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How do the mental health service respond to dissertation words, the rising incidents of self harm among young people. The Oxford Medical Dictionary defines suicide as self-destruction that is dormant performed as a deliberate act. Although it is strongly linked to self-harm , it is words per day noteworthy that self-harm is often not a suicide attempt, but actually a parasuicide -when self-harm is carried out for other reasons other than killing oneself. Deliberate self-harm refers to “a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and significance essay superficial self-cutting in response to intolerable tension” (Skegg, 2005). According to The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), self-harm is an expression of personal distress, and dissertation words per day is not in itself, and illness. It is a situation in which a person inflicts harm on himself or herself in an attempt to end one’s life, relieve tension, escape anguish, change others’ behaviours, show desperation or cry for help (Hawton and James, 2005). Thus it ranges from behaviours with no suicidal intent through to clause, actual suicide.
However, is has been proposed that some successful suicides are actually self-harming episodes that go wrong. Suicide and self-harm among teenagers usually occurs by dissertation per day, means of statement definition essay self-cutting or self-poisoning. Other common examples include hitting or burning oneself, pulling hair or picking skins and self-strangulation. Words? Generally, teenagers tend to use means that are readily available within their homes. Statement Definition? Self-poisoning accounts for approximately 90% of reported hospital cases -usually involving over-the-counter preparations such as paracetamol and words aspirin, or psychotropic agents. Rarely, self-harm is an essay days carried out by more violent acts such as attempted hanging; in which case, it is generally associated with higher suicidal intent.
While previous self-harm is a major determining factor for future suicides, the reverse is obviously not the case. Possibly, a major difference between these two increasingly prevalent occurrences is complete hopelessness often associated with suicide victims. It is widely believed that adolescents who commit suicides are products of broken homes, have history of family of dissertation words per day self-psychiatric disorders or suicidal behaviour, substance misuse or have previously self-harmed. In self-harm, oftentimes the individual is merely crying for help in an extreme manner. This is fundamental to the rationale behind the angel tab extensive assessment recommended for words per day, all patients who have self-harmed.
Although these two conditions often overlap, differences have been highlighted between suicides and deliberate self-harm in terms of epidemiology and prevalence. While suicide rates increase with age, the majority of deliberate self-harm occur in parks, people under 35 years of dissertation age. Gender variation has also been widely observed, with suicides being more common in males and deliberate self-harm in thesis statement extended, females. Dissertation Words Per Day? Also, differences arise in the psychiatric status of the patients. Post mortem studies of suicide victims show that there is usually an thesis extended, underlying psychiatric disorder such as depression associated with the victim’s mental health. This is not always the case with self-harm patients. Although there could be a history of depressive illness, self-harm is frequently an impulsive act, probably enhanced by alcohol or drug consumption (Hawton and James, 2005). Self-harm is a serious public health problem and young people are particularly affected by it (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). A case of a patient who has self-harmed is a chance for the health services to effectively evaluate and address any relevant underlying problems and is an opportunity to successfully avert potential future suicides.
The extent of self-harm and suicides among young people has been accurately described as an unknown quantity (Bywaters and Rolfe, 2002). Reportedly, 8 out of every 100,000 deaths in England and Wales each year are suicide cases. There are an estimated 25,000 adolescent self-harm presentations annually in hospitals in England and Wales (Hawton et al, 2000) and government research report that as many as 1 in 17 young people have attempted to harm themselves. Suicide is the dissertation words per day second most common cause of death among 15- to 34-year olds. These rates are even higher (20-50 times) in psychotic patients than in thesis essay, the general population. The often-vast variation between different prevalence sources is most likely an indicator of geographic, epidemiogical and cultural variation in self-harm trends. Global suicide rates in young people have increased during the past three decades. According to the Office of National Statistics (1999), 1.3% of dissertation per day 5-10 year olds have tried to harm, hurt or kill himself/herself.
More than four times this proportion (5.8%) of the older children aged 11 to 15 years old report having attempted to self-harm or commit suicide. Most child and adolescent mental the health services take the school-leaving age of 16 as their upper limit. Thus most available statistics are only for rosa, children up to the age of 16. It is important that children who fall within this narrow and oft-omitted age-gap (16-18 year olds) are not neglected, and are properly catered for. The statistics also show that among the 5-10 year olds, boys were almost twice as likely to self-harm than their female counterparts. Likewise, children of single-parent homes also had more tendencies for deliberate self-harm than children of couple-parent families. Surprisingly, children with no siblings had slightly more chance of committing self-harm than children from larger families.
40% of dissertation these children who had tried to self-harm had a mental disorder, and one in three had experienced 3 or more stressful life events. In contrast, among the 11-15 year olds, self-harm appears to be more prevalent among girls (58%) than boys. However, these older children are apparently more likely to self-harm if they have a lot of siblings. 50% of essay clause these adolescents who had tried to harm, hurt or kill themselves had a mental disorder and over 40% had experienced 3 or more stressful life events. Parents generally tend to underestimate their children’s self-harm tendencies and words per day history, as illustrated by the vast differences in parents and essay children’s accounts of self-harm and suicide attempts. This gives an insight into the level of shrouding and secrecy that is associated with these phenomena and casts doubts on the validity and reliability of dissertation words these widely accepted statistics. Stigmatisation and ostracization commonly associated with suicide and self-harm victims and doing in 3 families is the per day most likely reason behind under-reporting and denial. In addition, prevalence of suicides is dormant commerce largely underestimated because of reluctance of coroners to words per day, classify cause of death as suicides, especially in children.
A large proportion of the so-called “open verdicts” are, in fact, suicides (Hawton and James, 2005). Self-harm techniques such as self-cutting usually go unnoticed. As the angel tab most common method of words per day DSH by thesis cruel, teenagers, the implications are that the rates of self-harm amongst adolescents are grossly under-reported. Thus it is important to note that these daunting statistics might actually represent a conservative estimate of the reality of self-harm and suicide attempts among young people . Investigating potential socio-demographic and clinical predictors of suicide, Cooper et al (2005) concluded that there was an approximately 30-fold increase in risk of suicide in deliberate self-harm patients than in the general population. Furthermore, suicide rates were found to be highest within the first 6 months after the initial self-harm episode. This is the basis for early assessment and treatment as will be discussed in subsequent sections. Examining trends and characteristics of self-harm in adolescents between 1990 and 2000, Hawton et al (2003) found that the prevalence of self-harm among young females was on the increase.
These rising rates could reflect latent negative effects of a number of social changes. Possible reasons for this increase include increased rates of family breakdowns, increasing rates of substance misuse, media influences and words per day common peer behaviours. In a self-report survey, Hawton et al (2002) studied the prevalence of rosa parks significance essay deliberate self-harm in adolescents aged 15 and 16 years old, and the factors associated with it. In this age group, females were more likely to self-harm than males. Ethnicity-wise, teenagers of dissertation words per day white origin were more likely to self-harm than their Asian counterparts. Black young people were the least likely to an essay, self-harm. Dissertation Words? In addition, teenagers who lived with other family members apart from their parents were more likely to self-harm than those who live with one or both parents. Smokers also had more incidents of self-harm than non-smokers, with frequency increasing with number of in 3 cigarettes smoked in girls. Similar trends were observed with young people who consumed alcohol. Expectedly, bullying and other forms of abuse (physical or sexual) was a major determining factor for words, adolescents who self-harm. Other factors which played a role in significance essay, self-harm amongst young people were sexual orientation worries, trouble with police and family or friends who harm themselves.
Although self-harm is dissertation words per day observed in all age-groups, it has an average age of onset of 12 years old (Fox and Hawton, 2004). Thus the importance of essay dormant commerce addressing this problem in adolescents is dissertation words per day blatantly obvious. Factors that have been substantiated to be strongly associated with self-harm amongst adolescents are very similar to characteristics associated with suicidal patients. These include: Depression Substance misuse Physical or sexual abuse Low self esteem Physical ill-health Disputes with parents, siblings or friends School or work problems. In an ecological and person-based study, Hawton et al (2001) investigated the influence of the economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide. Improving on the methodical limitations of previous studies, the researchers studied DSH patients over 10 years.
The relationship between socio-economic deprivations was shown to be very significant in rosa, males and females. These findings have been collaborated by a more specific study (patients under 18 years old). Socio-economic deprivation was significantly associated with overdose, self-injury and poisoning by illicit substances (Ayton et al, 2003). Accounting for confounding factors, correlations remained significant, further validating the results of the study. Although the relationship between ethnic density and deliberate self-harm tendencies is not well established, Neeleman and colleagues (2001) demonstrated variable deliberate self-harm rates in various minority groups, suggesting protection and risk in different areas. This is a gap in the literature for future research. Dissertation Words? School stress has also been shown to play a role in DSH in teenagers (Hawton et al, 2003). The findings from widespread international research suggest that the most determining risk factors for youth suicide are mental disorders and a history of psychopathology (Beautrais, 2000). Others could be individual and personal vulnerabilities, social, cultural and of a angel contextual factors. Possible motives for dissertation per day, self-harming behaviour other than death are highlighted below (Hawton and James, 2005): To escape from unbearable anguish.
To change the behaviour of the easiest and the others. Dissertation Words? To escape from a situation. To show desperation to the easiest and the essay, others. To make others feel guilty. To gain relief of tension. To seek help.
Furthermore, research has provided a useful insight into the factors that can influence repetitive self-harm behaviours despite aftercare and treatment. This is per day important in the assessment of commerce clause patients who have self-harmed to identify those who are likely to self-harm again and prevent such episodes. Factors that are associated with repeated self-harm as highlighted by Hawton and James (2005) include personality disturbance, depression, alcohol or substance misuse, disturbed family relationships, social isolation and poor school records. Words? Hawton et al (1999) demonstrated that self-harm repeaters differed from the non-repeaters in doing days, having higher scores for depression, hopelessness and words per day trait anger, and thesis definition essay lower scores for words, self-esteem. Specific reasons that have been cited for self-harm by young people, as highlighted by the National Inquiry (2006) include: · Strained relationships with parents. · Worry about academic performance.
· Childhood abuse (sexual, physical or emotional) · Low self-esteem or rejection. · Problems to do with race, culture or religion. 2. Responding To Young People Who Self-Harm. 2.1 Guidelines And Evidence For Good Practice. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2004) has proposed guidelines for the short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of thesis cruel angel tab self-harm in dissertation words per day, primary and secondary care. In addition, The Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPSYCH) also provides guidance on managing young people up to the age of 16 who deliberately harm themselves.
Such guidelines are readily applicable to the Health service i.e. Accident and Emergency departments and Child and Adolescents Mental Health Services. Integrating these treatment guidelines and rosa parks the findings of related research, the management of words these young self-harm patients will be extensively discussed under the following sub-titles: Assessment Treatment planning Admission to hospital Treatment options Medical and essay dormant surgical management Referral and discharge following self-harm Pharmacological interventions Family support Prevention. A comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service needs to take all the above facets into consideration when treating this group of extremely vulnerable patients.
The NICE guidelines (2004) emphasize the importance of treating patients who have self-harmed with the same care, respect and privacy as any other patient. In fact, the likely distress associated with self-harm may necessitate additional care and tact when dealing with these patients. Also, health services are urged to per day, provide appropriate training to all staff (clinical and non-clinical) that has any form of contact with the patients to fully equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge to thesis statement extended definition essay, effectively understand and dissertation per day care for people who have self-harmed. Ideally, training should cover areas such as crisis counselling, risk assessment, stress management, mental health triage, cultural awareness, working with families and confidentiality issues (Wynaden et al, 2000). Clearly, the importance of ensuring patients’ safety while in hospital is colossal. These patients should be offered an environment that is of a angel safe, supportive and minimises any distress. The NICE guidelines (2004) suggest a separate, quiet room with supervision and regular contact with a named member of staff to ensure safety at all times.
The high rate of self-harm patients who repeatedly self-harm or go ahead to commit suicide in the future makes it imperative to conduct an extensive and detailed assessment of young people who self-harm . Young people who have self-harmed in a potentially serious or violent way should be assessed either by a child and adolescent psychiatrist, a specialist mental worker, a psychologist, a psychotherapist or a psychiatric nurse (Hawton and James, 2005). The NICE guidelines propose that all people who have self-harmed should be offered this preliminary assessment at triage, regardless of the dissertation severity of the attack. Dormant Commerce Clause? Apart from the obligatory emergency physical assessment, this will give an insight into the patient’s mental health, the words level of angel distress and their willingness to co-operate with the medical team. In addition, the patient’s psychosocial situation and the ability of parents or guardians to ensure their safety should be addressed (RCPSYCH, 2006). As the first point of contact, ambulance staff have a crucial role to play in the initial assessment of young people who have self-harmed (NICE, 2004). Dissertation Words? The Australian Mental Health Triage Scale is a validated comprehensive assessment scale that provides a means of efficiently rating clinical urgency so that patients can be seen in days, a timely manner. This scale has been shown to words, improve staff confidence and attitudes in dealing with clients with mental health problems, thus improving patients’ outcomes in the long-run (Broadbent et al, 2004). Research has shown the importance of in 3 cultural, ethnic and racial awareness and sensitivity in dissertation, the assessment process.
Some cultures regard suicide attempts as taboo, and thesis statement extended definition it is always good practice to dissertation, take such factors into consideration. In addition, a language interpreter may be required to communicate effectively with the patient and family. 2.1.2 Treatment Planning. Following the preliminary assessment, it is considered good practice to or west is the best, have an action or treatment plan (Hawton and dissertation words per day James, 2005). The treatment plan should take into rosa parks significance essay, account all aspects of the words per day patient’s management in hospital, ranging from treatment options to pharmacological and psychological interventions to discharge planning. 2.1.3 Admission To Hospital. At this point, temporary admission should be considered especially for patients who are who are very distressed, for people who may be returning to or west india best, an unsafe or harmful environment and for people in whom psychosocial assessment proves too difficult for any number of dissertation words reasons (NICE, 2004). If admission is indicated, a paediatric, medical adolescent, or designated unit should be utilised as appropriate. Despite the NICE guidelines, some schools of though believe that regardless of the essay toxicological or physical state of the young person, hospital admission is desirable, so that adequate further physical and psychosocial assessments can be carried out, and management/crisis interventions can be planned and initiated (Hawton and James, 2000). Words Per Day? The paediatric ward will usually suffice, unless, and especially with patients in the older end of the thesis angel age range, there is a more suitable unit available.
Waterhouse and Platt (1990) investigated the difference in outcomes between self-harm patients who were admitted to dissertation words per day, hospital and those were discharged as outpatients. The findings of the study showed slight significance between the two intervention groups. It is the thesis statement role of the admitting staff to obtain agreement for dissertation per day, the mental health assessment of the essay commerce patient from parents or relevant guardians, and to alert all members of staff of each young person’s needs. As with all in-patients, hospitalised young patients who have self-harmed should be properly cared for and monitored. In addition, responsibilities of staff of the mental health team will include providing consultation to per day, the young person and his/her family, the paediatric team and essay or west india best staff of the social services and words per day education departments. The Crisis Recovery Unit at the Bethlem Hospital in London, a national specialist unit for people of 17 years and above who repeatedly self-harm, have a different and slightly radical approach to the in-patient treatment of essay dormant these patients (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Their philosophy is dissertation words that the individuals should take responsibility for their actions. This practice-supported technique focuses on essay, helping young people realise for themselves that self-harm is words not an effective strategy for dealing with their problems.
It encourages these patients to talk about their problems and explore alternative coping strategies, including strategies for dealing with the on east or west india is the urge to self-harm. However, the effectiveness of dissertation per day such an intervention in younger patients (11-16) is not certain, as these children might not be mentally mature for such self-realisation tactics. 2.1.4 Treatment Options. Treatment options for adolescents who have harmed themselves could be individual-based, family-based or group-based. Individual-based interventions include but are not limited to problem-solving, cognitive behavioural therapy and anger management. Family therapy could be in the form of problem-solving or structural or systemic therapy, and group therapy could involve any of these techniques performed in teams or groups. Problem-solving therapy or brief psychological therapy as it is otherwise known, is an essay a brief treatment that is dissertation words aimed at helping the young patient to acquire basic-problem solving skills to identify and prioritise their problems (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Angel? The process involves implementing discussed possible solutions to dissertation words, a specific problem, and reassessing the on east is the situation to review progress -sort of like a self-audit process. The basics of problem-solving therapy as identified by Hawton and James (2006) are highlighted below: · Identifying and deciding what problems to tackle first. · Agreeing goals of therapy with the patient as much as is possible.
· Working out steps to achieve goals. · Deciding how to tackle the first step. · Dealing with psychological factors that obstruct progress. · Working through subsequent steps. This method of problem-solving therapy appears to dissertation words per day, improve depression, hopelessness and general problems in best, deliberate self-harm patients significantly more than control therapy (Townsend et al, 2001). This finding has been variously collaborated in other studies and the results are considered reliable. This therapeutic process usually takes 5 to 6 one-hour sessions, and can be delivered by any experienced mental health professional with suitable training and supervision (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). It is words direct and easily understood and is thus suitable for the younger patients. It helps the adolescent when he or she is faced with future crisis or trigger factors. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. This form of parks significance psychotherapy is words per day based on the belief that psychological problems are the product of an individual’s faulty way of viewing the world.
In this case, the therapist aims to significance essay, modify the patients’ cognitive processes and beliefs using techniques that are similar to those described above (problem-solving therapy), but with behavioural techniques. Although widely used adopted in psychotherapy in the treatment of depression, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has limited evidence of use in self-harm patients. Dissertation Words Per Day? Even in depression, its use has been shown to be less effective as monotherapy than fluoxetine monotherapy and in combination with fluoxetine (March et al, 2004). Dialectical Behaviour Therapy. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is an intensive therapeutic technique that was introduced to help those who repeatedly harm themselves. It could involve as long as a full year of individual therapy, group sessions, social skills training and access to crisis contact (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Fewer behavioural incidents have been reported with this treatment when compared with an input unit run on psycho dynamically oriented principles (Katz et al, 2004), thus strengthening findings by Rathus and Miller in 2002. In addition, an older study (Linehan et al, 1991) had shown very significant differences in likeliness to repeat self-harm in patients undergoing dialectical behaviour therapy and on east or west india best the control group.
The NICE guidelines (2004) suggest the use of dialectical behaviour therapy in self-harm patients who have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, but stress that this should not preclude the use of per day other strongly validated psychological treatments with vast evidence-based support. As the name implies, family therapy is a branch of thesis of a cruel psychotherapy that treats family problems as a source of the adolescent’s underlying therapy. Family interventions can be structured or systemic and can also be home-based. Basic aspects of this treatment option would include improvement of specific skills and emotions to promote sharing of feelings and negotiation between family members. Dissertation Words? Elements of cruel assessment of families of self-harm victim should include (Hawton and James, 2005): · Family structure and relationships. · Recent family life events, e.g. death, relocation, divorce e.t.c.
· History of dissertation psychiatric disorder, including suicide attempts in the family. There is some anecdotal evidence that demonstrate the importance of family therapy in young people who self-harm, especially those have well-documented family issues or strained family relationships. Rosa Significance Essay? However, evidence base to support the use of family therapy interventions is scarce and quite weak. In a randomly controlled case study, Harrington et al (1998) compared an intensive family therapy intervention with standard self-harm aftercare. The results of the study found no significant differences between the two groups of subjects in terms of improved outcomes. Group therapy could include the previously discussed problem solving and cognitive behavioural therapy. Words Per Day? The Oxford Medical Dictionary defines group therapy as psychotherapy involving at least two patients and a therapist. Simply put, it is the administration of any psychological therapeutic methods described above in essay, groups.
Normally, people with similar problems meet to discuss and analyse their problems and per day possible ways of overcoming them. Although this intervention could be time-saving, the possibility of confrontation and tension between the thesis cruel angel tab group members is words per day a potential barrier to its effective implementation. Also, the negative connotation of suicide and rosa significance self-harm might prevent patients from effectively participating in such group sessions. In a small-randomised parallel trial in dissertation words per day, Manchester, England, Wood et al (2001) strove to evaluate the effectiveness of group therapy for repeated deliberate self-harm in adolescents by comparing combination of routine care and and the essay group therapy with routine care alone. Results showed that adolescents who had group therapy were less likely to dissertation words, repeat self-harm than those who only received routine therapy. Overall, the evidence for clinical management and dormant commerce prevention of repeated episodes of deliberate self-harm in young people is limited. A systematic review by Burns and colleagues (2005) found that group therapy was the dissertation words per day only specific programme that had significant effects on the rates of repetition of statement definition essay self-harm. Expensive interventions such as intensive aftercare have no clear advantages over standard aftercare. 2.1.5 Medical And Surgical Management.
Clearly a person who has harmed himself/ herself will have some form of dissertation words per day injury, whether superficial or systemic. Responding to adolescents who self-harm will obviously include treatment of consequences of the self-afflicted injury. The treatment of on east or west is the self-injury would be the same as for any other injury, taking into account the level of distress and words per day emotional disturbance experienced by the patient (NICE, 2004). The most common products of self-injury -wounds and poisoning must be treated accordingly. Rosa Parks Essay? Wounds may require wound assessment and dissertation words per day exploration and significance together with a full discussion of the dissertation patient’s preferences should be cleaned and dressed appropriately. In more severe cases, minor surgery might be necessary to in 3 days, properly mend any damages. Treatment for ingested substances would be dependent on the nature of the dissertation words poison. Samples should be collected as soon as possible for laboratory analysis. The Easiest? The overall aim would be to reduce absorption, increase elimination or chemically neutralize the adverse biological effects of the poison.
The guidelines proposed by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence emphasizes the consideration of dissertation words per day gastro-intestinal decontamination only in self-harm patients who present early, are fully conscious with a protected airway, and are at risk of significant harm as a result of the poisoning. Activated charcoal could be administered 1 to 2 hours after ingestion. On East Is The? Emetics and cathartics should not be used in the management of dissertation words per day self-poisoning. Recommendations by TOXBASE or the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) should be followed to of a angel tab, prevent further complications and harm. Gastric lavage and whole bowel irrigation should only be used when specifically recommended by relevant bodies.
2.1.6 Pharmacological Interventions. Generally, the use of pharmacological agents in treating adolescents who have self-harmed is built on the basis that depression is an underlying problem in these patients. Comparing antidepressant therapy with placebo in patients who had deliberately initiated self-poisoning or self-injury, significant odds ratios were achieved. Furthermore, significantly reduced rates of further self-harm were observed for depot flupenthixol compared to placebo. The current controversy over selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and adolescents (Wong et al, 2004), especially those with suicidal ideation must be taken into account when prescribing for this group of patients. Like with all aspects of health care, and particularly mental health care, the choice of dissertation words intervention depends on the individual patient’s condition. Montgomery et al (1979) have demonstrated a significantly greater likelihood of repeated self-harm in patients treated with the placebo agent compared with those treated with flupenthixol.
Differences in the outcomes of patients treated with antidepressants and the easiest essay those treated with placebo, though not as large, were still significant (Montgomery et al, 1983). The introduction of pharmacological agents in the management of such patients would ultimately depend on the outcomes of psychosocial and physical assessment, and should be aimed at dissertation words treating the patient’s underlying problems or particular diagnosis rather than simply treating self-harming behaviour. Whatever, therapeutic decisions are made, clinicians should ensure that the the easiest and the essay patient (or where not possible, parents or guardians) are made aware of the treatment options available, including the likely advantages and disadvantages, and involved in making a choice. 2.1.7 Referral and Discharge Following Self-Harm. Referral and discharge of an adolescent after self-harm would depend on the outcomes of the extensive assessment that would have been previously conducted (section 2.1.1).
It is important that the patient remains as involved as possible in decisions that are made regarding his/ her management. Adolescents who have harmed themselves may need a range of other health or social services. Referral to these professionals and other relevant agencies bears witness to the importance of adopting a multi agency approach (section 2.3). Proper documentation of all relevant interventions and conversations will ensure a seamless transfer from one health service to another and culminate in improved quality of care and per day better outcomes. 2.1.8 Family Support. This is quite different from family therapy as discussed under treatment options (section 2.1.4). Rather than attempt to resolve underlying family problems in a bid to address the source of the adolescent’s problems like the significance latter, family support refers to moves that could be taken to help parents and siblings deal with the traumatic experience of self-harm in the family. Common family reactions following suicide or self-harm by adolescents include denial, guilt, shame, anger, depression, substance misuse and dissertation per day overprotection of other children and siblings.
These issues have to be addressed effectively and in and the, a timely manner to per day, avert further tragic family occurrences. It would be the responsibility of the resident psychologist to evaluate family members and extended definition essay provide the appropriate counselling and dissertation words treatment. A large part of responding to the increasing rates of self-harm among adolescents in the UK is the easiest initiating preventive measures. The National Inquiry into self-harm among young people found that school-based work appears to be one of the most promising areas where prevention of per day self-harm among young people can be effectively tackled. Also it is widely recognised that young people would rather turn to young people than adults in their time of need. In response to this, schools have started implementing peer support schemes. It must be appreciated that prevention strategies should be both primary and secondary, i.e. should target self-harmers as well as the general young population as appropriate. Child and adolescent mental health services must put in place programmes to thesis essay, effectively reach their target population.
Measures should be put into action to promote good mental health and emotional well being (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). In addition, educational awareness programmes should be initiated to dissertation per day, provide information to the general public towards reducing the an essay stigmatisation associated with self-harm and suicides. The mental health service could pilot a 24-hour help line to address adolescent’s problems. This would provide an avenue to dissertation words, discuss one’s problems and obtain advice and support on how to deal with them. 25% of young people who were asked what could be done to prevent adolescents from and the, harming themselves responded that someone to listen, advise and per day support in times of need would be beneficial (Fortune et al, 2005). Secondary prevention is even more crucial as a 30-fold increase in risk of suicide has been demonstrated in young people who had previously self-harmed.
Direct intervention is the easiest and the essay indicated for these patients to prevent repeated self-harm. Various distraction techniques have been reported by these young people as helping to per day, take their minds off the cruel angel tab urge to dissertation, inflict harm on themselves. These include physical exercise, writing negative feelings on paper and ripping it up, using a red felt-pen to mark instead of cut, hitting a punch bag to vent anger and frustration, writing in an essay in 3 days, a diary and talking to a friend (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Professional prevention of repeated episodes of self-harm would include psychological and psychosocial assessment and interventions as described in earlier sections to try and resolve causal problems and improve emotional well being and general mental health. 2.2 Assessing The Needs And Risks of Young People Who Have Self-Harmed.
Psychosocial assessment in per day, patients who have self-harmed can be classified broadly into assessment of need and assessment of risks. Specialist mental health professionals should carry out both assessments. Research has found typical psychological and psychosocial factors associated with deliberate self-harm (Webb, 2002). However, the breadth and sensitivity of tools and methods utilised in india is the, these studies mean that psychosocial factors have been less consistently measured. Words? In fact, it has been suggested that positive psychosocial factors might actually play a role in providing protection against self-harming behaviour. Assessment of Needs. Needs assessment should be comprehensive and include evaluation of the social, psychological and motivational factors specific to the individual’s act of self-harm, current suicidal intent and hopelessness (NICE, 2004). In addition, a full mental health and social needs assessment must be included. As always, all conversations and interventions must be clearly documented in the patients’ notes to ensure seamless transition from one healthcare professional to another, and to thesis, enable follow-up. Assessment of Risks. This should include identification of the main clinical and demographic characteristics that are potential risk factors for repeated self-harm or suicide (NICE, 2004).
A standardised risk assessment scale could be used, but should complement rather than replace extensive individual assessment. Psychosocial assessment is dissertation important because it provides an thesis extended, insight into per day, the longer-term needs and risks of the statement definition patient and forms a basis for therapeutic decisions. 2.3 The Multi Agency Approach To Management of Adolescents Who Self-Harm. The involvement of multiple agencies or services in the care of patients who have self-harmed is crucial to dissertation words, obtaining good outcomes. This approach is much more than the usual inter-professional approaches to patient care as recommended in hospitals.
Matter-of-fact, inter-professional patient care merely forms a small part of the multi agency approach in mental health care. The Royal College of definition essay Psychiatry (2006) emphasizes the dissertation words importance of doing in 3 days a full and longer-term approach to dissertation words, providing care for self-harm patients that will require the co-ordinated activities of local and health authorities together with an awareness of the important role that non-statutory sector agencies play. The nature of these episodes of self-harm and the age group being considered necessitates the the easiest involvement of a wide range of professionals in health and non-health sectors in order to address all aspects of the incidence appropriately. Health professionals who will be invariably involved in management of these patient groups are emergency department staff, paramedical and dissertation words ambulance staff, general practitioners, pharmacists, counsellors, paediatricians, paediatric nurses, psychiatrists, prison health staff, clinical psychologists, mental health nurses, community psychiatric nurses and social workers. Other public services professionals may have direct contact or be involved in the care of essay these patients. These include occupational therapists, art therapists, the police and professionals who work in the criminal justice and education sectors (NICE, 2004). In addition, child protection services may be involved depending on the family background. Thus it is clear that the full range of resources and interventions required by young people who harm themselves span the responsibilities of a range of agencies and sectors of care (RCPSYCH, 1998). Paramedical and words per day Ambulance Staff.
As the and the essay first health care contacts that an adolescent will have after a self-harm episode, ambulance staff and paramedics have an increasingly important role in words, early assessment and treatment of self-harm. Urgently needed at this point is an dormant, assessment of physical risk to ascertain the dissertation words per day extent of the injury and provide first-aid treatment at once. In cases of self-poisoning, ambulance staff should ensure to obtain all substances and/or medications found at the scene and hand them over at the emergency department. They should be well trained and equipped to assess and make quick life-saving interventions. Training should address in particular, the different methods of self-harm and the appropriate treatments. NICE guidelines (2004) recommend that ambulance trusts, the emergency department and mental health trusts should work in partnership to develop locally agreed protocols for ambulance staff to essay, follow in dissertation words per day, the care and transport of self-harm patients.
Emergency Department Staff. The accident and emergency (AE) staff in the hospital are probably the main care-providers for these patients at this acute stage. It is their responsibility to keep the injured patient alive and prevent as much damage as possible. If this is statement extended not achieved, all subsequent care providers may have no role to play (in the event of death of patient). They should be properly trained to recognise and dissertation words counter common self-inflicted injury. These professionals often have direct contact with the ambulance staff and proper communication between these two services is critical. General Practitioners and thesis Paediatricians.
Effective communication between primary and secondary care is necessary in order to allow continuity of care for these patients. Paediatricians are especially involved to provide adequate care for children. Mental Health Services. The role of mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and words mental health nurses in providing care to self-harming young people is very evident. It is their duty to essay clause, assess and treat any mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia e.t.c. All the psychosocial and psychological assessments and interventions previously discussed is their responsibility. When problems are identified in living conditions or other social aspects of the per day young person’s life, social workers are brought in to address these, and where necessary, make alternative arrangements to an essay days, resolve the problems.
In the infrequent case of illegal activities associated with the incidence of adolescents’ self-harm, members of the police force or other criminal justice professionals are required to dissertation words, resolve these issues. For example, underlying sexual abuse as a trigger factor for self-harm would necessitate police intervention. Child protection procedures must also be implemented when a young person’s self-harming is indicative of mistreatment. Children and essay on east or west adolescents spend most of their time in school, and thus the school staff could have a major role to play in taking care of young people who have self-harmed. Per Day? Caution should be applied when dealing with children.
In particular, children and adolescents with learning disability should be treated with care, and if necessary enrolled in a special needs institution. Given that the arrangement of the various units that provide the different services may be complex, integrating these services could seem quite chaotic and disorganised. Doing In 3 Days? The health authority/board should work with partner local authorities, trusts and primary care groups to ensure that inter-agency boundaries do not create fault lines in service delivery (RCPSYCH, 2006). Dissertation Words? There should be accurately developed policies to ensure that all the provider agencies have service agreements that enable and govern protocols for assessing and treating young people who harm themselves to be implemented and used effectively. The fundamental idea of essay clause a comprehensive child and dissertation words adolescent mental health service provider is the takes a multi agency approach and is not restricted solely to a psychiatric service (Morley and Wilson, 2001). The four tiers of intervention that should be included in such services are outlined below (National Health Service, 1995): Tier 1: Non-mental health specialists.
These are professionals who by essay india best, virtue of their work with children, young people and words per day families, are in a position to identify early signs of mental health problems. These could be midwives, health visitors, school nurses and is the best counsellors. Per Day? These practitioners can provide general advice and treatment for less severe problems, and contribute towards mental health promotion. Tier 2: Child and an essay in 3 days adolescent mental health specialists working in dissertation per day, community and primary care settings. E.g. primary mental health workers, psychologists and counsellors in GP practices, paediatric clinics, schools and youth services. They can provide more specialist interventions and training to practitioners at tier 1 level. Tier 3: At this stage, the multi-disciplinary and multi agency specialist child and adolescent mental health professionals work as team, as appropriate to provide extensive assessment and treatment to essay or west india, children and young people with more complex and persistent disorders.
Tier 4: In-patient and highly specialised child and adolescent mental health services, including specialist and forensic units usually offering services across several areas. These are essential tertiary level services for children and young people with the words per day most serious problems. They can include secure forensic adolescent units, eating disorders units, specialist neuro-psychiatric teams, and other specialist teams (for children who have been sexually abused, for example), usually serving more than one district or region. 3. General Discussion. The reality of essay on east india self-harm in adolescents paints a grim and dissertation per day depressing picture. The vulnerable nature of the patient group makes management and treatment interventions even more difficult to implement effectively. With increased access to televisions, the Internet and significance essay other sources of information and entertainment, young people today are exposed to all sorts of negative influences that could hamper mental health and words emotional well being. These, combined with numerous other factors are possible factors behind the rising incidents of self-harm among young people in the United Kingdom.
Despite the magnitude of the problem, there is a baffling dearth of essay or west research investigations into per day, this area. Applying the findings of the and the essay self-harm studies and adhering to available guidelines, a comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service can be established to dissertation, effectively target all aspects of underlying factors in the easiest and the essay, self-harm. Ethnicity distribution findings has useful implications for management of suicidal behaviour, and should always be taken into consideration during assessment when predicting risk of repeated self-harming episodes. Likewise, other potential risk factors and confounding factors should be accounted for in individual cases. Assessment should always look out for features that are indicators of strong suicidal intent, high lethality, extreme precautions against being discovered and dissertation per day underlying psychiatric illness. Despite little evidence to on east india is the best, show advantages over discharge, guidelines recommend a minimal overnight admission to allow for comprehensive assessment and dissertation words per day proper implementation of appropriate treatment. Admission must be in a suitable ward or unit and should ensure support and safety at thesis statement all times. The treatment options are vast and could range from medical, surgical or pharmacological management to per day, psychosocial and psychological interventions. Statement Extended Definition Essay? Larger studies would be beneficial to gain a more accurate insight into the reliability and generalisability of these interventions in this group of patients. There appears to be more research and information in the literature for psychological and dissertation per day psychosocial interventions such as problem-solving, cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy and group therapy, than for pharmacological management e.g. the doing in 3 use of anti-depressants or anti-psychotics following self-harm in young people.
Ultimately, the choice of words treatment depends on the individual patient and his/ her inherent risk factors. Assessment of needs and of a angel risks (psychosocial assessment) must be carried out before discharge to ascertain the patients’ ability to cope and the extent of their suicidal ideation. The outcomes of such assessment would further determine suitable treatment path and dissertation per day the necessary agencies and the easiest and the services to employ. For a comprehensive child and mental health service to efficiently respond to the rising incidents of self-harm among young people, there is need to appreciate the per day importance of inter-professional collaboration within the hospital setting. Integration of people and skills will improve the quality of care provided, and enhance the services understanding of self-harm in young people. In addition to cruel angel, this the importance of external multi-agency involvement is noted, as the full range of interventions required by dissertation words, these highly susceptible patient group necessitates the on east or west is the best input of a wide range of agencies and sectors of care. Thus collaboration with other health and non-health services is crucial and should involve professionals such as the police, school workers, social workers and dissertation words per day child protection agencies, as necessary. It is important to note that the mental and physical health of the adolescent is an essay in 3 days not isolated, and could be an indicator of other family or social problems. A child and adolescent mental health agency can keep its services comprehensive and dissertation words effective by keeping up-to-date with new and proven treatment options that could be applied to its young patients.
Also, suitable training is essential for all staff that will have any form of contact with these patients to adequately cater for essay, them. The views of the targeted young people should be considered, when making local health policies. In a qualitative study investigating young people’s perceptions about helpful contacts (Mental Health Foundation, 2006), it was found that young people found voluntary local organisations, friends and words health visitors most helpful in their distressful times. Furthermore, investigating what sort of help they would like on offer, most people thought that one on essay, one support and/ or counselling would be helpful. Other popular interventions were group support, facilitated self-help groups and creative initiatives and dissertation per day multimedia/ Internet access. Statement Essay? In reality adolescents were more likely to dissertation words, seek help from friends and their general practitioners. As sources of information, these contact points are not trained to provide such specialist help. Young people should be made aware of services provided by child and adolescents mental health agencies to educate them on the available benefits of angel reaching out to dissertation words, them in time of need.
The limited literature available on this topic is a potential setback to effective resolution of the current problem. Nevertheless, the essay on east or west interventions and words per day assessment made in patient care should remain evidence-based as much as possible. It must be understood that the treatment of young people who self-harm should not be just solely psychiatric, and should adopt the recommended multi agency approach in order to effectively target all latent aspects of the problem. Young people’s opinions should not be ignored, and findings on interventions they consider helpful must be applied within reason to achieve patient satisfaction and encourage them to seek help from the appropriate sources. Anderson, M., Woodward, L., Armstrong, M. And The? (2004) Self-harm in young people: a perspective for mental health nursing care. International Nursing Review 51, 222-228. Ayton, A., Rasool, H., Cottrell, D. (2003) Deliberate self-harm in children and adolescents: association with social deprivation.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 12, 303-307. Beautrais, A. Dissertation Words? (2000) Risk factors for significance essay, suicide and attempted suicide among young people. Dissertation Words Per Day? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 34, 420. Broadbent, M., Jarman, H., Berk, M. (2004) Emergency department mental health triage scales improve outcomes. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10, 57-62.
Burns, J., Michael, D., Hazell, P., Patton, G. Or West India Best? (2005) Clinical management of deliberate self-harm in young people: the need for words per day, evidence-based approaches to reduce repetition. And The Essay? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 121-128. Bywaters, P. and per day Rolfe, A. (2002) Look beyond the on east or west is the scars: Understanding and dissertation words per day responding to essay dormant commerce, self-harm and self-injury. [WWW] http://nch.org.uk/uploads/documents/selfharm.pdf (December7th 2006). Cooper, J., Kapur, N., Webb, R., Lawlor, M., Guthrie, E., Mackway-Jones, K., Appleby, L. (2005) Suicide after deliberate self-harm; a 4-year cohort study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 297-303. Fortune, S., Sinclair, J., Hawton, K. (2005) Adolescents views on prevention of self-harm, barriers to help-seeking for self-harm and how quality of dissertation words per day life might be improved: A qualitative and quantitative study. Oxford: Centre for suicide research, University of the easiest essay Oxford. Fox, C. and Hawton, K. (2004) Deliberate self-harm in adolescence. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. Harrington, R., Kerfoot, M., Dyer, E., McNiven, F., Gill, J., Harrington, V., Woodham, A. (1998) Randomised trial of a home-based family intervention for children who have deliberately poisoned themselves.
Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37, 512-518. Hawton, K., Fagg, J., Simkin, S., Bale, E., Bond, A. (2000) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents in Oxford, 1985-1995. Per Day? Journal of cruel tab Adolescence 23, 47-55. Hawton, K., Hall, S., Simkin, S., Bale, L., Bond, A., Codd, S., (2003) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents; a study of dissertation per day characteristics and trends in Oxford, 1990-2000. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44, 1191-1198. Hawton, K., Harriss, L., Hodder, K., Simkin, S., Gunnell, D. (2001) The influence of the economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide: an the easiest, ecological and person-based study. Psychological Medicine 31, 827-836. Hawton, K. and James, A. (2005) ABC of adolescence: Suicide and deliberate self-harm in young people.
British Medical Journal 330, 891-894. Hawton, K., Kingsbury, S., Steinhardt, K., James, A., Fagg, J. (1999) Repetition of self-harm by adolescents: the role of psychological factors. Journal of dissertation words Adolescence 22, 369-378. Hawton, K., Rodham, K., Evans, E., Weatherall, R. (2002) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents: a self report survey in schools in England. British Medical Journal 325, 1207-1211.
Katz, L., Cox, B., Gunasekara, S., Miller, A. (2004) Feasibility of dialectical behaviour therapy for suicidal adolescent in-patients. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43, 276-282. Linehan, M., Armstrong, H., Suarez, A., Allmon, D., Heard, H. (1991) Cognitive behavioural treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of in 3 days General Psychiatry 48, 1069-1064. Dissertation Words? March, J., Silva, S., Petrycki, S. Doing In 3 Days? The Treatment for Adolescents Depression Study (TADS) team (2004) Fluoxetine, cognitive behavioural therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. A randomised controlled study. Journal Of American Medical Association 292, 807-820. Mental Health Foundation (2006) Truth Hurts: Report of the national inquiry into self-harm among young people. Dissertation Per Day? [WWW] http://www.selfharmuk.org/docs/selfharmreportlowres.pdf (December7th 2006) Montgomery, S., Montgomery, D., Jayanthi-Rani, S., Roy, D., Shaw, P., McAuley, R. (1979) Maintenance therapy in on east india is the best, repeat suicidal behaviour: A placebo-controlled trial. Proceedings of 10th International Congress for Suicide Prevention And Crisis Intervention, Ottawa, 227-229. Montgomery, S., Roy, D., Montgomery, D. Dissertation Words Per Day? (1983) The prevention of recurrent suicidal acts. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15, 183-188.
Morley, D. and Wilson, P. (2001) Child and adolescents mental health: its importance and how to commission a comprehensive service. Guidance for primary care trusts. [WWW] http://www.youngminds.org.uk/pctguidance/YM_PCT_Guidelines.pdf (December7th 2006) Neeleman, J., Wilson-Jones, C., Wessely, S. (2001) Ethnic density and deliberate self-harm: a small area study in southeast London. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55, 85-90. National Health Service, Health Advisory Service (1995) Together we stand, a thematic review of statement extended child and adolescent mental health service. National Institute for per day, Health and Clinical Excellence (2004) Self-harm: The short-term physical and thesis definition essay psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care. Dissertation Words? [WWW] http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG16/guidance/cfm/English (December7th 2006) Office of National Statistics (1999) Children and adolescents who try to essay on east or west india best, harm, hurt or kill themselves. [WWW] http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_health/Childselfabuse_v1.pdf (December7th 2006).
Rathus, J., and Miller, A. (2002) Dialectical behaviour therapy adapted for dissertation per day, suicidal adolescents. Suicide Life Threat Behaviour 32, 146-157. Skegg, K. (2005) Self-harm. The Lancet 366, 1471-1483. The Royal College of essay Psychiatry (2006) Managing deliberate self-harm in young people. [WWW] http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/publications/collegereports/cr/cr64.aspx (December7th 2006). Townsend, E., Hawton, K., Altman, D., Arensman, E., Gunnell, D., Hazell, P., House, A., Van Heeringen, K. (2001) The efficacy of problem-solving treatments after deliberate self-harm: a meta-analysis of dissertation words per day randomised controlled trials with respect to depression, hopelessness and improvement in dormant, problems. Psychological Medicine 31, 979-988. Waterhouse, J. and dissertation words Platt, S. (1990) General hospital admission in the management of parasuicide. A randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry 156, 236-242.
Webb, L. Thesis Tab? (2002) Deliberate self-harm in adolescence: a systematic review of psychological and psychosocial factors. Journal of per day Advanced Nursing 38, 235-244. Wong, I., Besag, F., Santosh, P., Murray, M. (2004) Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and adolescents. Essay Dormant Commerce Clause? Drug Safety 27, 991-1000. Wood, A., Trainor, G., Rothwell, J., Moore, A., Harrington, R. Dissertation? (2001) Randomised trial of group therapy for repeated deliberate self-harm in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 1246-1253. Wynaden, D., O’Connell, B., McGowan, S., Popescu, A. (2000) The educational needs of nurses’ in the area of mental health. The Australian Electronic Journal of Nursing Education 6, No.1.
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The Modern Essay by Virginia Woolf. Widely considered one of the finest essayists of the 20th century, Virginia Woolf composed this essay as a review of Ernest Rhys's five-volume anthology of Modern English Essays: 1870-1920 (J.M. Dissertation Words Per Day. Dent, 1922). The review originally appeared in The Times Literary Supplement , November 30, 1922, and Woolf included a slightly revised version in her first collection of on east or west india best essays, The Common Reader (1925). In her brief preface to the collection, Woolf distinguished the common reader (a phrase borrowed from Samuel Johnson) from the critic and scholar: He is worse educated, and nature has not gifted him so generously.
He reads for his own pleasure rather than to impart knowledge or correct the opinions of words others. Above all, he is guided by an instinct to create for himself, out of whatever odds and ends he can come by, some kind of whole--a portrait of a man, a sketch of an age, a theory of the in 3 days, art of writing. Here, assuming the guise of the common reader, she offers a few . . . ideas and opinions about the nature of the English essay. Compare Woolf's thoughts on dissertation words per day essay writing with those expressed by Maurice Hewlett in The Maypole and the Column and by Charles S. Brooks in the easiest and the, The Writing of Essays. As Mr. Per Day. Rhys truly says, it is unnecessary to go profoundly into essay on east or west india is the, the history and origin of the essay--whether it derives from Socrates or Siranney the dissertation per day, Persian--since, like all living things, its present is more important than its past. Moreover, the doing an essay, family is widely spread; and while some of its representatives have risen in the world and wear their coronets with the best, others pick up a precarious living in dissertation, the gutter near Fleet Street. The form, too, admits variety.
The essay can be short or long, serious or trifling, about God and Spinoza, or about turtles and the easiest, Cheapside. But as we turn over the pages of words per day these five little volumes, containing essays written between 1870 and 1920, certain principles appear to control the chaos, and we detect in the short period under review something like the progress of history. Of all forms of commerce clause literature, however, the essay is the one which least calls for the use of long words. The principle which controls it is simply that it should give pleasure; the desire which impels us when we take it from the shelf is simply to receive pleasure. Everything in an essay must be subdued to that end. It should lay us under a spell with its first word, and words per day, we should only wake, refreshed, with its last. In the interval we may pass through the most various experiences of amusement, surprise, interest, indignation; we may soar to doing an essay the heights of dissertation per day fantasy with Lamb or plunge to the depths of wisdom with Bacon, but we must never be roused.
The essay must lap us about and draw its curtain across the world. So great a feat is seldom accomplished, though the fault may well be as much on the reader's side as on the writer's. Habit and lethargy have dulled his palate. A novel has a story, a poem rhyme; but what art can the essayist use in these short lengths of prose to sting us wide awake and fix us in cruel angel tab, a trance which is not sleep but rather an intensification of life--a basking, with every faculty alert, in the sun of pleasure? He must know--that is the words, first essential--how to write. His learning may be as profound as Mark Pattison's, but in an essay, it must be so fused by the magic of writing that not a fact juts out, not a dogma tears the thesis of a angel, surface of the texture. Macaulay in dissertation words, one way, Froude in another, did this superbly over and over again.
They have blown more knowledge into us in the course of one essay than the innumerable chapters of essay dormant commerce a hundred textbooks. But when Mark Pattison has to tell us, in dissertation, the space of thirty-five little pages, about Montaigne, we feel that he had not previously assimilated M. Grun. M. Grun was a gentleman who once wrote a bad book. M. Grun and his book should have been embalmed for our perpetual delight in amber. Thesis Of A. But the process is words per day, fatiguing; it requires more time and perhaps more temper than Pattison had at his command.
He served M. Essay. Grun up raw, and he remains a crude berry among the dissertation per day, cooked meats, upon dormant commerce, which our teeth must grate forever. Something of the sort applies to Matthew Arnold and a certain translator of Spinoza. Literal truth-telling and finding fault with a culprit for his good are out of place in an essay, where everything should be for words our good and rather for eternity than for dormant clause the March number of the Fortnightly Review . But if the per day, voice of the on east or west india best, scold should never be heard in this narrow plot, there is another voice which is as a plague of locusts--the voice of a man stumbling drowsily among loose words, clutching aimlessly at vague ideas, the voice, for example, of Mr. Hutton in the following passage: A book could take that blow, but it sinks an essay. A biography in two volumes is indeed the dissertation words, proper depository, for there, where the licence is so much wider, and hints and glimpses of the easiest and the essay outside things make part of the feast (we refer to the old type of Victorian volume), these yawns and stretches hardly matter, and have indeed some positive value of their own. But that value, which is contributed by the reader, perhaps illicitly, in per day, his desire to get as much into the book from all possible sources as he can, must be ruled out here. There is no room for the impurities of literature in an essay. Somehow or other, by dint of thesis labor or bounty of nature, or both combined, the essay must be pure--pure like water or pure like wine, but pure from dullness, deadness, and deposits of extraneous matter. Of all writers in the first volume, Walter Pater best achieves this arduous task, because before setting out to words per day write his essay ('Notes on Leonardo da Vinci') he has somehow contrived to get his material fused. Commerce Clause. He is a learned man, but it is not knowledge of Leonardo that remains with us, but a vision, such as we get in a good novel where everything contributes to bring the writer's conception as a whole before us.
Only here, in the essay, where the bounds are so strict and facts have to be used in their nakedness, the true writer like Walter Pater makes these limitations yield their own quality. Truth will give it authority; from dissertation words its narrow limits he will get shape and intensity; and then there is doing an essay in 3 days, no more fitting place for some of those ornaments which the old writers loved and we, by calling them ornaments, presumably despise. Nowadays nobody would have the courage to embark on dissertation per day the once famous description of Leonardo's lady who has. learned the secrets of the grave; and has been a diver in deep seas and of a cruel angel tab, keeps their fallen day about her; and trafficked for strange webs with Eastern merchants; and, as Leda, was the per day, mother of Helen of Troy, and, as Saint Anne, the mother of Mary . . . The passage is of a angel tab, too thumb-marked to slip naturally into the context. But when we come unexpectedly upon 'the smiling of women and dissertation, the motion of thesis statement extended great waters', or upon 'full of the dissertation per day, refinement of the dead, in sad, earth-coloured raiment, set with pale stones', we suddenly remember that we have ears and we have eyes and that the English language fills a long array of stout volumes with innumerable words, many of which are of more than one syllable. The only living Englishman who ever looks into these volumes is, of course, a gentleman of Polish extraction. But doubtless our abstention saves us much gush, much rhetoric, much high-stepping and cloud-prancing, and for the sake of the prevailing sobriety and hard-headedness, we should be willing to barter the splendor of Sir Thomas Browne and the vigor of Swift. Yet, if the essay admits more properly than biography or fiction of sudden boldness and metaphor, and can be polished till every atom of its surface shines, there are dangers in that too. We are soon in sight of ornament.
Soon the current, which is the life-blood of literature, runs slow; and instead of sparkling and flashing or moving with a quieter impulse which has a deeper excitement, words coagulate together in frozen sprays which, like the grapes on a Christmas-tree, glitter for a single night, but are dusty and garnish the day after. The temptation to decorate is great where the theme may be of the slightest. What is there to interest another in the fact that one has enjoyed a walking tour, or has amused oneself by or west india is the rambling down Cheapside and looking at dissertation words the turtles in Mr. Essay Clause. Sweeting's shop window? Stevenson and Samuel Butler chose very different methods of exciting our interest in these domestic themes.
Stevenson, of course, trimmed and polished and set out per day, his matter in the traditional eighteenth-century form. Statement Essay. It is words, admirably done, but we cannot help feeling anxious, as the essay proceeds, lest the rosa parks essay, material may give out under the craftsman's fingers. Per Day. The ingot is essay dormant commerce, so small, the manipulation so incessant. And perhaps that is why the peroration-- To sit still and contemplate--to remember the faces of women without desire, to be pleased by the great deeds of per day men without envy, to essay on east is the be everything and everywhere in sympathy and yet content to remain where and what you are--
has the per day, sort of insubstantiality which suggests that by the time he got to the end he had left himself nothing solid to work with. Cruel Angel. Butler adopted the very opposite method. Think your own thoughts, he seems to say, and speak them as plainly as you can. Dissertation. These turtles in the shop window which appear to leak out of their shells through heads and feet suggest a fatal faithfulness to a fixed idea. And so, striding unconcernedly from one idea to the next, we traverse a large stretch of ground; observe that a wound in the solicitor is a very serious thing; that Mary Queen of Scots wears surgical boots and is subject to the easiest and the essay fits near the Horse Shoe in Tottenham Court Road; take it for granted that no one really cares about Aeschylus; and so, with many amusing anecdotes and some profound reflections, reach the peroration, which is that, as he had been told not to see more in Cheapside than he could get into twelve pages of the Universal Review , he had better stop. And yet obviously Butler is at least as careful of our pleasure as Stevenson, and to per day write like oneself and call it not writing is a much harder exercise in style than to write like Addison and call it writing well. But, however much they differ individually, the Victorian essayists yet had something in common. They wrote at thesis cruel angel tab greater length than is now usual, and they wrote for dissertation words per day a public which had not only time to sit down to its magazine seriously, but a high, if peculiarly Victorian, standard of culture by which to judge it. It was worth while to speak out upon serious matters in an essay; and there was nothing absurd in doing an essay in 3 days, writing as well as one possibly could when, in a month or two, the same public which had welcomed the essay in a magazine would carefully read it once more in a book.
But a change came from a small audience of cultivated people to a larger audience of people who were not quite so cultivated. The change was not altogether for the worse. In volume iii. we find Mr. Birrell and Mr. Beerbohm. Per Day. It might even be said that there was a reversion to the classic type and that the essay by the easiest losing its size and something of its sonority was approaching more nearly the essay of dissertation words Addison and Lamb. At any rate, there is a great gulf between Mr. Birrell on Carlyle and the essay which one may suppose that Carlyle would have written upon Mr. Birrell. There is little similarity between A Cloud of Pinafores , by Max Beerbohm, and A Cynic's Apology , by Leslie Stephen. But the essay is alive; there is no reason to despair.
As the conditions change so the essayist, most sensitive of clause all plants to public opinion, adapts himself, and per day, if he is good makes the best of the change, and if he is bad the doing days, worst. Words. Mr. Birrell is certainly good; and so we find that, though he has dropped a considerable amount of parks significance essay weight, his attack is much more direct and his movement more supple. Per Day. But what did Mr. Beerbohm give to essay on east india best the essay and what did he take from it? That is a much more complicated question, for here we have an essayist who has concentrated on the work and is, without doubt, the prince of his profession.
What Mr. Beerbohm gave was, of course, himself. Dissertation Words. This presence, which has haunted the essay fitfully from the time of Montaigne, had been in exile since the essay commerce clause, death of Charles Lamb. Matthew Arnold was never to his readers Matt, nor Walter Pater affectionately abbreviated in a thousand homes to Wat. They gave us much, but that they did not give. Thus, sometime in the nineties, it must have surprised readers accustomed to exhortation, information, and denunciation to find themselves familiarly addressed by a voice which seemed to dissertation per day belong to a man no larger than themselves. He was affected by private joys and sorrows and had no gospel to preach and extended definition essay, no learning to impart. He was himself, simply and directly, and himself he has remained. Dissertation Per Day. Once again we have an essayist capable of using the essayist's most proper but most dangerous and delicate tool.
He has brought personality into literature, not unconsciously and impurely, but so consciously and of a cruel angel, purely that we do not know whether there is any relation between Max the essayist and Mr. Beerbohm the man. We only know that the spirit of words personality permeates every word that he writes. The triumph is the triumph of style. For it is thesis, only by knowing how to write that you can make use in literature of yourself; that self which, while it is essential to literature, is also its most dangerous antagonist. Never to be yourself and yet always--that is the words, problem.
Some of the essayists in Mr. Rhys' collection, to be frank, have not altogether succeeded in solving it. We are nauseated by the sight of trivial personalities decomposing in the eternity of print. As talk, no doubt, it was charming, and certainly, the writer is a good fellow to meet over a bottle of beer. But literature is stern; it is no use being charming, virtuous or even learned and brilliant into the bargain, unless, she seems to reiterate, you fulfill her first condition--to know how to write. This art is thesis angel tab, possessed to perfection by dissertation Mr. Beerbohm.
But he has not searched the dictionary for polysyllables. Statement Extended Definition. He has not molded firm periods or seduced our ears with intricate cadences and strange melodies. Some of his companions--Henley and Stevenson, for example--are momentarily more impressive. But A Cloud of words Pinafores has in it that indescribable inequality, stir, and final expressiveness which belong to life and to thesis life alone. You have not finished with it because you have read it, any more than friendship is ended because it is time to part. Life wells up and alters and adds. Even things in a book-case change if they are alive; we find ourselves wanting to meet them again; we find them altered. So we look back upon essay after essay by Mr. Beerbohm, knowing that, come September or May, we shall sit down with them and dissertation, talk.
Yet it is true that the essayist is the most sensitive of all writers to public opinion. The drawing-room is the place where a great deal of reading is done nowadays, and the essays of Mr. Beerbohm lie, with an exquisite appreciation of all that the position exacts, upon the drawing-room table. There is no gin about; no strong tobacco; no puns, drunkenness, or insanity. Ladies and gentlemen talk together, and some things, of course, are not said. But if it would be foolish to attempt to confine Mr. The Easiest And The Essay. Beerbohm to one room, it would be still more foolish, unhappily, to make him, the words, artist, the man who gives us only or west is the his best, the words, representative of our age.
There are no essays by essay Mr. Beerbohm in the fourth or fifth volumes of the present collection. His age seems already a little distant, and the drawing-room table, as it recedes, begins to look rather like an altar where, once upon a time, people deposited offerings--fruit from their own orchards, gifts carved with their own hands. Dissertation Words Per Day. Now once more the dormant commerce clause, conditions have changed. Dissertation Words Per Day. The public needs essays as much as ever, and perhaps even more. The demand for the light middle not exceeding fifteen hundred words, or in special cases seventeen hundred and fifty, much exceeds the parks significance essay, supply. Words Per Day. Where Lamb wrote one essay and Max perhaps writes two, Mr. Belloc at a rough computation produces three hundred and sixty-five. They are very short, it is true.
Yet with what dexterity the practised essayist will utilise his space--beginning as close to the top of the essay dormant, sheet as possible, judging precisely how far to go, when to turn, and how, without sacrificing a hair's breadth of paper, to wheel about and alight accurately upon the last word his editor allows! As a feat of skill, it is well worth watching. But the personality upon which Mr. Belloc, like Mr. Beerbohm, depends suffers in the process. It comes to dissertation words per day us, not with the natural richness of the speaking voice, but strained and cruel angel tab, thin and full of mannerisms and affectations, like the voice of a man shouting through a megaphone to a crowd on a windy day. Words. 'Little friends, my readers', he says in the essay called 'An Unknown Country', and he goes on to tell us how-- There was a shepherd the other day at Findon Fair who had come from the east by essay Lewes with sheep, and who had in his eyes that reminiscence of horizons which makes the eyes of shepherds and dissertation words per day, of mountaineers different from the eyes of other men. Doing. . Dissertation. . . I went with him to hear what he had to say, for shepherds talk quite differently from other men. Happily, this shepherd had little to say, even under the stimulus of the inevitable mug of beer, about the Unknown Country, for the only remark that he did make proves him either a minor poet, unfit for the care of doing an essay days sheep or Mr. Belloc himself masquerading with a fountain pen. That is the penalty which the dissertation words per day, habitual essayist must now be prepared to face.
He must masquerade. He cannot afford the time either to be himself or to be other people. He must skim the surface of thought and dilute the strength of personality. He must give us a worn weekly halfpenny instead of a solid sovereign once a year. But it is the easiest and the essay, not Mr. Belloc only who has suffered from the prevailing conditions. The essays which bring the collection to the year 1920 may not be the best of their authors' work, but, if we except writers like Mr. Conrad and words per day, Mr. Hudson, who have strayed into essay writing accidentally, and parks, concentrate upon those who write essays habitually, we shall find them a good deal affected by the change in their circumstances. To write weekly, to write daily, to write shortly, to write for busy people catching trains in the morning or for tired people coming home in the evening, is a heartbreaking task for men who know good writing from bad.
They do it, but instinctively draw out of harm's way anything precious that might be damaged by contact with the public, or anything sharp that might irritate its skin. And so, if one reads Mr. Lucas, Mr. Dissertation Words. Lynd, or Mr. Squire in the bulk, one feels that a common grayness silvers everything. They are as far removed from the extravagant beauty of Walter Pater as they are from the intemperate candor of Leslie Stephen. Beauty and courage are dangerous spirits to bottle in a column and a half; and thought, like a brown paper parcel in a waistcoat pocket, has a way of spoiling the symmetry of an article.
It is a kind, tired, apathetic world for thesis angel tab which they write, and per day, the marvel is that they never cease to attempt, at least, to write well. But there is no need to pity Mr. Clutton Brock for this change in the essayist's conditions. He has clearly made the best of his circumstances and thesis of a tab, not the worst. One hesitates even to say that he has had to per day make any conscious effort in the matter, so naturally, has he effected the transition from the private essayist to the public, from the drawing-room to the Albert Hall. Essay. Paradoxically enough, the shrinkage in size has brought about a corresponding expansion of individuality. We have no longer the 'I' of Max and of Lamb, but the 'we' of public bodies and other sublime personages. It is 'we' who go to hear the Magic Flute; 'we' who ought to profit by per day it; 'we', in some mysterious way, who, in our corporate capacity, once upon a time actually wrote it.
For music and literature and essay dormant commerce, art must submit to the same generalization or they will not carry to dissertation words per day the farthest recesses of the Albert Hall. That the voice of Mr. Clutton Brock, so sincere and so disinterested, carries such a distance and reaches so many without pandering to the weakness of the mass or its passions must be a matter of legitimate satisfaction to us all. But while 'we' are gratified, 'I', that unruly partner in the human fellowship, is reduced to despair. 'I' must always think things for dormant himself, and feel things for himself. To share them in a diluted form with the dissertation, majority of well-educated and well-intentioned men and women is for him sheer agony; and while the rest of us listen intently and profit profoundly, 'I' slips off to the woods and the fields and rejoices in a single blade of grass or a solitary potato. In the fifth volume of modern essays, it seems, we have got some way from pleasure and the art of writing. But in justice to the essayists of 1920 we must be sure that we are not praising the famous because they have been praised already and the dead because we shall never meet them wearing spats in Piccadilly. Statement Definition Essay. We must know what we mean when we say that they can write and give us pleasure. We must compare them; we must bring out the quality. We must point to this and words per day, say it is good because it is exact, truthful, and imaginative:
Nay, retire men cannot when they would; neither will they, when it were Reason; but are impatient of Privateness, even in age and sickness, which require the shadow: like old Townsmen: that will still be sitting at their street door, though therby they offer Age to Scorn . . . and to this, and say it is bad because it is parks essay, loose, plausible, and commonplace: With courteous and precise cynicism on his lips, he thought of words per day quiet virginal chambers, of waters singing under the moon, of on east or west best terraces where taintless music sobbed into the open night, of pure maternal mistresses with protecting arms and vigilant eyes, of fields slumbering in the sunlight, of leagues of ocean heaving under warm tremulous heavens, of hot ports, gorgeous and perfumed. . . . It goes on, but already we are bemused with sound and neither feel nor hear. The comparison makes us suspect that the art of dissertation writing has for backbone some fierce attachment to an idea. It is on the back of an thesis extended definition essay, idea, something believed in words per day, with conviction or seen with precision and thus compelling words to an essay in 3 days its shape, that the diverse company which includes Lamb and Bacon, and Mr. Beerbohm and Hudson, and Vernon Lee and Mr. Conrad, and dissertation per day, Leslie Stephen and Butler and Walter Pater reaches the farther shore. Very various talents have helped or hindered the passage of the idea into words. Essay Commerce. Some scrape through painfully; others fly with every wind favouring.
But Mr. Belloc and Mr. Lucas and Mr. Squire are not fiercely attached to anything in words per day, itself. They share the contemporary dilemma--that lack of an obstinate conviction which lifts ephemeral sounds through the misty sphere of anybody's language to the land where there is a perpetual marriage, a perpetual union.
Vague as all definitions are, a good essay must have this permanent quality about it; it must draw its curtain round us, but it must be a curtain that shuts us in, not out.
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The Ottoman Empire holds many differences against the Spanish Empire. Unlike the Spanish, the Ottoman Empire as a land-based empire that dominated the Middle East right up to Eastern Europe. Essay Or West India. The economy of the Ottoman Turks was based on conquering new lands and exploiting them for dissertation words, their value. The Ottoman’s continued to conquer, not only so their economies wouldn’t fall but also to spread their religion, Islam. Unlike the Spanish, they did have some religious tolerance in their empire, but hey mostly forcefully converted who they conquered The Ottoman Empire was an the easiest, ethnocentric one, not open to too many outside ideas.
The Empire was reigned over by a religious leader know as the dissertation words Sultan, but his advisors, or the of a cruel tab viziers were the rue voices of the government. They made those who didn’t covert to Islam their military or the words per day janissaries, unlike the Spanish who just enslaved or killed them. Though having many differences, the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire were actually quite similar. Both were ruthless empires that conquered and dominated. Also, both empires wouldn’t have been established if it wasn’t for the desire to spread their religious beliefs and they both persecuted if necessary. Both of the empires had a lowe class of in 3, slaves or serfs that did all the work to maintain production and they both participated in the slave trade out of dissertation, Africa. Parks Essay. The governments of the dissertation per day Spanish and Ottoman Empire were run by religious icons or figures who had absolute control. These empires were among the wealthiest in of a angel tab the world, but only the dissertation words elite had the money. The economy of both the Spanish and the Ottoman Turks both would not prosper if they had not conquered in the first place.
Politically, economically, and socially the and the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Empire were similar in many ways. The Spanish and the Ottoman Empire, one dominating the sea and overseas, one dominating the dissertation land, were politically similar in governing system, but different tin the way the distributed their policies. Economically, they differed in essay on east india is the that the Ottoman’s relied on conquering and dissertation words the Spanish on colonies but were similar in that they both needed to take over lands that weren’t originally theirs. Socially, the class system was rough and rigid in both with slaves at on east or west india is the the bottom and dissertation absolute rulers at the top but they differed in the religion that was part of life in the two empires. Both empires would eventually see their downfall but for on east, the time period 1400 – 1800 they made their time worthwhile, similarly and differently. CC Essay #2 (3EE) European colonialism had an enormous impact on the world, then and today. What most tend to overlook, however is the empire of Russia, simultaneously rising in the east. In the 350 years after 1450, Spain and dissertation Russia built their empires, each with different locations, political structures , and goals.
Spain, during this time period, was colonizing Latin America. A very small mother country, in relation to its colonies, was expanding greatly into weakly established tribal lands. The strongest threat, the Aztecs were conveniently naive and unlucky, leading to their fall, and thesis statement extended the ultimately largely uncontested spread of the Spanish Empire. In Russia, however, strongly established nations bordered a large mother country. Russia’s targets were its immediate neighbors.
Russia needed careful diplomacy and established treaties and pacts to craftily add land to its empire, as opposed to Spain’s method of forceful takeover. Spain, in order to maintain control of dissertation per day, colonies so far away, appointed officials to rule over designated areas and report to the mother country directly. The landlords in the new colonies, who employed forced labor of natives, had to report to the officials. This was called the hacienda system. The Russians, by virtue of the means which they used to add to their empire, were forced to commerce clause, grant more power to their local governments, leaving them nearly sovereign.
The landlords, employing forced labor of serfs, had to report to their local officials, who in turn made their own decisions. Oddly enough, the Spanish colonial system, spread out over the globe, was more centralized than the Russian counterpart. The Spanish colonies were set up in such a manner as to yield the greatest economic benefit to the mother countries. Dissertation. Precious metals were exported in vast quantities to Spain, cementing Spain’s economic influence in the world market. Spain’s silver was especially valuable in China, who would soon only accept silver as currency. Cash crops such as tobacco, sugar and bananas brought more wealth to rosa significance, Spain and only served to make the colonies more dependent on the mother country to staple foods and supplies. Russia, however assimilated the newly acquired land into dissertation words their culture.
Northern Eurasia has very poor farmland and so the farther south Russia expanded, the more crops Russia could make available. Northern Russia’s population could not support itself farming the dirt that the cold tundras provided, but the more warmer lands added to Russia’s empire, the more surplus crop that could be sent north. The most valuable resource of Russia’s empire was the vast numbers of people who could enlisted or recruited. Spain’s empire was meant to create wealth, while Russia’s was meant to create power. Two empires, occupying the doing same time period, were as different as empires can be.
Spain had a spread-out, yet centralized empire governing forcefully conquered lands with the per day goal of creating great wealth, while Russia created her condensed, loosely organized diplomatic coalition of an empire, with the goal of accumulating power, should war become necessary. CC Essay #3 (3M) The Spanish and Otoman Empire were both involved in the process of empire building during the period of 1450 to 1800. Essay On East Or West India Best. Though both began to develop economically, politically and socially, their underlying strategies for dissertation, this process differed greatly. The Spanish Empire followed and was helped along by rosa parks essay the Catholic Church, while the dissertation words Ottoman were a Muslim people that were governed by the easiest and the essay the Islamic religion. The differences between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empires stemmed from dissertation per day, their very different religions, though the were both involved in global trade which made many of their developments similar. Economically, both the Spanish and Ottoman Empire had similar aspirations. During this period trade, as well as agriculture dominated. The Ottoman Empire, like the Spanish Empire cultivated their own crops and through importing received their needed goods on one of the developing trade routes such as the an essay days Indian Ocean route. However, the Spanish Empire during this period also began the dissertation words per day process of widespread colonization along with the Portueugese. The Ottoman Empire began to conquer surrounding regions but was not a part of the major movement into the Americas. Both Empires, however, took part in the developing and thesis cruel angel tab growing slave trade during this period.
The Ottoman especially used African slaves, as it was against the Islamic faith to use Muslim slaves. Economically the Ottoman and Spanish Empires followed very similar paths, though they differed significantly in their political structures. The Ottoman Empire based on Islam, and the Spanish Empire based on Christianity followed very different political paths. The Spanish Empire, for instance, began the process of colonization which meant the use of administrators as bureus. The Ottoman Empire also moved into surrounding areas in the Middle East, though they favored a more centralized form of government. Also a crucial difference was that the Ottoman Empire followed the Islamic faith. This meant strict adherence to Islamic laws.
Similarly, the Spanish Empire had no separation of church and state and received influence from the Catholic Church. This often meant that both political structures were dominated by a leader that was influenced by religious motives, rather than what was best for the state. This religious backing also produced a new practice for the Ottoman, the dissertation janissaries, or an army of Christian men taken as prisoners. Thesis Of A Cruel Angel. The Spanish Empire relied on their own men to produce an army, such as the conquistadors which were used in dissertation per day colonization into or west is the the Americas. The major differences between the Ottoman and Spanish Empires politically was significant as were those socially. Socially, both empires saw significant influence from religion.
For example, the Ottoman Empire followed the dissertation words practices of the Islamic faith, and doing days remained tolerant of other religions in their Empire. Per Day. However, those that were non-Muslim were forced to pay a tax, but conversion was still not mandatory. The Spanish Empire was not as tolerant of other religions, and missionaries were widely used to convert others. Also in essay clause the Spanish Empire stratifications between those in words Latin America and commerce clause Spanish Europeans developed, along with colonization. The Ottoman Empire promoted relative equality among its people, as all were seen equal under Allah. Nonetheless, however, traditional ideas towards women remained the norm in dissertation words per day both empires.
Women were seen as child-barers and remained in the home, while in rosa parks significance essay the Ottoman Empire some even were convened to the Islamic faith. Dissertation Per Day. Socially, as in other regions, similar developments occurred among the essay dormant commerce clause Ottoman and dissertation per day Spanish Empires in their social structure. The period 1450 to 1800 saw many developments in Empire building for the Spanish and Ottoman Empire. Though, like in all other empires, these were forced to go through the in 3 days tedious work of building a social, political, and economic structure, one major difference existed. In the per day case of the Ottoman and Spanish Empires religion had the biggest effect on the easiest essay, the paths that were taken in building empires. CC Essay # 4 (3 AA) The Spanish Empire and Russian Empires during 1450 – 1800 were two different Empires with different goals in mind. Words Per Day. The Spanish were more oncerned with overseas expansion, while the Russians were concerned with Westernization efforts. During 1450-1800 the Spanish were one of the leading countries in terms of overseas expansion. They were one of the first countries to have a representative sailor reach the New World. The reason for their great success in overseas expansion was the support the government had for it. The King and Queen payed for many explorations to new lands because they knew the fruit discovery could bear.
They were rewarded with new goods and new markets of trade. Soon, Spain began colonizing these newfound lands which benefited them even more. By colonizing lands rich with resources and commodities such as silk, gold, and silver, the Spanish made themselves the or west india best primary beneficiary. They were able to control imports and exports from these lands and words per day open new trade routes. Also, in the colonies they made the citizens work for the prospects of Spain, for example searching for gold, or growing prosperous cash crops. The result of all this was that Spain was becoming increasingly powerful and spreading throught the parks world. The Russian Empire during 1450-1800 was one that was trying to establish itself as a world. It’s leaders were focused using the ways of the West to dissertation words, promote itself. For example Peter the rosa Great who greatly reformed Russia using Western European ideology.
He rebuilt buildings, roads, and government systems. BY 1800 Russia, although not exactly a world power, had built itself up from dissertation words per day, its lowly state 400 years earlier. The major differences between the processes of Empire building between the Spanish and Russia from 1450-1800 was that Spain was already an empire to begin with which made it easier to grow. Spain was already powerful around 1450 while Russia was not. Therefore Russia and Spain had two different mindsets about building up their Empires. In 3 Days. Russia was focused on establishing itself through reforms of government, architecture and other things. Spain wanted to expand its empire and did so by using their navy and by taking advantage of these newfoundlands. Dissertation. It was easy for essay on east india best, the Spanish to dissertation words, colonize these new lands because they had superior weapons, tactics, and extended they brought diseases with them that killed off many of the native populations. CC Essay #5 (BBB)
Within the words per day period 1450 to 1800 the Spanish and Russian empires grew greatly. Both had changes in political structures, social structure, and economic structure. The political structure of the Spanish empire and Russian empire both changed within 1450 to 1800. The Spanish empire went from a monarchy to a democracy after having a few very bad kings and queens. The Russian empire went also from a monarchy to a democracy. This change also changed the social structure. As in most countries around this time the caste system was released and there was no more of it. With the essay dormant clause change of the political structure also came the change of the economical structure.
Spain along with Britain, France, and the other western countries, became westernized with factories and the new trade routes faster than Russia. The Russian empire became westernized later because, of course, they were very far away from the major technological countries. But as Spain did Russia became very westernized. Words Per Day. The two empires were very similar and essay commerce clause Russia seemed to words per day, follow in Spains footsteps. AP WORLD Scoring Rubric for 2007 CC Essay: Empire Building in Spain, Russia Ottoman Empire.
Sample Identifier: 3MScore: 9 Strong thesis in first paragraph. (1 pt) Addresses similarities at beginning of 2nd paragraph and differences in first paragraph of page 2. (2 pts) Evidence abounds. (2 pts) Direct comparison in 5th line of page 2. (1 pt) Analysis on 4th line of page 3. (1 pt) Two expanded core points for thesis and rich evidence. Sample Identifier: 3RRScore: 8 Thesis is found at beginning of last paragraph. (1 pt). Addresses similarities in 5th line, page 1. Address differences in 3rd line of the 2nd paragraph. (2 pts) Rich in evidence. 2 pts). Direct comparison found on page 2, 1st paragraph: “Unlike the Spanish…” (1 pt). Essay Or West India Is The. Analysis is found on page 3, at words per day top: “Also, both empires wouldn’t have been established if…” (1 pt). Expanded core for evidence and comparisons. A strong 8. Sample Identifier: 3JJScore: 7 Thesis is found in the last sentence of the and the essay: “…politically, and socially different but economically both needed to expand…” (1 pt). Similarities are addressed in the narrative just above the thesis. Differences are addressed at the beginning of the essay (2 pts).
Enough evidence for dissertation words per day, (2 pts). Direct comparison is found in parks significance middle of page 1: “The Spanish however…” (1 pt). The analysis point follows immediately: “It was easier for the Spanish to expand rather than the Russians because…” Use asset model to ignore references to Ottoman Empire. A solid 7. Sample Identifier: 3CScore: 6 No thesis at beginning or end of the essay that compares (similarities and differences) of the process of empire building in Spain and Russia. Addresses similarities at the end of page 1, “…and Russia too felt the pull of expansionism. Beginning of the essay addresses a difference just before “because…” (2 pts). Rich in Spanish evidence on page 1. Dissertation Per Day. Russian evidence is on page 2, 3rd line. (2 pts) Direct comparison in first sentence of page 2, which references the previous sentence. (1 pt) First sentence of last paragraph on page 1 isn’t a direct comparison because it is not true of thesis statement, Russia in 1450. Analysis of dissertation words per day, a comparison is found in the 3rd line of page 2, “…so Russia expanded eastward…” (Evidence may be found within analysis or within a direct comparison. ) Addresses similarities on line 10 of page 1. Sample Identifier: 3EEScore: 5 No thesis. Addresses differences at beginning of essay. (1pt) Especially strong in definition Spanish evidence. 2 examples of Russian evidence. Dissertation Words. (2 pts) Direct comparison in second paragraph: “In Russia, however…” (1 pt) Analysis of the easiest, differences between Spanish and Russian empires on first half of page 2. Sample Identifier: 3RScore: 4 No thesis.
Addresses similarities in dissertation words per day middle of essay, first paragraph, and dissertation differences beginning in dormant commerce 4th line of page 2, in words per day regard to the way each empire accumulated wealth as they expanded. 2 pts) Evidence for Spain: silver, encomiendas, haciendas and “mining” (other than silver). Ottoman evidence in 2nd paragraph: “religion played a big role when building the empire. ” (2 pts) Last paragraph unscorable because the argument is unquantifiable. Sample Identifier: 3AAScore: 3 No thesis. (“…Russians were concerned with Westernization efforts” does not explicitly address empire building process). Addresses differences in first paragraph. (1 pt) Evidence for dormant, Spanish empire building on most of page 1. Russian empire building evidence begins in 1st paragraph of page 2 (2 pts). Attempt at direct comparison at bottom of per day, page 2 is historically inaccurate. Sample Identifier: 3DDDScore: 2 No thesis. Addresses similarities in first two sentences of 4th paragraph. Addresses differences in first sentence of 3rd paragraph. 2 relevant examples of evidence for an essay, Spain, none for Ottoman Empire.
No direct comparison or analysis. Sample Identifier: 3BBBScore: 1 No thesis. Addresses similarity in dissertation per day first sentence of thesis statement, second paragraph. Not sufficient evidence supporting empire building in Spain and Russia. No direct comparison or analysis.