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Poverty and Welfare in the American Founding. Select a Section 1 /0. Toggle open close. Did Americans before the 20th century lack compassion for the poor? Did they treat the do my pschy, poor with indifference or even cruelty?
That is the impression given by university, most high school and college textbooks. Few students ever learn that government-funded welfare, not to pschy, mention generous private charity, has existed throughout American history. James MacGregor Burns’s Government by the People , a college textbook, says that “[c]ontemporary American liberalism has its roots in Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal programs, designed to aid the poor and to protect people against unemployment and bank failures.” He implies that the i need help a speech for a wedding, poor received no government aid or protection before the 1930s. Reinforcing this impression, Burns goes on to say that “American conservatism has its roots in the political thinking of John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and essay pschy paper many of Biography, their contemporaries…. Most conservatives opposed New Deal programs and the War on Poverty in the 1960s…. Human needs, they say, can and should be taken care of by charities.” Larry Berman and Bruce Murphy’s college textbook Approaching Democracy gives a similar slant: “While poverty has existed in the United States since the early colonial days, it first reached the public agenda in the early 1900s as a result of the writings of muckraking journalists.” If poverty “first reached the public agenda” only then, readers are likely to pschy, conclude that government did nothing about it before that time. Nothing in application essay, Berman and Murphy contradicts that conclusion.
Most history textbooks present accounts that are the same as or similar to the accounts given by these political scientists. These claims about the American past are either untrue or misleading. Essay Paper! America has always had laws providing for the poor. The real difference between the Founders’ welfare policies and today’s is over how , not whether , government should help those in need. Neither approach has a monopoly on compassion. The question is: What policies help the thesis for microstrip, poor, and what policies harm them?
Conservatives today sometimes make the same mistake that liberals make about America’s past. Reacting to what they regard as the excesses of the modern welfare state, conservatives tend to essay pschy paper, assume that poor relief in application, early America was entirely private. They continue to echo Barry Goldwater’s statement in The Conscience of a Conservative , written before he ran for President in 1964: “Let welfare be a private concern. Essay Paper! Let it be promoted by Can We Charities-the Red Cross?, individuals and families, by churches, private hospitals, religious service organizations, community charities and do my essay pschy paper other institutions that have been established for this purpose.” Goldwater apparently did not realize that the Founders would have rejected such a policy as heartless. Scholarly historians of welfare in America present a more accurate picture, but they too tend to dismiss the approach of earlier Americans, including the Founding generation. Biography! These historians are generally dismayed by do my essay pschy, the earlier distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor. They tend to present the earlier welfare system as either a well-intentioned or a mean-spirited failure. Michael Katz, for example, commenting on poorhouses, which were strongly endorsed by Thomas Jefferson, writes, “Miserable, poorly managed, underfunded institutions, trapped by their own contradictions, poorhouses failed to meet any of the goals so confidently predicted by their sponsors.” In the standard history of welfare in about why college is important, America, Walter Trattner writes that: [Early American observers] concluded that no one ought to be poor, and there was little tolerance for the able-bodied pauper.
The only cause of such poverty, it was assumed, was individual weakness…. [B]y the do my essay paper, late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Americans began to believe that poverty could, and should, be obliterated—in part, by allowing the college application, poor to paper, perish…. Stereotypes rather than individuals in need dominated the public mind. Trattner does not hide the ideology behind his judgments; at the end of the Biography, book, he enthusiastically endorses President Bill Clinton’s national health care and welfare proposals. We will see that the Founders would have something to do my pschy, say in response to Katz’s and Trattner’s harsh and misleading words. Jefferson and Franklin on Welfare. From the Biography, earliest colonial days, local governments took responsibility for their poor. Do My Essay Paper! However, able-bodied men and women generally were not supported by the taxpayers unless they worked. They would sometimes be placed in group homes that provided them with food and shelter in exchange for labor. Only those who were too young, old, weak, or sick and who had no friends or family to help them were taken care of in idleness. The Founders had little to say about the topic of poor relief. Can We Trust Charities-the! Like the family, welfare was not a controversial topic.
Two of their rare statements on the subject occur in do my, writings provoked by Trust, foreigners: Jefferson’s Notes on the State of pschy paper, Virginia , written in why college is important, answer to questions posed by a Frenchman, and an article criticizing the British welfare system written by Benjamin Franklin for the British press. Jefferson explained the Virginia poor laws at the time of the Revolution: The poor, unable to support themselves, are maintained by do my essay, an assessment on the tithable persons in their parish. Essay Why College! This assessment is levied and administered by twelve persons in each parish, called vestrymen, originally chosen by the housekeepers of the parish…. These are usually the most discreet farmers, so distributed through their parish, that every part of it may be under the immediate eye of pschy, some one of them.
They are well acquainted with the details and economy of private life, and they find sufficient inducements to execute their charge well, in Charities-the Red Cross?, their philanthropy, in do my essay, the approbation of their neighbors, and the distinction which that gives them. About Why College Is Important! The poor who have neither property, friends, nor strength to labor, are boarded in the houses of good farmers, to whom a stipulated sum is annually paid. Do My Essay Pschy Paper! To those who are able to help themselves a little, or have friends from Biography whom they derive some succors, inadequate however to their full maintenance, supplementary aids are given, which enable them to live comfortably in their own houses, or in paper, the houses of Red Cross?, their friends. Vagabonds, without visible property or vocation, are placed in workhouses, where they are well clothed, fed, lodged, and made to do my pschy paper, labor. Nearly the Biography, same method of essay pschy paper, providing for the poor prevails through all our states; and from Savannah to Portsmouth you will seldom meet a beggar. In his proposed Virginia “Bill for Support of the Poor,” Jefferson explained that “vagabonds” are: able-bodied persons not having wherewithal to maintain themselves, who shall waste their time in idle and babson college dissolute courses, or shall loiter or wander abroad, refusing to work for reasonable wages, or to betake themselves to some honest and paper lawful calling, or who shall desert wives or children, without so providing for them as that they shall not become chargeable to a county. In the poorhouse to which vagabonds are sent, there would be an overseer, a “discreet man … for the government, employment, and correction of the persons subject to him.” In the Notes on the State of babson application essay, Virginia passage just quoted, Jefferson referred to “those without strength to labor.” In his proposed bill, they were more precisely described as the “poor, lame, impotent [i.e., weak], blind and other inhabitants of the county as are not able to maintain themselves.” The terms “tithable,” “parish,” and “vestrymen” in the passage above refer to the pre-Revolutionary Southern practice of assigning care of the do my essay, poor to the local Anglican church. In keeping with the spirit of the Revolution, which separated church from state, Virginia transferred this task from church to county government in 1785, as Jefferson had proposed. Poor children whose families could not provide for coventry binding, them, including orphans, were put out to suitable persons as apprentices so that they would learn “some art, trade, or business” while being of use to essay, those who were training them. However, this was not to be done, in Jefferson’s plan, until they had attended public school for three years, if necessary at public expense.
All the typical features of early American welfare policy can be seen in Jefferson’s descriptions and proposals: The government of the essay why college, community, not just private charity, assumes responsibility for essay, its poor. This is far from the “throw them in the snow” attitude that is so often attributed to pre-1900 America. Welfare is kept local so that the administrators of the program will know the binding, actual situations of the persons who ask for help. This will prevent abuses and freeloading. The normal human ties of friendship and neighborliness will partly animate the relationship of givers and recipients. A distinction between the deserving and do my essay pschy paper undeserving poor is application carefully observed. Able-bodied vagabonds get help, but they are required to work in institutions where they will be disciplined. Do My Pschy Paper! Children and Biography the disabled, on the other hand, are provided for, not lavishly but without public shame. The homeless and beggars will not be abandoned, but neither will they populate the streets.
They will be treated with toughness or mercy according to their circumstances. Jefferson’s idea of self-reliance was in fact family reliance, based on the traditional division of do my essay pschy paper, labor between husband and wife. Husbands were legally required to be their families’ providers; wives were not. Nonsupporting husbands were shamed and punished by being sent to the poorhouse. Poor laws to coventry university, support individual cases of urgent need were not intended to go beyond a minimal safety net.
Benefit levels were low. The main remedy for poverty in a land of opportunity was marriage and essay paper work. For Jefferson, the abolition of primogeniture and entail was a far more important anti-poverty measure than poor laws providing housing and Red Cross? food for people in need. As Jefferson boasted to do my essay, John Adams, “These [anti-primogeniture] laws, drawn by myself, laid the thesis for microstrip antenna, axe to the root of the pseudo-aristocracy.” Laws restricting the use and ownership of do my essay pschy paper, private property were remnants of feudalism, whereby the common people were kept in their place by discouraging property owners from making the most economical use of the property they had or by making it hard for the poor to i need help for a wedding, acquire property of their own. In America, said Jefferson, “everyone may have land to labor for himself if he chooses; or, preferring the do my essay paper, exercise of any other industry, may exact for it such compensation as not only to afford a comfortable subsistence, but wherewith to provide for coventry dissertation binding, a cessation of labor in old age.” When Benjamin Franklin lived in essay pschy, England in the 1760s, he observed that the thesis antenna, poverty problem was much worse in that country than in America. Britain did not limit its support of the pschy paper, poor to a safety net provided under conditions that prevented abuse. There, the poor were given enough that they could live in idleness. The result was to increase poverty by Biography, giving the poor a powerful incentive not to become self-supporting.
Franklin wrote: I am for doing good to the poor, but I differ in opinion of the pschy, means. I think the thesis, best way of do my essay paper, doing good to the poor, is coventry university dissertation binding not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it. In my youth I travelled much, and I observed in different countries, that the more public provisions were made for do my pschy paper, the poor, the Can We Trust Charities-the, less they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer. And, on the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and became richer. Do My Essay Pschy! There is for microstrip antenna no country in the world where so many provisions are established for them [as in England] … with a solemn general law made by the rich to do my essay pschy, subject their estates to a heavy tax for babson essay, the support of the poor…. [Yet] there is no country in the world in which the poor are more idle, dissolute, drunken, and insolent. The day you [Englishmen] passed that act, you took away from before their eyes the greatest of all inducements to industry, frugality, and sobriety, by giving them a dependence on essay pschy somewhat else than a careful accumulation during youth and health, for support in age and sickness. In short, you offered a premium for university binding, the encouragement of idleness, and you should not now wonder that it has had its effect in the increase of poverty. We see in Franklin’s diagnosis a striking anticipation of today’s welfare state, in do my essay paper, which, as we will see, poverty has remained stagnant as the welfare system has swelled since the writing, 1960s.
Franklin’s understanding of the welfare paradox—that aid to the poor must be managed carefully lest it promote indolence and therefore poverty—was shared by most Americans who wrote about and do my essay pschy paper administered poverty programs until the Charities-the Red Cross?, end of the 19th century. The Declaration of Independence and the Obligation to Help the Poor. These were the Founders’ practical proposals and views on poor relief. Their policies were intended to paper, help the poor in i need writing a speech for a wedding, ways that did not violate the rights of taxpayers or promote irresponsible behavior. From Jefferson’s standpoint, poverty programs that help people who choose not to work are unjust.
Far from being compassionate, compelling workers to support shirkers makes some men masters and other men slaves: Workers are enslaved to pschy paper, nonworkers. That violates a fundamental principle of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson’s whole career was devoted to the establishment of college, a government that would secure the rights of ordinary people against “pseudo-aristocrats” who would oppress them. To say that all men are born with a right to liberty means that no man has the do my, right to rob another of the fruits of his labor. That principle goes for any person or group in society, whether it be European aristocrats, slaveholders, or those today who despise “dead-end jobs” and “chump change.” (In a 2007 survey, only 5 percent of jobless poor adults blamed their unemployment on “inability to find a job.”) Jefferson affirmed his principled opposition to government redistribution of income from the rich to the poor in a speech, this statement:
To take from one, because it is thought his own industry and that of his fathers has acquired too much, in order to do my essay paper, spare to others, who, or whose fathers, have not exercised equal industry and skill, is to violate arbitrarily the Biography, first principle of association, the guarantee to pschy, everyone the free exercise of his industry and the fruits acquired by it. The “first principle of babson application, association” is the right to liberty, including the right to the free exercise of do my essay pschy paper, one’s industry and its fruits. According to i need help a speech, the Declaration of Independence, we have an unalienable or natural right only to those things that we possess by nature. We are born alive and free, so life and liberty are natural rights, but no one has a natural right to a decent income or free medical care. Jefferson’s opposition to transfer payments from taxpayers to do my pschy, the poor might be taken to mean, as libertarian law professor Richard Epstein argues, that “the basic rules of private property are inconsistent with any form of welfare benefits.” Why, then, would Jefferson favor a government-funded safety net for the poor as he did? In John Locke’s language, the law of nature teaches not only self-preservation, but also the preservation of university binding, others when one’s “own preservation comes not in competition.” Political society, which is organized for the security of its members’ lives as well as their liberty and property, is obliged to respond to those who are in need. Those who refuse to essay pschy, work may be compelled; those who cannot work deserve the community’s support. One might compare the application essay, Founders’ conception of welfare to essay, a social insurance policy. Even taxpayers benefit from the policy because there may come a time when they too need help. Epstein admits that welfare can be justified in such a view, but “benefits must be set low, perhaps uncomfortably low, in order to discourage perverse behavior undertaken solely to Biography, become eligible for benefits,” and he despairs that government could do so.
Epstein seems unaware of early American welfare policy, for that is exactly what Jefferson’s plan and Virginia’s practice achieved. Essay! Support of the poor was therefore part of the Founders’ “liberalism,” but only on Jefferson’s terms: that is, on the terms of the working man’s right to liberty. Welfare Policy During and After the Founding Era. Jefferson’s and Franklin’s views were shared by most Americans during and after the Founding era. Burns suggested in the quotation cited on the first page of Can We Charities-the, this paper that “conservatives” like Adams and Hamilton opposed government support of the poor. Do My! He cites no evidence to support that insinuation because there is none.
As noted, Trattner’s From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America criticizes early American welfare policy, yet his book presents a mostly accurate picture of what was done. Trattner shows that the earlier policies have much to recommend them: “Most communities [in colonial America] attacked the problem of poverty with a high degree of civic responsibility.” The same is true, in his telling, of the Founding era and after. A historian of Founding-era welfare in New York State agrees: “Local communities attempted as best they could to assist their destitute neighbors, balancing compassion with economy, benevolence with discipline.” In colonial times, some communities supported the poor in essay is important, their own homes or in the homes of do my essay, others. As the poor population grew, many concluded that “outdoor relief” was leading people to look on welfare as an entitlement and babson application creating a class of permanent dependents. Pschy! Consequently, the emphasis soon shifted to “indoor relief”—almshouses and workhouses. Now, writes Trattner: Public assistance would be confined to institutional care, mainly for Biography, the “worthy” or hard-core poor, the permanently disabled, and others who clearly could not care for themselves. Also, the able-bodied or “unworthy” poor who sought public aid would be institutionalized in workhouses where their behavior not only pschy paper could be controlled but where, removed from society and its tempting vices, they presumably would acquire habits of industry and labor. The 19th century, notes Trattner, was “the great era of institution building.”
For most people such institutions were not places of permanent, or even long-term, residence…. They were … temporary shelters for the jobless during times of depression and widespread unemployment; maternity homes for young, unmarried pregnant women; and places of last resort for orphans and sick, helpless, and childless elderly persons…. [A]lthough they generally were dreaded, poorhouses often served as key life supports amidst the harshness and uncertainty of existence in early industrial America. Because public aid was so limited, there was wide scope for individual acts of generosity and liberality. Today’s conservatives are right to point to Biography, private charities as an pschy important source of poor relief in the old days. Even before the Revolution, writes Trattner: Private philanthropy complemented public aid; both were part of the American response to poverty. While, from the outset, the public was responsible for providing aid to babson, the needy … as soon as they could afford to, private citizens and a host of voluntary associations also gave generously to those in distress. After the Revolution and throughout the 19th century, hospitals for the poor, educational institutions, YMCAs, and Salvation Army branches were established in growing numbers all over America by public-spirited citizens. Do My Pschy! Like the public workhouses, these private charities distinguished between deserving and undeserving poor. Essay About! Good character, it was thought, would enable most people to become self-sufficient. These agencies tried to do my pschy paper, build the character of their recipients through education, moral suasion, religious instruction, and work.
Marvin Olasky shows in detail in The Tragedy of why college, American Compassion how 18th and 19th century Americans combined Franklin’s hardheaded realism about the ill effects of indiscriminate generosity with a warmhearted sympathy for those who fell into need through no fault of their own. Do My Essay Pschy Paper! Private welfare was often given by religious groups, and Can We Red Cross? recipients were expected to pray, worship, and repent of the unindustrious habits and self-indulgence (such as excessive drinking) that often led them to seek assistance in the first place. Americans of that day believed that God himself set the proper example: His mercy is infinite—but only to the repentant who strive to mend their ways. Let us step back for a moment and pschy paper look at poverty from a wider perspective. If we rank poverty and welfare policies in terms of quantity of thesis, money and essay material goods given to people who are poor, then today’s policies are far more effective than the Founders’.
Benefit levels are much higher, and far more people are eligible for support. That is Biography what leads historians like Michael Katz to condemn the earlier approach as a failure. However, if poverty and do my pschy paper welfare policies are judged by their effectiveness in providing for the minimal needs of the poor while dramatically reducing poverty in a society over time, then America before 1965 could be said to have had the most successful welfare policy in Trust Charities-the, world history. By the same benchmark, post-1965 poverty programs have failed. Two centuries ago, most Americans—at least 90 percent—were desperately poor by today’s standards. Most houses were small, ill-constructed, and essay paper poorly heated and insulated.
Based on federal family income estimates, 59 percent of university binding, Americans lived in poverty as late as 1929, before the Great Depression. In 1947, the government reported that 32 percent of Americans were poor. By 1969, that figure had declined to 12 percent, where it remained for 10 years. Since then, the percentage of poor Americans has fluctuated but has remained near the same level. As of 2013, the poverty rate was 14.5 percent. In other words, before the do my essay pschy paper, huge growth in i need writing a speech wedding, government spending on pschy paper poverty programs, poverty was declining rapidly in America. After the new programs were fully implemented, the poverty rate stopped declining. The recipe for America’s enormously successful pre-1960s antipoverty program was: Establish free markets and protect property rights. Keep taxes and for microstrip regulation at do my essay paper a minimum to encourage the poor to provide for themselves through their own work and entrepreneurship. Red Cross?! Provide strong government support for lifelong marriage and for a morality of self-controlled self-assertion (a morality combining industriousness, self-restraint, and essay pschy basic decency with the vigilant spirit that says “Don’t tread on me”). The self-reliant family was to Can We Trust Red Cross?, be the nation’s main poverty program.
As the poverty program of do my essay paper, last resort, provide minimal, safety-net public and private support in local communities for the poor whose families were unable or unwilling to provide for Charities-the Red Cross?, them. In the older America, most poor people were free to work or go into do my pschy paper business without asking permission from government. Low taxes and minimal regulation allowed them to Can We, keep most of the fruits of their labor. The stability of marriage encouraged men to meet their family obligations. Government officials, teachers, and writers praised the dignity of responsible self-support and condemned irresponsible dependence on paper government handouts. In the writing for a, Middle Ages, a serf might have worked hard all his life, but much of what he produced went into the hands of a wealthy landowner. In most countries of the world, including America today, government regulation and do my licensing requirements often prevent the poor from entering and competing freely in the market. Besides, much of what the working poor earn through their own efforts is taxed away to support those who do not work. In the 19th century, a few American intellectuals, typically influenced by European thinkers opposed to the Founders’ idea of property rights, questioned the idea of individual responsibility.
By 1900, many intellectuals were turning away from the traditional American view that in a free country, frugal and babson application industrious conduct usually leads to essay, an adequate living. Amos Warner, author of the university, influential American Charities (1894), wrote that unemployment, not shiftlessness and drunkenness, was the most frequent cause of poverty. Do My Essay Pschy! Robert Hunter’s Poverty (1904), another important book of the Progressive Era, blamed unemployment almost entirely on “miserable and unjust social conditions.” Around the same time, Edward Devine, the editor of Charities, a leading periodical of the welfare reformers, said: “We may quite safely throw overboard, once and for all, the idea that there is any necessary connection between wealth and virtue, or between poverty and guilt.” The new solution: Increase benefit levels and eligibility and remove the moral stigma from Trust Red Cross? poverty, whatever its cause. Of course, the Founders had never claimed that all poverty was caused by bad character. Jefferson’s poor law had made a clear distinction between those who were able to work but preferred not to and those whose age or disability prevented them from working. The new approach tended to pschy, blame indiscriminately what later came to be called “the system” for university, poverty of every kind. In spite of this intellectual assault on traditional welfare policy, the Founders’ approach persisted—in modified form, to do my essay pschy paper, be sure—until the 1960s. Biography! Contrary to common opinion, for example, Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal modified but did not greatly change the older model. Social Security was originally sold as an insurance scheme in which workers funded their own retirement. Christopher Jencks explains how different was the original congressional conception of ADC (later renamed AFDC, Aid to Families with Dependent Children) from today’s welfare:
When Congress established ADC in 1935, it thought it was subsidizing a set of state programs known as “mothers’ pensions.” These programs had been established to pschy paper, ensure that indigent widows of good character did not have to place their children in orphanages. Not all states explicitly restricted benefits to widows, but most states did limit benefits to mothers who could provide their children with a “suitable” home. Local officials usually interpreted this requirement as excluding unwed, separated, and divorced mothers, on the grounds that such women set a poor moral example for their children. However, the 1935 law had been based on a report written by bureaucrats in the Children’s Bureau who made sure that the language of the law would permit (although not require) states to give aid to babson college application essay, divorced women and single mothers. Looking back on the episode, Frances Perkins, FDR’s liberal Secretary of Labor, said that: [She] felt that the essay pschy paper, Children’s Bureau had let her down…. Why College Is Important! She said it never occurred to her, in view of the essay pschy, fact that she’d been active in drives for homes that took care of mothers with illegitimate children, that these mothers would be [eligible for aid].
She blamed the huge illegitimacy rates among blacks on aid to mothers with dependent children. Perkins, like most other Americans at that time, accepted the older distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor, a distinction based on help writing a speech for a moral conduct. State governments gradually loosened welfare eligibility standards and essay pschy increased benefit levels during the 1940s and 1950s, but it was not until the mid-1960s that welfare was officially conceived as a right that could be demanded by Biography, anyone in need, regardless of conduct or circumstances. Poverty and Welfare Policy After 1965. Before 1965, most Americans believed that property rights and the marriage-based family were the most effective means to get people out of poverty. After 1965, government policy and pschy elite opinion turned against babson college application the older view. In order to help the poor, government raised taxes on do my essay the working poor. I Need Help Writing For A! In the name of do my, safety and environmentalism, it set up licensing requirements and regulations that make it harder for the poor to go into business building houses, repairing air conditioners, exterminating insects, fixing cars, or running a store or restaurant. Local governments set up building codes that were meant to guarantee safe dwellings and businesses but which deprive the poor of inexpensive housing. Code requirements drive up the costs of new houses by tens of thousands of dollars.
Moreover, government routinely tears down poor people’s houses that are not “up to essay about why college, code” for defects as minor as peeling paint. The city of Dallas, Texas, demolished over do my pschy paper a thousand private homes between 1992 and 1995, most of them in low-income and minority areas, sending previous residents onto Trust Charities-the the welfare rolls or into pschy paper the streets as homeless. The most destructive feature of the post-1965 approach has been its unintentional promotion of family breakdown, which is a recipe for the neglect and abuse of children, the widespread crime that such abuse fosters, the impoverishment of women and children, and the loneliness and anguish of everyone involved. Among the reasons that people get married and thesis for microstrip stay married (or used to) are happiness, mutual usefulness, a sense of moral obligation, and the penalty of shame and the law for those who misbehave. Post-1965 policies and ideas have ravaged all four of these supports of marriage. Recent welfare policies have particularly undermined the usefulness of do my essay pschy paper, marriage for many women, at Biography least in the short-term horizon in which people sometimes make such decisions.
Marriage makes possible an efficient division of labor for raising children and providing for the care and livelihood of pschy, people of university binding, all ages. Do My Essay! In the usual arrangement, the husband is the principal provider and protector, and the wife bears and tends the children when they are young. George Gilder has explained better than anyone else the role of welfare in family breakdown. Most women have a natural superiority to men in thesis, affairs of love and the heart, including especially the do my pschy paper, bearing and nurturing of children. What, then, can a man offer a woman?
To put it bluntly, money and honor. Women rarely marry men who make less money than they do or whose social rank is below their own (unless the men have a good career in prospect), and women frequently divorce men who make less. Men and women often lose romantic interest in each other when one of the partners cannot offer an university dissertation equalizing contribution. When increasingly generous government support became widely available to do my essay pschy, women in the 1960s, illegitimacy and divorce grew dramatically. Coventry University Dissertation! As Gilder writes, “Female jobs and welfare payments usurped the do my essay pschy, man’s role as provider, leaving fatherless families.” Welfare destroys the incipient families of the poor by making the struggling male breadwinner superfluous and essay why college thereby emasculating him emotionally. His response is predictable. Essay Pschy! He turns to the supermasculine world of the street: drinking, drugs, male companionship, and crime. The incentive structure of the modern welfare state is similar to the one that Franklin condemned in old England, except that ours is babson college more generous and more tolerant of single motherhood.
Since 1965, when President Lyndon Johnson inaugurated the modern War on Poverty, total annual government welfare spending has grown from less than $9 billion (1.3 percent of gross domestic product) to $324 billion (5 percent of GDP) in 1993 to $927 billion (6 percent of GDP) in 2011. Between 1965 and 2013, the government spent $22 trillion (adjusted for inflation) on means-tested welfare programs—more than three times the costs of all military wars in the history of the essay, United States. In 2013, there were roughly 80 different federal means-tested welfare programs. Just counting seven large federal programs (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance; public housing; Medicaid; utilities; Women, Infants, and Children assistance; and emergency food assistance), a single mother of Trust, two was eligible in essay pschy paper, 2013 for benefits that were the equivalent of a job paying $16.96 per hour in California, $18.27 in New York, and $20.44 in university dissertation, Massachusetts ($35,287, $38,000, $42,515, respectively, per year). In California, the value of this package of welfare benefits was only 8 percent below the median salary in the state; in New York and Massachusetts, the value was less than 5 percent below the respective median salaries. Minimum-wage jobs do not even come close to competing with welfare in most states. These figures do not take into account state, county, and municipal benefits. Nor do they take into account the massive use of Social Security Disability as a de facto welfare program (as of 2005, 4.1 percent of Americans between the ages of 25 and 64 were enrolled). In Hawaii, the equivalent in taxable income for the total value of these seven federal benefits was $60,590. From the do my pschy, point of coventry binding, view of the do my essay pschy paper, usefulness of marriage, the binding, choice of the do my essay pschy, poor to forgo work is, as Charles Murray writes, “the behavior of people responding to the reality of the world around them and making the decisions—the legal, approved, and even encouraged decisions—that maximize their quality of life.” As Robert Rector and William Lauber have explained: The current welfare system may be conceptualized best as a system which offers each single mother … a “paycheck.”… She will continue to is important, receive her “paycheck” as long as she fulfills two conditions: (1) she must not work; and (2) she must not marry an employed male…. Do My Essay Pschy! [Welfare] has converted the low-income working husband from a necessary breadwinner into university dissertation binding a net financial handicap.
It has transformed marriage from a legal institution designed to protect and nurture children into an institution that financially penalizes nearly all low-income parents who enter into it. Despite the successes of the essay, 1996 welfare reform, the welfare system as a whole has grown since then. In effect, the 1996 reform altered only one program; other programs expanded as costs and application participation rates increased. Requiring able-bodied adults to paper, work in exchange for welfare makes welfare more burdensome, but it does not remove its attractiveness altogether. The government-guaranteed jobs and day care that such schemes often require simply make the money less convenient.
The basic problem—that government makes it affordable for women to bear and raise children without husbands while living independently in households of their own—is still there. If a society really believes that marriage is the best arrangement for the well-being of men, women, and children, then its laws and customs must reflect that belief seriously, consistently, and effectively. High benefit levels and irresponsible attitudes toward sex and marriage create a world in which many children have few or no ties to their fathers; in which mothers, increasingly unmarried, are more often abused and exploited; and in which many men join gangs and take up crime as a way of life. This is a world not only of financial poverty, but also of emotional chaos and physical danger. It is not Hobbes’s state of nature, but life is increasingly “nasty” and “brutish.” One cannot help being reminded of Benjamin Franklin’s final verdict on the British welfare system—a system, he argued, that promoted poverty by antenna, supporting people who chose not to do my essay paper, work: Repeal that [welfare] law, and Biography you will soon see a change in their manners. St. Monday, and St.
Tuesday, will soon cease to do my essay pschy paper, be holidays. College Application! Six days shalt thou labor, though one of the old commandments long treated as out of date, will again be looked upon as a respectable precept; industry will increase, and with it plenty among the lower people; their circumstances will mend, and more will be done for their happiness by inuring them to provide for themselves, than could be done by dividing all your estates among them. The contemporary outlook on welfare has both propelled the family’s disintegration and promoted vast dependence. Amending its perverse incentives and deleterious effects on do my paper the family would require reforms not only in essay about why college, welfare law, but also in family law, property regulation, and more. Do My Pschy Paper! An analysis of essay about why college is important, these reforms exceeds the scope of this paper. Many today fail to note that antipoverty programs can easily have a corrupting effect if they are not set up in a way that promotes rather than breaks down the morality of paper, self-restraint and self-assertion that is a necessary foundation of what Jefferson called “temperate liberty.” Both Jefferson and essay Franklin supported laws that encourage responsibility toward family and community, self-sufficiency, and industriousness. Do My Essay Pschy Paper! They understood that political liberty rests on for microstrip the moral character of a people. —Thomas G. West, PhD, is Paul Ermine Potter and Dawn Tibbetts Potter Professor of do my, Politics at for microstrip Hillsdale College. This essay is a revised and updated version of chapter 6 of Vindicating the do my paper, Founders, by Thomas G. West. Copyright © Rowman Littlefield.
Used by writing for a, arrangement with the publisher. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or printed without permission in do my paper, writing from the publisher. The author wishes to thank Arthur Milikh and Tyler Thomas of The Heritage Foundation, who provided stylistic improvements and updates for i need for a wedding, post-1965 developments.  James MacGregor Burns et al., Government by the People , 15th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993), p. Do My! 196.  Larry Berman and Bruce A. Murphy, Approaching Democracy (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), p. 568.
 Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative (1960; reprint, Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1990), p. 68.  Michael B. I Need Writing For A Wedding! Katz, In the pschy paper, Shadow of the Trust, Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in do my pschy paper, America (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 3.  Walter I. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America , 5th ed. (New York: Free Press, 1994), pp. 55–56.  Thomas Jefferson, Notes on a speech wedding the State of Virginia (1787), Query 14, in Writings , ed. Merrill D. Essay Paper! Peterson (New York: Library of America, 1984), p. 259.  Thomas Jefferson, “A Bill for Support of the Poor,” in The Papers of Thomas Jefferson , ed.
Julian P. Biography! Boyd (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950), Vol. 2, pp. 422, 420.  Marcus W. Jernegan, Laboring and Dependent Classes in Colonial America, 1607–1783 (1931; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1960), p. 188.  On Jefferson’s poor law, see Ralph Lerner, The Thinking Revolutionary: Principle and Practice in the New Republic (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987), pp. 65–66.  Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to John Adams,” October 28, 1813, in Writings , pp. 1307–1309.  Benjamin Franklin, “On the do my essay paper, Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor,” London Chronicle , November 1766, in Writings , ed. Charities-the Red Cross?! J. A. Leo Lemay (New York: Library of do my essay paper, America, 1987), pp.
587–588.  Myron Magnet, The Dream and the Nightmare: The Sixties’ Legacy to the Underclass (New York: William Morrow, 1993), pp. 47–49.  Lawrence Mead, “Making Welfare Work,” testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, 113th Cong., 1st Sess., June 18, 2013, http://waysandmeans.house.gov/uploadedfiles/larry_mead_testimony_hr061813.pdf.  Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to Milligan,” April 6, 1816, in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson , ed. Albert E. I Need Help A Speech Wedding! Bergh (Washington: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904), Vol. 14, p. 466.  Richard A. Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp.
316–322.  John Locke, “Second Treatise,” in Two Treatises of Government , ed. Peter Laslett, student edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), sec. 6.  Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of do my essay pschy paper, Eminent Domain , pp. 316–322.  Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , p. 28.
 Robert E. Cray, Jr., Paupers and Poor Relief in about is important, New York City and Its Rural Environs, 1700–1830 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), p. 199.  Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , p. 59.  Trattner’s first 75 pages tell the story of welfare in do my essay paper, early America; cf. Katz, In the Shadow , and Benjamin J. Klebaner, Public Poor Relief in America, 1790–1860 (1952; reprint, New York: Arno, 1976).  Marvin Olasky, “The Early American Model of Compassion,” chapter 1 in The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1992).  U.S. Department of Commerce, Survey of Current Business , Vol. Thesis For Microstrip! 44, No. 4 (April 1964), p. 11 (percent of American families with less than $3,000 annual income in 1954 dollars).
This figure is comparable to do my pschy paper, the “below poverty level” numbers that the government began to report in essay, 1947, because the below-$3,000 percentage in 1947 was 35, which is close to the 32 percent officially reported poor in that year.  Table B-17, “Number and Money Income of Families and Unrelated Individuals, 1947–63,” in Economic Report of the President Transmitted to the Congress, January 1965, Together with the Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), Appendix B, p. 210.  Table No. 730, “Persons Below Poverty Level and paper Below 125 Percent of Poverty Level,” in United States Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1996 (Washington.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1996), Section 14, “Income, Expenditures, and Wealth,” p. 472.  Quoted in Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , pp. Babson College Essay! 102–104. See also Robert H. Bremner, The Discovery of paper, Poverty in the United States (1956; reprint, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1992), chapter 2; Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion , pp. 116–150.  Christopher Jencks, Rethinking Social Policy: Race, Poverty, and the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 2; cf.
Robert B. Stevens, Statutory History of the United States: Income Security (New York: Chelsea House, 1970), p. 152.  Quoted in The Making of the New Deal: The Insiders Speak , ed. Katie Louchheim (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), p. Biography! 175. Pschy! George W. Liebmann discusses AFDC, unwed motherhood, and the case for maternity homes in “The AFDC Conundrum: A New Look at an Old Institution,” Social Work , Vol. 38, No. 1 (January 1993), pp. 36–43.
 Craig Flournoy, “Man Sues City over Order to Raze Home,” Dallas Morning News , March 2, 1995, pp. A25, A27.  George Gilder, Men and Marriage (Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1992), p. 80.  Robert Rector, “Examining the Means-tested Welfare State: 79 Programs and $927 Billion in Annual Spending,” testimony before the Committee on the Budget, U.S. House of Representatives, April 17, 2012, http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2012/05/examining-the-means-tested-welfare-state.  Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield, “The War on Poverty After 50 Years,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2955, September 15, 2014, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/09/the-war-on-poverty-after-50-years.  Rector, “Examining the Means-tested Welfare State.”  David Autor and Mark Duggan, “The Growth in for microstrip, Social Security Disability Insurance Rolls,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 12436, August 2006, http://www.nber.org/bah/fall06/w12436.html.  Michael D. Tanner and Charles Hughes, “The Work Versus Welfare Trade-Off: 2013,” Cato Institute White Paper , 2013, http://www.cato.org/publications/white-paper/work-versus-welfare-trade.  Charles Murray, Losing Ground: American Social Policy from 1950 to 1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p. 162.
 Robert Rector and William F. Lauber, “A Conservative’s Guide to State-Level Welfare Reform,” in Making Government Work: A Conservative Agenda for the States , ed. Tex Lezar (Washington D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1994), p. 143.  Franklin, “On the Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor,” in Writings , p. 588.  Jefferson, Notes on essay pschy paper the State of Virginia (1787), Query 8, in Writings , p. 211. Author of The Political Theory of the American Founding, and the Paul Ermine Potter.
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5 Tips for a Top Essay on do my pschy the New SAT. For students taking the current SAT (which will continue to be administered through January 2016), the essay is a mandatory 25-minute challenge that begins the test. I Need Help Writing A Speech! Test takers must respond to a broad (and often rather lame) philosophical question (Is it true that the do my essay pschy best things in life are free? or Is optimism less valuable than hard work?), usually paired with a less-than-helpful prompt explaining the writing task. Charities-the! Those who are well-prepared will have a few key recyclable examples in mind – Martin Luther King, Jr., The Great Gatsby, World War II, and Macbeth are perennial favorites – and be ready to quickly cobble together a few paragraphs that include a succinct introduction, one body paragraph for each of the detailed examples mentioned in essay pschy paper the intro, and a snappy conclusion. Then they'll sprinkle some literary fairy dust on top to make their essays fly: a smattering of big words, varied punctuation, a rhetorical question perhaps to rouse a drowsy reader, and some quotes or statistics for extra flavor. If they write something nice and long, students who follow these rules are pretty much guaranteed a score of at least 10 out of essay why college is important 12; that's enough to earn a perfect Writing score as long as they can also manage great scores on the multiple-choice Writing sections. Come March 2016, the game changes. A lot. At 50 minutes, the essay paper time allotted to the new SAT essay doubles the length of the old 25-minute one. Students will be expected to write more, and help writing for a wedding they’ll be given three pages of paper to use in contrast to the current two.
Instead of pschy paper being administered right at the beginning of the session, the new essay will come at the end of the 3-hour test. And for Charities-the the first time, writing the essay is optional, though students who are applying to selective colleges will probably need to complete it. The structure of the essay has changed dramatically, too, from persuasive to analytical. Reflecting this change, students will have to essay pschy, do a lot more reading before they begin to write. The scoring system is also new. Instead of a 1–6 scale representing a holistic judgment, the babson new essay will be evaluated along three specific dimensions — Reading, Analysis, and Writing — with scores of 1–4 for each of these sub-scores.
Two scorers will grade each essay, and do my essay so these six numbers (three dimensions from two readers) will be combined for a final total. These scores will not be included in Biography the old-but-new-again 1600-point final SAT score comprising Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math. How colleges will use the essay score in their admissions decisions is still an open question. The reading passages may come from academic articles, literature, essays, or speeches. The question accompanying the passage, however, will always be the same: Write an essay in which you explain how the author builds her argument and analyze how she uses evidence, reasoning, and style to pschy paper, support her point. The student's task, in other words, is not to develop a case for one's own opinion on the subject at hand, but, rather to evaluate the author's writing and i need a speech for a wedding argument. Paper! The level of essay difficulty of these passages is much higher than anything the College Board has previously used on the SAT. Responding to this passage and prompt is a task best fulfilled by a skilled analytical reader and do my pschy a confident and fluid writer. After you've read the College Board's sample articles and questions, read the scored essay responses carefully. Think like the SAT scorers: Begin to antenna, analyze for yourself why each essay got the essay paper three scores it did (Reading, Analysis, and Writing).
Focus on antenna the higher-scoring examples and look for essay pschy paper qualities to emulate. 2. Understand the author’s position. Babson College Application! When you are ready to write your first practice essay, be sure you understand the pschy passage and Biography the essence of the author's argument — not just the topic and your position on it. Underline key transition words (such as, for essay pschy example, furthermore, in contrast, however, etc.) and think about how they contribute to the author’s overall stance. Underline strong phrases, powerful words, and Biography other key points as you encounter them. Think about what the author is trying to say. Essay! What supports the main claims in the passage? Is the evidence relevant and persuasive and laid out in a clear way? Are there particularly strong or weak points in the author's argument? Does the passage leave out important information that might persuade you as a reader?
Like fine carpentry, the construction of a great essay hinges on thoughtful and thorough prep work. Make sure you are answering the actual question and not going off-course. Taking a few minutes at application, the beginning of the essay section to outline your response could save you precious time revising after you’ve finished drafting. Essay Paper! Be sure to work in each of these three components explicitly in your outline, too: Reference the evidence that the author uses to support her claim. Discuss the ways in which the author uses reasoning to develop her ideas and argument. Address the author's use of style and coventry binding rhetorical devices to engage readers and convince them of the points in the passage. As in days of yore, a long SAT essay is still a high-scoring one, so pack those three pages as full as you can with good stuff. If you've planned well, you will have enough to say without being redundant or resorting to essay paper, filler. If your handwriting is too big, practice writing smaller. You should work on efficiently using all the room you have.
Try not to leave any space in the margins except for essay about indentations to introduce new paragraphs. Do not skip lines; they could be filled with your point-earning words! For a high-scoring essay, don't forget to do my paper, use some rhetorical flourishes of for microstrip antenna your own: big words, literary devices, and even statistics and quotations you’ve memorized as part of your test prep. Used judiciously, these tools can work to your advantage, just as they’ve worked to the advantage of the author of the passage you’ll be analyzing when you take the test. Follow this link to find more free advice on preparing for do my paper the SAT from Noodle Experts like Karen Berlin Ishii.
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essay on man enotes Pope wrote his Essay on Man in do my essay, rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to say the thesis for microstrip antenna, least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and do my, are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in college essay, prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay.
I have quoted at paper length from his essay. Babson College Application Essay! Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and do my essay paper, things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Such references in Trust, the writings out of the essay pschy, eighteenth century are not strange. Why College! The livelihood of do my pschy paper writers, by and large -- as was with the case of all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of essay why college is important church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to pschy religious authority.
Believing that if Pope were looking over i need help a speech for a wedding my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. We have no choice: we come to essay pschy paper it, look out and then die. Antenna! What we see as we look out on the scene of man is paper, a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of dissertation binding existence is without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the do my, world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and Biography, strong connections and do my pschy, nice dependencies.
He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on why college, worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the do my pschy paper, whole?
Is the Trust Charities-the, great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by do my pschy paper, God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out thesis for microstrip antenna all of the essay, mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of i need help writing a speech wedding existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought:
His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and do my paper, a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in i need help writing wedding, saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food,
And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into pschy paper ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest:
The soul uneasy and confin'd from home, Rest and expatiates in a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on help writing a speech wedding, such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to pschy his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n;
Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to university dissertation that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company.
Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is do my pschy paper, part of a larger setting, a part of nature. Man depends on babson college, nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out do my essay pschy paper ev'ry flow'r;
Pope asserts that man is ruled from about why college within, by do my pschy paper, his reason and by his passion. Better for Trust Charities-the Red Cross? us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in essay, Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of Can We Trust Charities-the animals. Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of pschy paper bears.
Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and essay about why college is important, Man alone?
Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and pschy paper, wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the help a speech, line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void,
Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of do my nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for i need help writing wedding fear of destroying the whole. Essay Paper! All this dread order break - for whom? for dissertation thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to do my essay pschy us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of essay about one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour.
All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite,
One truth is essay, clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the same as he opened his first. What is the Biography, function of man, positioned as he is do my pschy, somewhere between a god and help writing a speech, a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all. Man's function, Pope concludes, is to do my make a proper study of mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is coventry university, that he is ruled by passion; passion is the ruler and reason it's counsellor. Essay Pschy! Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is but begun,
What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in babson essay, the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do my essay do so with the essay why college, long range in view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to pschy restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie:
A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for pleasure; temptation is babson application, strong and passion is thicker than arguments. Essay Pschy Paper! However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good.
Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen.
What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to thesis mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from pschy paper ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r. About Is Important! Envy, Pope points out as an aside, is do my, something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave.
Ambition: can destroy or save, and thesis, makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well. Essay Paper! As, in some well-wrought picture, light and coventry dissertation binding, shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the vice.
And virtuous and do my essay, vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on help writing a speech for a, the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for do my assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is binding, proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of do my essay pschy those achievements. Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself.
The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is binding, happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the poet in essay pschy paper, his Muse. None of us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is university dissertation, right. Behold the paper, child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw:
Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before,
Till tired he sleeps, and thesis for microstrip, life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in essay pschy, his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is Biography, natural in nature and do my, man is a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is attracted to one and Can We Trust Red Cross?, the other, down even to single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion.
Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to do my paper wide or short is human wit; Sure by babson application, quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at do my essay work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the help, spider does things by instinct, man does.
The obvious example is essay, his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about coventry dissertation binding many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Pschy Paper! Who calls the council, states the certain day, Who forms the phalanx, and Biography, who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings. The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for do my essay long. However, family connections for human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an help for a wedding evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood.
These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and essay paper, bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands:
Reflection, reason, still the Biography, ties improve, At one extend the do my pschy, interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man,
Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and preserved the kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and the power of nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of coventry university dissertation nature and which we can learn from the birds and the beasts. It was the power of nature that built the essay pschy paper, ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion.
Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of for microstrip antenna law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for essay the strong too weak, the weak too strong.
Yet go! and is important, thus o'er all the do my essay, creatures sway; Thus let the college application, wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of do my pschy nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made.
That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the application, sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known,
Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of laws. So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the essay pschy, cause. Of what restrains him, government and laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel?
How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind,
Follower of about God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to do my essay pschy kings; Taught not to coventry slack nor strain its tender strings;
The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the do my essay pschy paper, other too; Till jarring int'rests of college application essay themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the essay pschy, world's great harmony, that springs.
From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in college application, proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to do my essay one point, and to one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is Biography, a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best:
Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for pschy paper oneself and his family has to be different than regard for Trust Charities-the the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and essay pschy, bade self-love and Biography, social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the do my pschy paper, subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on Red Cross?, the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in pschy paper, life trusting everything, but on application essay, the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell;
There needs but thinking right, and meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. To each person comes his or her share and do my, who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the Biography, pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to do my essay find others who have riches and wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is not clear to me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone.
It is in the nature of man to Can We Red Cross? attempt to change things; he is essay pschy, never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the a speech for a wedding, world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Do My Essay! Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. About Why College! A better shall we have? A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are?
It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. One might wish for man to be a God and for earth to be a heaven, both God and essay, heaven coming from the imaginations of man. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and i need a speech wedding, ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of do my pschy paper stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies!
Tell, for you can, what is about, it to be wise? 'Tis but to do my essay pschy know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and essay, feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and few understand. And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines.
Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on do my pschy paper, Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). Biography! My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857).
2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in the sails to drive the essay pschy paper, vessel along.