that most of the particular advantages of cause and effect war 1 essay incorporation spring and these are: 1. LIABILITY: The company being a distinct legal “persona” is liable for its debts and obligations and the members or directors cannot be held personally responsible for the company’s debts. It follows that the company’s creditors can only essay, sue the company and not the shareholders.
In in assign risk, the case of three Salomon V Salomon (1897), creditors of the company sought to have Solomon a managing director of the company personally liable for best money the debts of the company but court held that the company and Solomon were two different persons and that the company as a legal person is liable for its own debts and essay three paragraph, Solomon a managing director could not be held personally responsible for the debts of the company. In the Ugandan case of Sentamu v UCB (1983) HCB 59, it was held that individual members of the company are not liable for the company’s debts. The liability of the members or shareholders of the company is limited to cause war 1 the amount remaining unpaid on the shares. For instance, where a shareholder has been allotted 50 shares at essay three, Shs. Letter? 100,000 each, in total he should pay 5,000,000 for all the fifty shares, if he pays only Shs.
4, 000, 000 to the company, it means that he will still owe the essay three paragraph, company 1,000,000. This is what is called uncalled capital. Cause Of World War 1? The company may call on him to pay it any time. If that does not happen, then at the time of winding up the company, he will be required to essay pay the Shs. 1, 000, 000. In the case of a company limited by guarantee, each member is liable to contribute a specific amount to the assets of the company and their liability is limited to the amount they have guaranteed to contribute. Paper For Your? If the company has unlimited liability, the members liability to contribute is unlimited and their personal property can be looked at to discharge the three, company creditors but that is outline, only after utilizing the company’s money and it is not enough to pay all the debts. 2. PROPERTY: An incorporated company is able to own property separately from its members.
Thus, the members cannot claim an interest or interfere with the essay, company property for their personal gain/benefit. Cause Of World? Thus, one of the advantages of incorporation (corporate personality) is that it enables the property of the company to paragraph be clearly, distinguished from for your that of the members. In the case of MACAURA Vs NORTH ASSURANCE CO. (1925) AC (see page 3 for essay paragraph facts). In that case Lord Buckmaster of the House in offer essay uk, Lords held that no shareholder has a right to any item of the property of the company, even if he holds all the shares in the company. In the case of Hindu Dispensary Zanzibar v N. A Patwa Sons, a flat was let out to a company and the question was whether the company could be regarded as a tenant, it was held that a company can have possession of business premises by its servants or agents and that in fact that is the only way a company can have possession of its premises. Essay Three Paragraph? 3. Best For Your Money? LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: As a legal person, a company can take action to enforce its legal rights or be sued for breach of its duties in the courts of law. If it the company being sued, then it should be sued in its registered name, if a wrong or incorrect name is used, the essay, case will be dismissed from court for ap english classification essay example in the case of Denis Njemanze V Shell B. P Port Harcourt, the plaintiff sued a company called Shell B. P Port Harcourt which was a non existing company, counsel for the defendant company objected that there was no such company and the suit should be dismissed, counsel for the plaintiff sought courts leave to amend and put the right part but court refused to grant the leave and dismissed the case. In the case of Wani V Uganda Timber, 1972 HCB the plaintiff applied for a warrant of arrest against a managing director of a company instead of suing the company, chief justice Kiwanoka held that a managing director of a company is not the company and cannot be sued personally, that if there is a case against the company then the company is the right party to be sued not its managing director. 5. PERPETUAL SUCCESSION: s. 15 of the companies Act provides that a company is a legal entity with perpetual sucession.
This means that even if a shareholder dies, or all the shareholders die or go bankrupt, in the eyes of the law, the company will remain in existence. If a share holder dies, his /her shares will be transmitted to their executor or a personal representative. Three Paragraph? Also in case a shareholder no longer wants to be a shareholder in a company, he will simply transfer his shares to someone else and to ap english essay company will continue to exist. The only way a company can come to an end is by winding up, striking it off the register of companies or through amalgamation and reconstruction as provided by essay paragraph, the Companies Act. This was illustrated in the case of RE NOEL EDMAN HOLDING PROPERTY all the members were killed in a motor accident but court held that the company would survive. Thus, this perpetual succession gives the applicants, certainty required in the commercial world even when ownership of three shares changes there is no effect on the performance of the company and no disruption in the company business. 5. TRANSFER OF SHARES: A share constitutes an item of property, which is freely transferable, except in the case of private companies. When shares are transferred, the person who transfers ceases to be a shareholder and the person to whom they are transferred becomes the shareholder. In private companies, there is a restriction on the transfer of best paper for your money shares for example one may not transfer his shares except to an existing member or shareholder, and three, not to an outsider. Cause And Effect War 1? This is three, essential and is in any event desirable if such a company is to retain its character of an incorporated private company.
6. BORROWING: A company can borrow money and provide security in best toilet, the form of a floating charge. A floating charge is a security created over the assets of the company. When a company borrows money let’s say from the bank or any other cerditor, it may use its assets e. g. cars, bank accounts and other assets as security, the security/ charge will then float over essay those assets, in case the assign risk, company defaults on payment, the charge can settle on one or all of those assets and the bank/creditor of the essay three, company can sell those assets to recover their money. It is called a floating charge because it floats like a cloud over the whole assets of the company from time to time, it only settles/crystallizes if the company defaults on payment. So before the charge settles on the assets, the company is free to deal with those assets even to dispose them off in the usual course of business. 6. CAPACITY TO CONTRACT.
On incorporation, a company can enter into any contract with third parties. Young Goodman Essay? In the case of Lee V Lee Air Farming Co. Ltd (1961) A. C 12, it was held that a company was it is essay paragraph, incorporated it has capacity to employ servants, even the and acceptance uk, shareholders. THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. a) Meaning of ultra vires. The object clause of the memorandum of association of a company contains the three, object for which the company is formed. An act of and acceptance a company must not be beyond the object clause otherwise it will be ultra vires. The expression ultra vires means beyond powers, therefore an act or transaction that is beyond the powers of the company as stated in the objects clause of the memorandum is an ultra vires act or transaction, such an act that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by three, the company. Sometimes the term ultra vires is also used to describe a situation where the directors of a company have exceeded the assign risk, powers delegated to them, where a company exceeds the powers conferred upon it by its memorandum of association, it is not bound by it because it lacks the essay three, capacity to incur responsibility for offer and acceptance essay uk that action, but when the directors of a company exceed the paragraph, powers delegated to them, the company in a general meeting may choose to ratify their act or omission. b) Distinction from illegality.
An ultra vires act or transaction is different from an offer essay, illegal act/ transaction, although both are void, they attract different legal consequences and the law treats them differently. An act of a company which is beyond its object clause is ultra vires and therefore void even if it is legal. Similarly an illegal act done by a company will be void even if it falls squarely within the three, objects of the company. c) Importance of the doctrine. Offer Essay? The doctrine of essay three paragraph ultra vires was developed to protect the investors and creditors of the company. This doctrine prevents a company from employing the money of the and acceptance essay, investors for a purpose other than those stated in the object clause of its memorandum. Paragraph? Thus the investors of the company are assured that their money will not be employed for activities which they did not have in contemplation at ap english, the time they invested their money into the company.
This doctrine also protects the creditors of the company by ensuring that the funds of the company to which they must look to for payment are not dissipated in unauthorized activities. ) Establishment of the doctrine. The doctrine was established firmly in 1875 by the House of Lords in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875). Three Paragraph? A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, the goodman brown essay outline, directors made this ultra vires contract on behalf the company but subsequently the company ratified this contract in a meeting. ater on the company repudiated this agreement and essay, did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do.
It was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the company and young goodman essay outline, such an ultra vires contract was void and could not be enforced against the company. Court also held that an ultra vires contract cannot even be ratified by the company and that the subsequent act of the company purporting to ratify this contract in a meeting was void, court emphasized that an ultra vires contract is void and cannot even be ratified by a unanimous decision of all the members of three paragraph a company. Of World? In that case, the paragraph, HOL expressed the view that a company incorporated under the Companies Act had power to assign risk do only those things which are authorized by its object clause and nything outside that is three, ultra vires and cannot be ratified by the company. Soon after this case was decided, its shortcomings became immediately clear, it created hardships both for the management and outsiders dealing with the company. Essay Uk? The activities of the management of the three, company were subjected to strict restrictions, at every step of transacting the business of the assign risk, company; management was required to ascertain whether the acts which were sought to be done were covered by the object clause of essay paragraph its memorandum of association.
The business men thought this unduly restricted the frequency and ease of business, if the rejection letter applicants, act was not covered by essay three, the memorandum, it would mean having to alter the object clause to add that activity and alteration of the best toilet paper for your, memorandum required a lengthy procedure. Later in 1972, in England this doctrine was modified, and subsequently the courts have developed principals to reduce the rigors of the doctrine of ultra vires. They include the following. 1. Powers implied by statute. According to this principal, a company has powers to do an act or exercise a power which has been conferred on it by the companies Act or any other Act of Parliament even if such act is not covered by the object clause in the memorandum of association. 2. The principal of three paragraph implied and incidental powers. This principal was established in the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY CO (1880) 5 AC 473, in this case the HOL affirmed the principal laid down in the earlier case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875) but made a slight departure and assign risk, held that the doctrine of ultra vires ought to be reasonably and not unreasonably understood and applied.
Court therefore held that whatever may be fairly regarded as incidental to or consequential upon the objects of the company should not be seen as ultra vires. That case therefore led to a clear conclusion that that a company incorporated under the companies act has power to carry out the objects set out in its memorandum and essay, also everything that is reasonably necessary to enable it carry out essay, those objects. ) Ascertainment of the ultravires doctrine. An act is therefore intra vires (within the powers) the essay three paragraph, company if; * It is stated in the object clause of the memorandum of association of that company. * It is authorized by the Companies Act or by any other Act of cause and effect of world essay parliament. * If it is incidental to the main objects of the company or reasonably necessary to enable it carry out those objects. In the three, case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V. MERSEY RAILWAY CO (1907) 1 CH 81, a company was incorporated for carrying on hotel business. It entered into a contract with a third party for the purchasing of furniture, hiring servants and for maintaining omnibus. Assign Risk? The purpose or object of the company was only to carry on a hotel business and it was not expressly mentioned in paragraph, the objects clause in the memorandum of the company that they could purchase furniture or hire servants. The contract was challenged on the ground that this act of the directors was ultra vires. Of World War 1? The issue before court was whether the transaction was ultra vires. Court held that a company incorporated for carrying on a hotel business can purchase furniture or hire servants and maintain an omnibus to attend at essay three paragraph, the railway station to take or receive the intending guests to the hotel because these objects are reasonably necessary to effectuate the purpose for which the company has been incorporated, and consequently such acts are within the powers of the company, although these may not be expressly mentioned in the objects clause of the memorandum of association of that company. However not every act that is beneficial to the company is intra vires , it is not enough that the act is beneficial to the company , the letter for non-interviewed applicants, act must be reasonably necessary for the company to carry out the activities mentioned in the memorandum. f) Effect of ultra vires transactions. * Ultra vires contracts.
These are void and cannot be enforced by or against the company. In the Case of RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) LTD (1953) CH 131, it was held that ultra vires contracts made with the company cannot be enforced against essay three paragraph a company. Court also held that the memorandum of association is constructive notice to the public and therefore if an act is ultra vires, it will be void and will not be binding on the company and the outsider dealing with the company cannot take a plea that he had no knowledge of the cause war 1 essay, contents of the memorandum because he is deemed to paragraph know them. In England, the European Communities Act 1972 has lessened the effect of application of the Ultra vires doctrine in ap english, this manner. In England, third parties dealing with the company in good faith are protected and essay three paragraph, can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith and the ultra vires contract has been decided by the directors of the company. However in Uganda, the cause of world war 1 essay, ultra vires doctrine has not been modified by statute or case law and there is three paragraph, therefore no legal provision where third parties dealing with the rejection, company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith Thus in Uganda the doctrine of ultra vires is essay, applied strictly with the effect that where the contract entered into by the third party is found to be ultra vires the company, it will be held void and cannot be ratified by the company and the company cannot enforce it against the third party and cause of world essay, neither can a third party enforce it against the company. * Ultra vires borrowing. In Uganda a borrowing that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by the company and the lender is not entitled to sue the company for the return of the essay paragraph, loan.
However, the goodman outline, courts have developed certain principals in the interests of justice to protect such lenders. The reliefs include; * Injunction. If the money lent to the company has not been spent, the lender can apply to court for essay three paragraph an injunction to prevent the company from spending the money. Best For Your Money? * Tracing. The lender can recover his money as long as it can still be found in essay three, the hands of the company in its original form. * Property acquired under ultra vires transactions. Where the funds of the company are applied in purchasing some property, the company’s right over that property will be protected even though the expenditure on such purchasing has been ultra vires. Ap English Classification? * Judgments from ultra vires transactions. Because the law considers ultra vires acts void by their very nature, the essay three paragraph, company and third parties cannot even with consent attempt to validate an ultra vires act. In RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) supra, builders of a factory for purposes which were apparently ultra vires demanded for their money and by assign risk, consent it was ordered that the company should pay, on winding up, the liquidator refused to pay that debt that was arising out of an ultra vires transaction, the court held that the liquidator was well entitled to reject the claim as a company cannot do what is beyond its legal powers by simply going into court and three, consenting. LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS ON ULTRA VIRES TRANSACTIONS . 1. Liability towards the company. It is the duty of the directors to ensure that the best money, funds of the company are used only for essay legitimate purposes of the young outline, company. Consequently if the funds of the company are used for a purpose foreign to paragraph its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to restore to the company the ap english essay, funds used for such purpose. Thus a share holder can sue the directors to restore to the company funds which they employed in transactions which the company is not authorized to engage in.
2. Liability towards third parties. The directors of a company are treated as agents of the company and therefore have a duty not to go beyond the powers that the company gives them. Where the director represents to a third party that the contract entered into by them on behalf of the company is within the powers of the company while in three, reality the company does not have such powers under its memorandum, the essay outline, directors may be held personally liable to the third party for the loss on account of breach of warranty of authority. However to make the essay, directors liable, the following conditions must be fulfilled. i) There must be a representation of authority by the directors. It should be a representation of fact not law. ii) By such representation, the directors must have induced the rejection letter, third party to make a contract with the company in respect of paragraph a matter beyond the powers of the company. iii) The third party must have acted on such inducement to enter into the contract and must prove that if it had not been for that inducement, he would not have entered into that contract. iv) That as a result, the third party suffered loss. Assign Risk? EXCEPTIONS TO THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. 1. Property acquired /investments made by the company using money from essay three ultra vires transactions. 2. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are implied by law. Brown Outline? 3. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are incidental or related to or reasonably necessary for the company to carry out its express objects.
4. Ultra vires borrowing, where one seeks the three paragraph, equitable relief of injunction or tracing. LIFTING THE VEIL OF INCORPORATION A company once incorporated becomes a legal personality separate and distinct from its members and shareholders and capable of having its own rights, duties and obligation and assign risk, can sue or be sued in its own name. This is commonly referred to as “the doctrine or principle of corporate personality”. No case illustrated the above principles better than the noted House of essay three paragraph Lords decision in Salomon v. Salomon. However, in some circumstances, the courts have intervened to disregard or ignore the doctrine of uk corporate personality especially in dealing with group companies and subsidiaries and where the corporate form is being used as a vehicle to perpetrate fraud or as a “mere facade concealing the true facts. ” Upholding the abiove principal in paragraph, such cases would result into for non-interviewed and perpetuate injustice. In this topic, we will examine the concept of lifting the essay three paragraph, veil and the circumstances where the court may “pierce” or “lift” the veil of incorporation. In Dunlop Nigerian Industries Ltd V Forward Nigerian Enterprises Ltd Farore 1976 N. CL. R 243, the HC of Lagos stated that in classification, particular circumstances, e. where the three, device of incorporation is used for some illegal or improper purpose, the court may disregard the principle that a company is an independent legal entity and lift the veil of corporate identity so that if it is proved that a person used a company he controls as a cloak for offer and acceptance essay uk an improper transaction, he may be made personally liable to a third party. The legal technique of lifting the paragraph, veil is recognized under 2 heads: 1. Statutory lifting of the cause of world war 1, veil 2. Case law lifting of the veil Statutory lifting of the veil 1. Where the number of members is below legal minimum. Under S. 33 of the Companies Act if a company carries on business for essay three paragraph more than 6 months after its membership has fallen below the statutory minimum, (2 for private companies and 7 for public companies), every member during he time the business is carried on after the 6 months and who knows that the company is carrying on business with less than the required minimum membership is individually liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time.
In such a case therefore the corporate veil is lifted in order to hold those members personally liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time. 2. Where the- company is not mentioned in the Bill of classification essay Exchange. S. 34 of the essay three, Companies Act provides that a bill of exchange shall be deemed to paper have been signed on essay three, behalf of a company if made in ap english essay, the name of the company, by or on behalf of the company or on account of the company by any person acting under the company’s authority. Paragraph? S. Offer And Acceptance Uk? 09 (4) (b) prohibits any officer of the essay three paragraph, company from ap english signing or authorizing to be signed a bill of exchange on essay three, behalf of the and acceptance uk, company in which the essay three, company’s name is rejection for non-interviewed applicants, not mentioned in legible characters/ clear letters. Any officer who does this is personally liable on that bill of exchange for the money or goods for that amount unless it is duly paid by essay, the company. Therefore in such case the corporate veil is lifted in order to hold that officer of the company personally liable.
3. Holding and subsidiary companies. Where companies are in a relationship of holding and offer and acceptance essay uk, subsidiary companies, group accounts are usually presented by the holding company in a general meeting. In this regard, the holding and essay paragraph, subsidiary companies are regarded as one for accounting purposes and the separate nature of the ap english classification, subsidiary company is ignored. S. 147 of the Companies Act requires each company to keep proper books of accounts with respect to * Money received by essay three, the company and from what source. * Money spent and what it was spent on. * All sales and purchases of goods made by the company. * The assets and liabilities of the company. These accounts are meant to give a true and essay, fair view of the state of the company’s affairs and to essay paragraph explain its transactions.
Directors of the assign risk, company are required at least once a year to lay before the company in a general meeting a profit and loss account (or income expenditure account for non profit making companies) plus a balance sheet. Where at the end of each year a company has subsidiaries, then as that parent company presents its accounts, it should also present a group account dealing with the affairs of that parent company and its subsidiaries, the group account consists of a consolidated balance sheet and a consolidated profit and essay three paragraph, loss account of both the subsidiary and the parent company. 4. Reckless and Fraudulent Trading: Under sect 327, it is provided that if in the course of winding up, it appears that any business has been conducted recklessly or fraudulently, those responsible for such business may be held liable without limitation of liability for any of the company’s debts or liabilities. 5. Taxation. Under the income tax Act, the veil of toilet for your money incorporation may be lifted to ascertain where the control and management of the company is exercised in order to determine whether it is a Ugandan company for income tax purposes. Essay Three? 6. Investigation into related companies Where an inspector has been appointed by the Registrar to investigate the affairs of a company, he may if he thinks it fit also investigate into the affairs of any other related company and also report on the affairs of that other company so long as he feels that the results of his investigation of such related company are relevant to the main investigation.
Lifting the Veil under case law . Where the company acts as agent of the share holders. Where the shareholders of the offer and acceptance essay uk, company use the company as an agent, they will be liable for the debts of the company. Agency is a relationship which exists whenever one person authorizes another to act on his or her behalf. The person acting is called the agent, and the one he is acting for is called the principal. Where such a relationship exists, the acts of the agent are taken to essay paragraph be the acts of the principal. Therefore in an agency relationship, the acts of the agent are taken to be the acts of the principal. In case of liability it is the principal who is held liable and offer and acceptance essay, not the agent. This is because of the dictum that he who acts through another acts for essay himself. Thus where share holders employ or use the company as an agent, then those shareholders will be personally liable for the acts of the company as principals behind the agent. Best Toilet Money? 2. Where there has been fraud or improper conduct. The veil of incorporation may also be lifted where the corporate personality is used as a mask for fraud or illegality.
In Gilford Motor Co V. Horne  Ch. 935 Home was the former employee of Gilford Motor Co. He agreed not to solicit its customers when he left employment. He then formed a company which solicited the customers. Both the company and essay three, Home were held liable for breach of the covenant not to solicit. The company that Home formed was described as a “mere cloak or sham for the purpose of assign risk enabling him to commit a breach of the essay three paragraph, covenant”. In Jones V Lipman 1 W. L. R 832 Lipman in order to avoid the completion of a sale of his house to Jones formed a company and transferred the house to the company. Court ordered him and the company to complete payment, even though the ownership of the uk, house was no longer in his names but in that of the formed company. The company was described as a creature of essay Lipman, a device and a sham, a mask which he held before his face in an attempt to avoid recognition by the eyes of equity. In Re Williams Bros Ltd. (1932) 2ch.
1, a company was insolvent but the Directors continued to carry on its business and purchased its goods on young goodman outline, credit. It was held that if a company continues to carry out business and to incur debts at a time when there is to the knowledge of the directors no reasonable prospects of the creditors ever receiving payments of these debts, it is in general a proper inference that the company is carrying on business with intent to paragraph defraud. R V Graham (1984) QB. 675 makes it clear that a person is guilty of fraudulent trading if he has no reason to believe that the company will be able to pay is creditors in full by the dates when the respective debts become due or within a short time thereafter. 3. Public interest/policy. Sometimes, courts have disregarded the separate legal personality of the company and investigated the personal qualities of assign risk its shareholders or the persons in control because there was an essay paragraph, overriding public interest to be served by doing so. In Daimler Co Ltd Vs Continental Tyre And Rubber Co (1916) A. Young Goodman? C 307, a Company incorporated in England whose shares except one were held by German nationals resident in essay, Germany brought an action during the First World War. All its directors were also German nationals resident in Germany, which was an enemy country at the time.
The Court disregarded the fact that the company had a British nationality by incorporation in England and rather concentrated on the control of the company’s business and where its assets lay, in determining the classification essay, company’s status. 4. In determining residence of a company for tax purposes. The court may look behind the three paragraph, veil of the company and its place of essay uk registration so as to determine its residence. The test for determining residence is normally the place of its central management and control. Usually, this is the essay three, place where the board of directors operate.
But it can also be the place of business of the M. D where he holds a controlling interest. MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY The control and rejection letter, management of a company is distributed among its principal officers and these include the auditors, accountants, Board of Directors, Managing director (if any) and any other officers of three a company. There are basically two organs responsible for the management of a company. These are: – 1. The Shareholders through company meetings and 2. The Board of Directors. The shareholders and Company Meetings The shareholders have an and effect of world essay, opportunity of influencing the company’s management through the company’s meetings. There are 4 types of meetings through which the shareholders can participate in the affairs of a company. 1. Statutory Meetings: These are provided for under S130 of the essay three paragraph, Companies Act which requires every public ltd company to hold such type of meeting within 30 days from the date of commencement of business. The meeting is held once in the company’s life and never again. The meeting is a must hold for all public companies, private companies are not required to hold this meeting. 2.
Annual General Meeting (S. 131). Unlike the rejection letter for non-interviewed applicants, Statutory Meeting, an AGM is required of all types of companies. It must be convened by essay paragraph, notice of not less than 21 days. This is the most important meeting of the company and concerns a number of issues. Assign Risk? Although the companies Act does not exactly indicate the nature of the three paragraph, business transacted at such a meeting, the business invariably includes appointment of auditors, fixing their remuneration, declaration of dividends, consideration of the company’s profit and loss accounts and the balance sheet, consideration of the reports of the directors, auditors and election of new directors or auditors if need arises. The purpose of the annual general meeting is important for the protection of the members because it is the one occasion when they can be sure of having an opportunity of meeting the directors and young brown essay outline, questioning them on the profit and paragraph, loss accounts, on their report and on the company’s position and prospects. It is at this meeting that normally a proposition of the directors will retire, come up for re-election:- and it is at this meeting that the members can exercise their only assign risk, real power over the board i. e. the power of dismissal by voting them out. Most of these things could of course be done at the extraordinary meeting but the members who want to raise these matters may not be able to insist upon the convening of such meeting, the annual general meeting is valuable to them because the directors must hold it whether they like it or not.
If the company fails to essay paragraph convene such a meeting, there are two consequences that occur:- i. The registrar may himself convene that meeting or order that the meeting be convened and in extreme cases he may further order that any one shareholder present in best paper for your money, person or by proxy be deemed to constitute the meeting. ii. Every director who is in three paragraph, default of convening that meeting as well as the company itself are liable to a default fine not exceeding shs 200/= and cause war 1, every officer of the company who is in default is liable to essay paragraph a default fine of shs. Cause And Effect War 1 Essay? 40/= (1981) HCB 60). Within 18 months after incorporation, the company must hold an annual general meeting and then every 12 months thereafter. Essay Three? 3. Extra-Ordinary General Meeting (S 132): This is assign risk, usually convened by three paragraph, the directors at their discretion ( art 49 table A) to deal with urgent matters which cannot wait till the next annual general meeting. However the directors must hold such meeting irrespective of any contrary provision in the articles if holders of at least 10% of the company’s paid up capital or 10% of the members carrying voting rights ask/ requisition for it. They must state the money, reason why they want such a meeting. If the directors do not convene the meeting within 21 days of the requisition, then the requisitionists may themselves convene the essay three, meeting and recover expenses from the best paper, company which may in turn recover the same from the defaulting directors. 4. General meeting convened under court orders (S. 135).
It provides that if for any reason it is impracticable to call a meeting of the company in three, any manner in which meetings of the assign risk, company may be called, the court may on application of any director or member of the company who would be entitled to attend and vote at the meeting order a meeting of the paragraph, company to be called, held and conducted in any manner that the court thinks fit, and court may for that matter direct that only one person present at assign risk, the meeting shall constitute quorum. PROCEDURE, ATTENDANCE AND QUORUM (17. Three? 3. 05) 1. NOTICE OF MEETINGS. s. 133 provides that any meeting of a company must be called by a notice of a period not shorter than 21 days and any provision in that articles providing for a shorter notice is void and of no effect. The notice may be in writing or it can take any other form like word of mouth, radio or TV announcements, newspapers etc. it must state the best toilet paper money, exact date time and place where the meeting will take place and what is intended to be discussed at that meeting, if the notice does not indicate the above then it is not a proper notice and if any shareholder is absent from the meeting because his notice had not fully disclosed the agenda, he can seek a court order to essay three paragraph declare such a meeting null and void.. However a meeting may be called by a shorter notice than 21 days if all the members entitled to attend and young goodman outline, vote at the meeting agree to such a shorter notice. 2. QUORUM. This relates to the minimum number of essay members that must be present at a meeting of the company for it to be a valid meeting.
The company’s articles will normally provide for the required quorum but where they are silent on this, s. 134 (c) of the ap english, Act provides for the requisite quorum as 2 members present in case of a private company and in essay three, any other case three members personally present. Quorum need not be maintained throughout the meeting though at the beginning it must be there. 3. PROXY A proxy in Company law is a document which authorises somebody to attend a meeting on behalf of a shareholder. S. 136 provides that any member of a company entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company is entitled to young goodman outline appoint another person to attend and vote instead of him of her and any notice calling for a meeting should indicate that that person is entitled to attend by proxy. 4. VOTING. S. 134 provides that every member shall have one vote in respect of each share he has and in three, case of a company having a share capital and in other cases every member shall have 1 vote. Under S 137, it is young, stated that either five members entitled to vote or shareholders with at least 10% of the voting rights can demand a vote by poll. OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY 1. Board of Directors There is no definition of a director whether in the Act or by case law. Three Paragraph? Nevertheless, S2 of the Act states that a director includes any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called. In most private companies directors are usually share holders and in public companies , there is a requirement that directors must take up qualification shares, which is not the case in private companies unless the articles provide for it. According to S 177, a public company must have at least 2 directors.
It’s an offence to have one director. Where a private company has one director, he cannot simultaneously act as the secretary of the company but if they are two directors then one of them can also be the secretary. Under the assign risk, act, a director is defined as “any person occupying the essay, position of a director by whatever name called” this definition includes a “de jure director. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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chapter 6 homework Authors Note: This is the last part. Thank you to every one who read and reviewed. And a huge thanks to Ebony10 who betaed for me. I hope you all enjoy. Disclaimer: I don't have an essay paragraph, original thought in my head, if I did, I'd be making big bucks as a writer, but I'm not, I just write this for fun.
The case they were working on young goodman essay outline took them to essay three, a small town in the mountains. They were called in because the rejection for non-interviewed, body was found in the nearby state park. It was a young man who, it turned out, was killed by his girlfriend's mother. Paragraph. Apparently she had wanted to protect her daughter from him—she thought he was a bad influence. The mother confessed easily. Young Brown Essay Outline. Jane hadn't even needed to do any of his customary tricks.
It had taken them a few days to finish the case and by essay, the time they had wrapped up, it was Friday. They were getting ready to leave when Lisbon noticed a sign for cause and effect war 1 a local antique fair that started on three paragraph Saturday, tomorrow. She enjoyed looking at antique fairs and, although she rarely bought anything, it was always interesting to see what people thought was valuable and how much they were asking for toilet it. She checked at the hotel they had been staying at and found that although Monday was a holiday and the antique fair was a big deal for essay paragraph the small town, the room she was in was available for the weekend. The next thing Lisbon did was let Cho, Rigsby and Van Pelt know that she was going to be staying. She wanted to know if they were fine with taking one car back and leaving her with the other one. Goodman. The only person she didn't tell was Jane.
No reason to tell him. He'll figure it out on his own. Maybe he'll decide to stay or maybe he'll leave. I'll let him decide what to do. I really wish he would stay; spending time with him away from work always makes me happy. The only thing I can't stand his smug arrogance, but I suppose that's part of his charm.
Lisbon decided to go for essay three paragraph a short walk around the offer and acceptance essay, town before heading back to paragraph, her hotel room. They were never able to really explore these towns during cases. Brown Essay Outline. They always stuck to the same process: focus on going in, solving the case, and essay, getting back home. Goodman Brown Essay. They never stopped to just relax. Of course most of the towns were the same, but still, sometimes it would be nice to essay three, just relax and take in the scenery. In her tour of the town she noticed a small diner that looked like just the classification essay, place for dinner.
She planned on returning there in paragraph, a few hours to young goodman brown essay, eat. Essay Three Paragraph. First, though, she was going to and effect of world war 1, go back to essay paragraph, her room and get some rest. Of World. There was some sort of local band concert tonight to kick off the antique fair and she wanted to go. I'm not sure what type of paragraph band would be playing at the opening of an antique fair, but it should be interesting. I might as well go the whole nine yards now that I'm staying; enjoy the letter, whole experience. When she got back to essay paragraph, her hotel room, she opened the door and took off her jacket, throwing it on the bed. Cause And Effect War 1. She walked a little further into the room, deciding to essay three paragraph, take a shower instead of assign risk a nap, and essay three, started to assign risk, take off her shirt as she headed to the bathroom. You should really be more observant of your surroundings, Lisbon, said a familiar voice from the sofa. Lisbon screamed and spun around quickly. JANE!
What the hell do you think you're doing in my room? Why didn't you leave when the three, others did? You act mad, but you're really glad that I'm here. And Acceptance Uk. He was ignoring her question, but he didn't care. He just looked at essay paragraph, her and smiled. That is beyond the point. What did you do, pick the lock? She was trying to look mad, but he just kept smiling at her and she was losing the best paper for your money, battle. Come on, you're not really mad. Besides, we had a date scheduled. It's not a date she denied.
She could feel her cheeks starting to get hot. How is essay he always able to and effect war 1 essay, do that? It's not fair. I'm always caught off guard and he's always two steps ahead of me, making me feel like I'm incompetent or something. Why are you in my room? Why aren't you in three, your room? You didn't tell me you were staying. I had to find out from assign risk Cho after we had already checked out. There weren't any more rooms left when I came back. Three Paragraph. It looks like you got the last room in town.
He smiled slightly at her, as if he hadn't really planned to assign risk, have her walk in to the room and start undressing in front of essay three paragraph him. Well you can't stay here- Why not? He cut her off, standing up. You have a sofa.
I spend most of letter for non-interviewed applicants my time at work sleeping on a sofa anyway, so I'm used to it. Essay Three. He moved closer. He knew if he could make her uncomfortable enough, she would eventually just give in. She glared at him. Why can't I ever say no to him? This is cause war 1 really getting to be too much. I suppose you could sleep on the sofa, but none of your mind games. I'm here to try to relax. He moved a few steps closer, into three, her personal space.
Oh, of course not. I wouldn't dream of interrupting your personal time. Rejection Letter For Non-interviewed Applicants. He gave her that smile, not the 100 watt one, but the one he gives to essay three, women when he is trying to get them to spill information. Now don't mind me, just pretend I'm not here. Go ahead—I believe you were in the process of changing? I can't believe him. Um, I think I'll just do that in the bathroom thanks.
She stated, picking up her change of clothes. He lay back on the sofa and closed his eyes. Whatever you want, he said with a smirk. She glared at him one more time and then, on impulse, grabbed her jacket off the bed and threw it at him, smirking as he floundered around. She walked into the bathroom, intending to ignore Jane and best, relax. Jane lay on the sofa thinking. Three Paragraph. He had heard the water running in the bathroom, but the shower never came on. She must have decided to take a bath instead , he thought. It had been about 10 minutes and he figured that she was probably going to be in the bathroom for assign risk a while. She really didn't get the chance to relax very often.
He almost hated to intrude on her solitude. Why is it that I can't leave her alone? She had to have known that I wouldn't just leave with the rest of the team. Why hadn't she bothered to essay three paragraph, tell me herself that she had decided to stay? She had to know that I was going to stay. She's just so much fun to be around. She always makes me forget to ap english classification, be me; I can just relax around her. Essay Three. I like to make her blush. I'm the only person I've seen be able to do that. I've got to stop this thing I have for her. It's not good for her.
She really deserves happiness. That's what I'm doing here, really, trying to help her out. He was still trying to rationalize his behavior to himself when the bathroom door opened. She came out and acceptance essay with a towel around her head in a cloud of steam, smelling of flowers. He loved that smell. Did you have a nice bath? he asked from the sofa, his eyes still closed.
Yeah, it was very relaxing. She walked over to essay three, the bed and sat down for a minute. He looked over at her. She was sitting on the edge of the bed, looking distracted. Rejection Applicants. He was about to essay three, say something when she suddenly said Do you want to offer essay, go out to dinner with me? He was taken back—he hadn't expected that. She took his hesitation to mean no so she continued, trying to three paragraph, explain. I don't mean with me, just come to dinner at the same time as me.
When I was out exploring the town earlier I saw a little diner that looked promising and there's a concert tonight that I was planning to go to. Uk. I just thought, if you're going to be here, you might as well have a little fun too, right? He chuckled at three paragraph, her rambling. Of course I'll go to dinner with you. Ok, um, we should probably head out in the next few minutes. Ap English Classification Essay. The concert starts in a few hours, and three, I don't know how long the wait will be at the dinner. There's a lot more people here tonight than there were earlier this week. That would be fine. You get ready.
I'm just going to essay uk, change my shirt. She started back towards the bathroom to finish getting ready. Out of the corner of her eye, she saw him stand up and pull his shirt off. Three Paragraph. It took all of young goodman brown outline her will power to not turn around and stare at him. God, he's gorgeous, she thought. Essay. Stop it, Teresa. He obviously doesn't feel anything for you. And he's way too observant to not be able to pick up on it. He's just trying to help out so that he doesn't feel guilty for not being able to return the affection that I feel for him. She looked at her reflection in rejection for non-interviewed applicants, the mirror. He likes my hair curled.
Does that mean he actually likes me? Ok, now that's just reaching. I can think that Rigsby looks good in a suit without liking him that way. Still, knowing that he likes my hair curled makes me want to wear it that way more often. In the three, end, she settled on just pulling her hair back into a pony tail.
It would be easier than wearing her hair down, especially if the concert, which was being held inside of essay uk a small theater, were to get hot. She would appreciate having her hair pulled up off her neck. You don't wear your hair up very often. Was the first thing Jane said to her as she came out of the bathroom a few minutes later Why is that? If you must know, a pony tail is even more of a lazy hair-do than the curls. She brushed by him into the main part of the essay paragraph, room, noticing that he had neatly folded the jacket she had thrown at him earlier and placed it on the dresser. You spent fifteen minutes in the bathroom to decide that you were going to be lazy and just put your hair up?
What type of logic is that? It's female logic, that's what it is, she snapped at best toilet, him. Are you ready to go? I've been ready. I was just waiting for essay paragraph you. He gestured towards the essay, door, indicating that she should leave the room first. Are we going to walk, or should we take the car? It's supposed to essay paragraph, be a nice night. Cause War 1. The diner and the theater are both close.
Why don't we walk? She said as she headed out the door. Whatever you say was his reply as he looked up at the sky. They had a fun time together that night. The diner had been busy, but not so packed that they weren't able to sit down right away.
The food was surprisingly good. Essay Three. They had both ordered cheese burgers and fries. Lisbon had ordered a shake and Jane a soda, although they ended up switching about half way through the meal. After words they walked slowly toward the theater, both seeming to enjoy each other's company. I can't believe I'm having such a good time with him, thought Lisbon. It's as if he's dropped whatever act he usually does and it's just him. It's kind of nice, really. She really was enjoying just talking with him and not about work. They talked about everything and essay uk, anything. Everything that is except work, Red John and Jane's past.
When they got to the theater, they purchased tickets and essay, went inside. The local band was surprisingly good. Ap English Classification Essay. They played mostly covers, but Lisbon really enjoyed the essay three, few original songs that they performed. The concert didn't last as long as she had hoped it would. It wasn't even 11:00 when it was over.
How'd you like to and effect of world war 1 essay, get some desert? asked Jane as they were leaving. You read my mind. Essay Paragraph. I'd love some. They were walking close together down the essay outline, sidewalk. I noticed a little coffee shop near the hotel. Essay Paragraph. How about cause of world essay, we go there? That sounds great. They walked in silence for a few minutes until they got to the coffee shop.
It didn't close until midnight, so they went in a stood at the counter, looking at all of the sweets that were available. Lisbon settled on a piece of fresh strawberry pie and Jane decided on a brownie that was almost as big as his hand. Essay Three Paragraph. They sat down at and acceptance essay uk, one of the small tables to three, eat. That brownie is huge. Rejection For Non-interviewed. I hope you can eat it all. Lisbon commented. Speak for yourself. I think she put half of the pie on your plate. Jane laughed. Three Paragraph. He had been having a good time and wanted it to essay outline, just keep going. Lisbon just glanced at him and smiled before picking up her fork and taking a bite of her pie.
She moaned sensually as the taste filtered through her senses. This pie is delicious was her thought. She didn't notice Jane's reaction. He was sitting across from her, trying not to paragraph, choke on the large piece of assign risk brownie that he had just put into essay three paragraph, his mouth. Assign Risk. I can't stand it…I just don't know how she does that to me.
I just want to…I don't know—I should be the one to essay, make her do that. No, I can't do that. Young Brown Essay. It wouldn't be right. Why not? She's a beautiful woman. That thought alone almost made him choke again. Since when have I though Lisbon was beautiful? He knew that he was going to have even more problems than usual falling asleep tonight now that he had this added thought to worry about. They finished their dessert in silence. Essay Three Paragraph. As Lisbon took her last bite, rain started to fall on the pavement outside. I thought you said it was supposed to be nice out tonight.
Jane said with a note of amusement. Yeah, I thought it was supposed to be. They were standing in the door way to the cafe looking outside. Want to make a run for it? The hotel's not that far away and, besides, who knows how long this is going to last?
Jane looked at her to young essay, make sure she was serious and not just joking around. OK, let's go for it. They ran through the rain towards the hotel, both enjoying the childishness of the act. They could have called a cab, but this was much more fun. By the time they got back to the hotel, they were soaked to the skin. They burst into the room and three, collapsed into a heap on best the floor, laughing hysterically.
Jane was the first to sober. He stood slowly, holding his hand out to essay, help Lisbon up. He was looking at ap english, her in a way she had never seen before. What is he looking at? I can't look any worse than he does.
We're both soaked. Why is he looking at three paragraph, me that way? She could feel herself starting to and acceptance essay uk, blush, as she often did under his gaze. What?' she said eventually, not able to stand him just staring at her any more. I mean it. Essay Three Paragraph. You're beautiful. Did you know that? No, don't say anything. Letter For Non-interviewed Applicants. Just listen. You know I've been trying for the past week to essay three, figure out who it is cause of world that you have a crush on three at work. I've been watching you more closely than I usually do.
Trying to figure out goodman essay outline if there was a guy that you paid more attention to, or less attention to, someone you called more frequently with an update than was necessary, but I can't figure it out. Right now though, I don't care. All I know is that whoever it is, is an idiot for three not sweeping you off your feet the instant that they saw you. You are the most amazing woman that I have met in a really long time, since my wife was killed, and I'm sick and tired of denying it. I…I think I like you. Lisbon was in shock. She had never even dreamed that he could ever even like her in assign risk, that way. She was staring at him. She had never seen him so exposed, like all he was laying it all out, not hiding anything. She just stood there looking at him.
She noticed his face starting to essay three, fall and essay, realized that she hadn't said anything. Jane…Patrick. He looked up at her, looked her in the eye. Do you really have no idea who it is at work that I like? For all of your observational skills, you really can be stupid sometimes. She was smiling at paragraph, him now, waiting for the realization to rejection for non-interviewed, dawn on him. Essay. When it did, his face lit up and offer and acceptance uk, he graced her with the most powerful smile she had ever seen. Why didn't you just tell me? He looked at her, questions in essay, his eyes. Why let me go through all of this, the flirting, the date?
I love to be what you think about, no matter how annoying or embarrassing that may be. Rejection Letter. Just knowing that you care for me enough to be in your thoughts was almost enough. That would explain why you were always uncomfortable around me and essay paragraph, why you did such a good job at the bar when we did the flirting exercise. He was smiling at this and she smirked. You've always been able to make me blush and rejection for non-interviewed, I'm normally not one to blush that easily. What about the guy from the bar, Paul? I wouldn't worry about him. Three. She said with a slight smile. He looked at her for best a few more minutes before suddenly pulling her to him and pressing his lips against hers. The kiss was simultaneously sweet, tender and powerful. It was, by far, one of the best kisses that she had ever had.
Wow was all she said when they broke the kiss. Yeah was his reply. They looked at each other for a few more minutes. It's late. If we're going to get up early tomorrow and look at other people's really old stuff, you should probably get some sleep. Yeah, she replied.
She was still in a little bit of a daze. She looked back up at three paragraph, him, and goodman brown outline, then reached up and pulled his head down to kiss him again. They had spent a wonderful weekend together, looking at paragraph, the antiques, admiring all of the old and beautiful furniture and decorations that there were. Lisbon even bought a few pieces, though nothing too big or expensive. They had shared the hotel room the entire weekend, with Jane sleeping on and effect of world essay the sofa. He said that he didn't sleep with someone one the first date, or the second or third for that matter. He said they should respect each other enough not to rush anything. Paragraph. She had respected what he had wanted. In reality, she just enjoyed spending time with him. The kisses that they had shared at spontaneous times throughout the weekend had just been icing on the cake for her. It was Tuesday morning now and, for once, Jane was early to the office.
There had been something that had been bothering him all weekend. Applicants. Lisbon had told him not to worry about the essay paragraph, guy from the bar and assign risk, he wasn't worried, per se. He was just curious as to why she was so willing to three, just forget about him without so much as a phone call telling him why. That was why he was here. He had come in before anyone so that he could break into Lisbon's office and cause and effect essay, see if Paul had put his phone number on the card in the flowers. He knew that she hadn't done anything with either bouquet of flowers (his wildflowers and Paul's roses) before they left for their last case, so he would be able to find the note right there, in essay paragraph, the flowers on her desk. He quietly went into her office. And Acceptance Essay. There might not have been anyone there yet, but that was no reason to draw the security guards' attention to what he was doing. Sitting on her desk were two vases of badly wilted flowers and tucked into the roses was the note. He pulled it out and paragraph, read it: Mr.
Doesn't Play Well With Others obviously has a thing for you. Maybe these flowers will spur him into action. Good luck with it. If it doesn't work out, you know where to find me. I guess there are just some things that anyone can tell but yourself.
He looked at the flowers one more time, slipped the note into his pocket, and walked out of her office smiling to himself. Authors note: Don't you hate it when people put notes at the top and ap english classification essay, bottom? If you liked it please let me know :)