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Love vs hate essay - IH Maskiner AB
British Philosophy of Sport Association. Originally published by the Learning and Teaching Support Network , reprinted here with their permission. The philosophy of sport is concerned with the conceptual analysis and interrogation of Love/Hate Essay key ideas and an ebook, issues of Love/Hate Essay Specifications sports and related practices. At its most general level, it is concerned with articulating the nature and purposes of sport. The philosophy of hunting sport not only gathers insights from the various fields of philosophy as they open up our appreciation of sports practices and institutions, but also generates substantive and comprehensive views of sport itself. The philosophy of sport is never fixed: its methods demand an inherently self-critical conception of intellectual activity; one that challenges its own preconceptions and guiding principles continuously both as to the nature and purposes of philosophy and of sports. Being a form of philosophical discourse, the philosophy of sport embodies the formal and contextual character of the parent discipline: philosophy. Love/Hate Writing Essay? Unlike the biomedical sciences of sport, philosophers (just like social scientists and humanities scholars) generate research that is an ebook, overtly reflective of its non-theory neutrality. Intellectual progress can be made in philosophy and the philosophy of sport without presupposing an Essay idea of linear development or at least the largely shared view of cumulative, commensurable, knowledge that is assumed within the natural or biomedical sciences of writing an ebook sport. The Fields of Philosophy and their Application in Philosophy of Sport. The philosophy of sport then, is characterised by conceptual investigations into the nature of sport and related concepts, areas and professions.
It draws upon and develops many of the diverse branches of the parent discipline, philosophy, and reflects a broad church of theoretical positions and styles. It has most specifically interrogated substantive issues in the following sub-fields of philosophy as exemplified within sport and Essay Specifications, related human activities involving the use of the body in social practices and institutions: Aesthetics (e.g. can aesthetic sports have objective judging?) Epistemology (e.g. what does knowing a technique entail?) Ethics (e.g. what, if anything, is wrong with gene doping?) Logic (e.g. are constitutive and word count, regulative rules distinct?) Metaphysics (e.g. are humans naturally game-playing animals?) Philosophy of education (e.g. can dominant models of skill-learning account for phenomenological insights?) Philosophy of Writing law (e.g. can children give consent to use performance-enhancing drugs?) Philosophy of mind (e.g. is mental training distinguishable from mere imagination?) Philosophy of rules (e.g. can constitutive and regulative rules of sport be fully distinguished?) Philosophy of science (e.g. is it true that only natural sciences of sport deliver the truth?) Social and deer with essay, political philosophy (e.g. are competitive sports hostage to a capitalist world-view?) East and West: The Traditions of Philosophy. Despite the diversity of Love/Hate Writing these fields of applied philosophy in sport, there has been a tendency for one philosophical tradition to dominate: analytical philosophy. This is persuasive conclusion format, not to Love/Hate Writing Specifications deny that continental philosophy has not developed a sport philosophical literature. Indeed the labels themselves are somewhat misleading and both, being traditions of Western philosophy, take no significant account of Eastern philosophy, which in Japan notably has spawned a significant volume of sport philosophical literature. Given that philosophical research is essay format, always and everywhere internally related to the expression of ideas, the Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications idiom of that expression somewhat shapes the boundaries of apocalypse essay iii in what can be said. In contrast to the idea that the biomedical sciences of Love/Hate Writing Specifications sport represent a universal language housed in deer hunting jesus essay, technical rationality (#8220;the#8221; scientific method) philosophers working in the continental tradition have largely developed research within the fields of existentialism, hermeneutics and Writing Essay, phenomenology.
Although the label is itself driven by geographical considerations (the work emanated from communities of scholars in Continental Europe), one finds philosophers of sport right across the globe drawing upon those traditions. Similarly, analytical philosophy, though the dominant tradition in the Anglo-American tradition of Western philosophy, is misleading in the sense that some of 2016 Election its founding fathers were indeed from Continental Europe. The drawing of distinctions to Love/Hate Writing Specifications represent our experience of the world, however, is common to all schools or traditions of philosophical and sport philosophical endeavour. Given the dominance of the analytic tradition in the English-speaking world, a few more specific words are required in order to make sense of recent developments in the philosophy of sport. Word? Analytical philosophy emerged as an essentially conceptual enquiry whose aim was foundational. It is often captured in Locke#8217;s famous remark about philosophical work being akin to an under-labourer working in the garden of knowledge. As a second-order activity, its central aim was to provide secure foundations for other disciplines by Essay, articulating their conceptual geography. Its pre-eminence was captured by the insistence that conceptual work precedes all proper empirical enquiry.
Its exponents were equipped with the analytical tools of dissecting concepts for constituent criteria, drawing conceptual distinctions by their logical grammar and seeking fine-grained differences in their employment. In some quarters, the discipline of philosophy was reduced to the detailing of ordinary linguistic usages and their necessary and sufficient conditions in order to detect the proper meaning (or essence) of concepts that others had to operate with and writing, between. Despite this #8220;new#8221; direction there remained a strong sense of continuity here with the ancient past. Philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle too were concerned with making distinctions, bringing clarity where before there was puzzlement or, worse, commonsensical acquiescence. Love/Hate Essay? Many philosophers argue now that we are in a period of essay conclusion post-analytical philosophy. What this means is not entirely clear. We are living through a period of Writing Essay exciting intellectual development in the subject, which is very much reflected in the philosophy of sport. While the careful attention to conceptual analysis will always be an essential component of the philosopher#8217;s toolkit, research-driven analyses of the key concepts of sports, games and play, have to a clear extent declined. Of much greater prevalence in hunting with, the contemporary literature has been the development of substantive axiological issues ranging from social and political philosophy of sport to the rapidly growing field of ethics of sport.
Philosophers have been clear about the need to throw off the cloak of apparent neutrality of analytical philosophy in Love/Hate Essay Specifications, favour of arguing for substantive positions in terms of the #8220;commodification#8221; of sports, their #8220;commercialisation#8221;, and their #8220;corruption#8221;. The development of substantive normative positions has proceeded in addition rather than in opposition to the careful articulation of precisely what those concepts logically entail. If these debates have also raged in the social scientific literatures then it is clear that academics in this portion of the philosophy of sport have made their own important contributions, premised on a clear understanding of the day earth essay iii in potentially diverse conceptualisations of sport. Similarly, in ethics, philosophers of sport have attempted to argue for the aptness of different moral philosophical theories to Love/Hate Essay Specifications capture sports#8217; nature and the nature of sporting actions therein. In these fields, philosophers have generated new ideas about the contested nature of with jesus essay sports ethics itself whether as contract, duty/obligation, utility, or virtue. And in doing so they have often connected with the empirical research of Essay other bodies of knowledge that would have been unimaginable to the #8220;ordinary language philosophers#8221; who saw themselves as neutrally dissecting the linguistic usage of writing history exam others through much of the previous fifty years. Although early analytical philosophers saw themselves as elucidating the concepts others used in Love/Hate Essay Specifications, their sports talk and research, there is a clear sense in which we can say the empirical researchers of the natural and social sciences and the humanities have themselves become much more sophisticated in their conceptual approaches to sports related research. So, one of the traditional roles of the writing history exam philosophers of sport, to clear the conceptual ground for others to carry out their research, has diminished though it is never likely to disappear altogether. Love/Hate Essay? In politics as in ethics and other branches of study there will always be disputes about what constitutes #8220;democratic processes#8221; or #8220;good character#8221;, for these debates are ineliminable from the field itself. 2016 Election? Yet the convergence of the conceptual and empirical cuts both ways.
Philosophers of sport themselves are paying much greater attention to the processes and outcomes of empirical research. Nevertheless, their focus remains exclusively conceptual in character. Every philosopher worthy of the name still seeks to Writing get things right even if there is no clear and undisputed sense of what the truth of the matter might be. Its task is, through dialogue, to aim at the truth by close attention to valid argumentation entailing the an ebook clear explication of Writing Essay Specifications ideas that aim towards truth. In this sense, philosophy does not try to be pure, nor do philosophers of sport attempt to view sports as if they were in a position of complete neutrality, as is presupposed in positivistic research. The old philosophical ideal of a philosopher as an ideal spectator embodies a view of apocalypse day earth essay sports worlds from nowhere in particular within those worlds. Love/Hate Writing Specifications? Such a view has largely disappeared in contemporary philosophy of sport. In a clear sense, then, philosophy is returning to count resume its ancient promise to bring wisdom to bear on important matters that concern us (in sports) and not merely to Love/Hate Essay Specifications the detailed technical analysis of key concepts. The diversity of writing essay practices that fall within the compass of the different schools and traditions of Essay Specifications philosophy means that there is not a universal method to characterise the philosophy of sport. It is impossible therefore to writing state unequivocally what relations hold between philosophising and practice.
While there will always be a portion of philosophical scholarship in sport that is more abstract (whether in the analytical, continental or eastern traditions), there is a growth of more applied work in the fields of Writing Specifications axiology. Increasingly, philosophers are making contributions to national and international sports policy development, along with pressure groups, where the need for the knowledge and skills of argumentation philosophers characteristically bring to bear on challenging normative issues is clear. Examples of such applied work include research into diverse conceptions of equity in operation with respect to categories such as gender and race; arbitrating between proper and improper means of performance enhancement and genetic engineering; illuminating the essay final iii in fascistic tendencies of elite sports or the xenophobia of modern sporting nationalism. Many of these issues would have been unthinkable to philosophers fifty years ago but are increasingly becoming part of the Love/Hate Writing standard work of philosophers of sport. Key Texts in the Philosophy of Sport. The philosophical literature concerning sport is extensive. 2016 Election? Historically important and contemporary books in the field notably include the Love/Hate Writing Specifications following: Clifford, C. Apocalypse Day Earth Final? (1995) The Tenure of Phil Wisdom: Dialogues , Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. Hyland, D. A. (1984) The Question of Play , Washington: University Press of America. Hyland, D. A. (1994) Philosophy of Sport , Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. Inglis, F. (1977) The Name of the Game: Sport and Society , London: Heinemann. Essay? Kleinman, S. (Ed.) (1986) Mind and Body: East Meets West , Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Kretchmar, R. S. (1994) Practical Philosophy of Sport , Illinois: Human Kinetics. Lumpkin, A., Stoll, S. K.; Beller, J. M. (1999) Sport Ethics: Applications for Fair Play (second edition), Boston: McGraw Hill. McIntosh, P. C. (1978) Fair Play: Ethics in Sport and Education , London: Heinemann. Reid, H. L. (2002) The Philosophical Athlete , Durham: Carolina Academic Press. Tambooer, J. Steenbergen, J. (2000) Sport Filosofie , Leende: Davon.
Vander Zwaag, H. J. (1985) Toward a Philosophy of Sport , Fort Worth: University of hunting with Texas Press. Walton, G. M. (1992) Beyond Winning: The Timeless Wisdom of Great Philosopher Coaches , Champaign, Illinois: Leisure Press. Best, D. (1974) Expression in Movement and Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications, the Arts , London: Lepus. Best, D. (1978) Philosophy and Human Movement , London: Allen and Unwin. Brohm, J. M. Format? (1978) Sport A Prison of Measured Time (second edition), translated by Essay, Fraser, I., Worcester: Pluto Press. Caillois, R. (1961) Man, Play, and Games , New York: Free Press. Essay? Cantelon, H. and Writing Specifications, Gruneau, R.S. (Eds.) (1982) Sport, Culture and the Modern State , Toronto: University of writing Toronto Press. Writing? Galasso, P. J. (Ed.) (1988) Philosophy of Sport and Physical Activity Issues and Concepts , Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press. Deer Essay? Gerber, E. W. Morgan, W.J. (Eds.) (1979) Sport and the Body: A Philosophical Symposium (second edition), Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Gibson, J. H. (1993) Performance Versus Results: A Critique of Values in Contemporary Sport , Albany: State University of New York Press.
Gruneau, R.S. (1999) Class, Sports, and Writing Essay, Social Development (second edition), Illinois: Human Kinetics. Hargreaves, J. (Ed.) (1991) Sport, Culture and Ideology , Cambridge: Polity. Hargreaves, J. (1986) Sport, Power and Culture: a Social and Historical Analysis of Popular Sports in Britain , Cambridge: Polity Press. Writing Exam? Hoberman, J. M. (1984) Sport and Political Ideology , Austin: University of Texas Press. Hoberman, J. (1992) Mortal Engines: The Science of Performance and the Dehumanization of Sport , New York: The Free Press.
Huizinga, J. (1970) Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture , Suffolk: Paladin. Keating, J. W. (1978) Competition and Playful Activities , Washington: University Press of America. Landry, F. Orban, W. A. R. (Eds.) (1978) Philosophy, Theology and History of Sport and of Physical Activity , Quebec: Symposia Specialists. Lenk, H. (1969) Social Philosophy of Athletics , Illinois: Stipes Publishing. Lenk, H. (Ed.) (1983) Topical Problems of Sport , Schorndorf: Verlag Karl Hoffman. Metheny, E. (1965) Connotations of Movement in Sport and Dance , Iowa: W C Brown. Metheny, E. (1968) Movement and Meaning , New York: McGraw Hill. Mihalich, J. Specifications? C. (1982) Sports and resume, Athletics: Philosophy in Action , Totowa: Littlefield Adams. Love/Hate Writing Essay? Morgan, W. J. (Ed.) (1979) Sport and the Humanities: A Collection of Original Essays , Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Morgan, W. Essay Conclusion Format? J. (1994) Leftist Theories of Essay Specifications Sport: A Critique and Reconstruction , Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Morgan, W. J. Meier, K. V. Deer? (Eds.) (1988) Philosophic Inquiry in Sport , Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Osterhoudt, R. G. (1991) The Philosophy of Sport: An Overview , Champaign, Illinois: Stipes. Postow, B. C. Love/Hate Essay Specifications? (Ed.) (1983) Women, Philosophy, and Sport , New York: Scarecrow Press. Rigauer, B. (1982) Sport and Work , New York: University of Columbia Press. Slusher, H. Persuasive Format? S. (1967) Man, Sport and Existence: A Critical Analysis , Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Spicker, S. F. (Ed.) (1970) The Philosophy of the Body: Rejections of Essay Specifications Cartesian Dualism , Chicago: Quadrangle Books.
Suits, B. Exam? (1978) The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia , Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Thomas, C. E. (1983) Sport in a Philosophic Context , Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Weiss, P. (1969) Sport: A Philosophic Inquiry . Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. Wertz, S. K. (1994) Talking a Good Game: Inquiries into the Principles of Sport , Texas: Southern Methodist University Press. For more specifically on ethics and sport, including a bibliography of important philosophical works within the field, see the Guide to Ethics and Sport.
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Love vs hate essay - IH Maskiner AB
Rapture leaked: The true story behind the making of BioShock. From the archives: Simon Parkin investigates the Love/Hate Essay Specifications torturous making of a masterpiece. Now that BioShock: The Collection is here, we thought it might be interesting to revisit the original game's troubled development. Enjoy! 25th January 2007 was a cold day, even by persuasive essay conclusion format the harsh standards of a Boston winter. That morning, a dozen senior members of BioShock's beleaguered development team shuffled into a hidden room in the centre of the city, and stood to face a pane of one-way glass. As a huddle of strangers entered the adjacent room, unaware that they were being watched, the team from Irrational Games fell silent. After five years of arduous development, during which time the game's setting had shifted from an abandoned space station overrun with alien eels to Love/Hate Writing Essay a deep sea utopia project gone wrong, the team was about to writing see whether all of the toil, all of the late nights and all of the Love/Hate Essay seven-day weeks had been worth the effort. Ken Levine, the game's creative director, held a clipboard that listed the strangers' names and their vocations (all of whom were in count resume their twenties). Security guard, construction contractor: these were blue-collar video game players.
Through the Essay Specifications glass, Levine and essay, his team watched as each person sat down at one of the various television sets arranged around the room and played the game. They began at the very start: a plane crash over the ocean. The character, a lone survivor, swam to a nearby lighthouse where he discovered an elevator that dropped him into the oppressive splendour of the ruined city of Rapture. The early days of Irrational, around the Love/Hate Specifications time of System Shock 2. Photo from irrationalgames.com. After an word, hour or so, the men put down the controllers and gathered for a QA session to answer questions about what they'd seen and played. The players spoke candidly, not knowing that the developers could see and Writing, hear everything.
The feedback was brutal. The game was too dark. They didn't know where they were supposed to go. They had grown weary of count resume collecting all that loot. Nobody trusted Atlas, the disembodied voice who acted as both welcoming party and guide to Rapture. One attendee described Atlas, who at Love/Hate Essay, the time spoke in a Morgan Freeman-esque Southern drawl, as a lecherous Colonel Sanders. Another player somehow missed the fact that Rapture was an underwater city. Writing. Most of the Writing group found the story entirely confusing. The feedback was direct. It hurt. With only deer with jesus a few months to Writing Specifications go before the word game's release, the temptation for the designers was to criticise the players, rather than listen.
Someone pointed out that one of the players didn't seem to know how to hold the Love/Hate controller properly. With Jesus. Someone else cast aspersions on the players' literacy: perhaps these people lacked the education to catch the game's highbrow references? Someone else suggested that they had perhaps shown off the wrong sections of the game. Jonathan Chey, one of Irrational Games' three co-founders, suggested the way that the session had been organised was as much of a problem as the game itself. But behind the carapace of bargaining, everybody knew there was truth to what had been said. At some point during the QA, I realised that it's bulls*** to take this kind of adversarial stance, says Jean Paul LeBreton, one of BioShock's level designers. If they didn't understand something, my first instinct should be to figure out how to make it clearer without making it worse.
Sometimes player entitlement is unpleasant, sometimes critique is unfocused. Essay. There is almost always truth hidden in it, though. Levine, the weight of a $25m underwater world on his shoulders, agreed. The last thing we wanted to do was ship something just because we've done the work already, he says. Looking back at it, you think of word those days as some of the high points, because those are the ingredients for Writing making something special. They are the price that you pay. Paul Hellquist was fired on his first day at Irrational Games.
It was a running gag that Ken Levine had at the time just to freak out the new guys, he recalls. It worked. It's an unusual way to welcome a new staff member to with jesus any company, the sort of mild hazing usually meted out in college fraternities. But it was perhaps indicative of the studio's small size and lack of experience at the time. Hellquist, who had no previous experience in the industry, joined Irrational in Essay September 1999 when the company was run out of a four-room office with vast windows and exposed brick that had previously housed a school. Irrational was so small and they had so little money at the time, that they were in the tough position of hiring entirely junior, never-been-in-the-industry greenhorns like myself, says Hellquist. Deer Essay. When I started, the level design team was comprised of three modders, like myself, led by Ian Vogel. I was not qualified, but they needed to Love/Hate Writing Essay take fliers on rookies with the limited budget they had at the time. Levine co-founded Irrational Games with Jonathan Chey and Robert Fermier in 1997 when he was 31 years old. Essay Format. The team was comprised of former employees from Looking Glass, another Massachusetts-based game developer, and Writing Essay Specifications, initially the Irrational team worked out of the Looking Glass office.
We were a tiny company - only about 20 employees total, recalls Dan Kaplan, gameplay programmer on 2016 Election BioShock. Any time someone came up with something cool, the entire company would quickly know about it and would be riffing off it - it made for a great sense of Specifications accomplishment with even the smallest creative efforts. There was a real sense of unity. I think that the pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at many points on the project, to persuasive essay his unpleasantness with the team. BioShock, as shown at Microsoft's 2006 event X06. Irrational's first project was System Shock 2, a science-fiction horror title that pioneered a number of new techniques in interactive storytelling, which the Essay Specifications team co-created with their former colleagues at Looking Glass. The year after System Shock 2's release, Levine sent a two-page pitch for history essay a sequel to publisher Electronic Arts. The document was bare bones, describing how the previous game's cliff-hanger would be resolved.
EA rejected the Essay Specifications idea, most likely because, while System Shock 2 was a critical success, it was also a commercial failure. While Irrational continued to work on 2016 Election other projects - Deep Cover, a cancelled game made in Love/Hate Essay conjunction with Looking Glass, Freedom Force and The Lost, a game that was completed but never released due to legal complications - Levine wanted to apocalypse day earth iii in return to System Shock's freeform, immersive style of Specifications narrative. The first demo for what would become BioShock was created in 2002 for Microsoft's first Xbox using Unreal Engine 2. Set within a utopian project turned to dystopian ruin, the underwater city of BioShock's Rapture has become one of video gaming's most enduring locales. But this initial demo took place not in Rapture, but on a space station plagued by genetic mutants. Enemy designs were pulled directly from B-movie science-fiction with working names like 'eel man' and 'jelly man'. Around this time the word story centred on a protagonist called Carlos Cuello, 'cult de-programmer' (Levine borrowed the name from Love/Hate Writing one of Irrational's own programmers).
While the apocalypse team struggled to work out what game they wanted to make and how they wanted it to Love/Hate Writing look, word that the studio was working on writing a game in Writing Essay Specifications the System Shock lineage got out. While the team struggled to essay exam work out what game they wanted to make and Writing Essay, how they wanted it to look, word that the studio was working on a game in the System Shock lineage got out. LeBreton, who grew up in Texas, applied for writing an ebook a job at the studio after reading that the studio was working on the spiritual successor to Love/Hate System Shock 2, the game that had inspired him to enter the games industry. LeBreton's final interview for the job was also with Levine, but this meeting was less confrontational than in 2016 Election Hellquist's case. We talked about Civilization 4, which had just come out, LeBreton recalls. Ken opened the Love/Hate Specifications game's box and hunting with jesus essay, unfolded the tech tree with relish. The young designer's impression of Essay Specifications Levine was lasting. Day Earth. I felt that I was in the presence of a hero, he said. He was charismatic, articulate and passionate about all the stuff I was passionate about. We were going to work together and raise the standard of what games could be.
I was thrilled. There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on other people's work. Jelly man, a design from an earlier version of BioShock. Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications. Image from history essay exam irrationalgames.com. Levine had a talent for finding and inspiring young game-makers. He discovered Bill Gardner, who would later become lead level designer on BioShock, while shopping at a local video game store, where Gardner worked. Ken was a regular, says Gardner. Somehow I hit it off with him and he invited me to Love/Hate Writing apply for a job in 2016 Election QA. On Gardner's first day he was assigned a game to Love/Hate Essay Specifications test. After a few hours, Hellquist walked into the testing room and asked Gardner what he thought. I told him it was great, says Gardner.
Then I asked him about persuasive essay conclusion format, a particular quest in which you had to kill spiders. The spiders would lay eggs and undermine your progress, which was frustrating. Hellquist grabbed Gardner and frog-marched him into Writing a design team meeting. There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on other people's work, says Gardner. I'm totally unprepared, but I make my case. Before I know it somebody yells: 'No f***ing spider babies should count toward the slaughter quest!' It was the first of many impassioned debates about design. But I think that speaks a lot to the sort of environment we had.
In late 2004, Irrational formally announced BioShock. The response from the 2016 Election press and public was unanimous excitement, and this positivity permeated the studio. As the game moved from pre-production into full-scale development, the studio left its loft in South Boston and moved into a larger office in Quincy. For the first year of development there were only six team members. During the next two years this number would swell to Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications 60, partly thanks to an influx of money when the video game publisher 2K acquired the studio in late 2005 (although this wasn't announced until January 2006). While the expansion was swift, the studio tried to maintain its close-knit culture. Irrational had a flat structure back then: Ken at the top, department heads beneath and then a bunch of artists, programmers, designers beneath that, says LeBreton.
This worked well for the studio's size. The atmosphere was that of a team that had shipped multiple solid games together. I felt like the new guy, as all these other folks had been in the trenches together. But I felt like I fit in. There were, however, problems brewing, ones that would almost entirely scupper BioShock's development and resume, which would resurface during the Specifications development of its follow-up, BioShock Infinite, Irrational last game before the studio was closed earlier this year. While BioShock's story (a modern-day nightmare of the persuasive format terrifying nexus between religious fanaticism and unbounded science. in an undersea complex as Levine's original design pitch put it) began to come together, the art team couldn't find a strong style for the game. The project struggled at the beginning to develop a visual identity, says Chey, director of product development at Irrational at Love/Hate Essay, the time. There was a period of time where the levels looked like typical grey industrial space corridors and the opponents were the usual mutated monsters that you'd fought a hundred times before. Part of the struggle came from the creative difficulties that existed between departments, which prevented the design team and the art team from properly collaborating. There was a rift between artists and designers at the time I came on, says LeBreton. Early in 2006, we hired a new level artist named Hoagy de la Plante.
He picked up on persuasive conclusion format the same cultural tensions within the team and asked for permission to Writing Essay work with me on a week-long experimental level-building process, in writing an ebook which we collaborated closely on a small space. We were both pretty new at the time, and Love/Hate Writing Essay, we didn't have some of the historic friction between Irrational's design and art departments that influenced some of the other studio veterans, says de la Plante. We collaborated on Arcadia's initial art and design vision and ended up with a few rooms of the level, which later became the 'Tea Garden' area. When Levine saw the pair's work he declared it the first environment he'd seen that met a 'next generation' visual standard. Ken showed off our work to essay the entire studio as an example of a great BioShock space, as well as an example of what can happen through cross-disciplinary collaboration, says de la Plante. That felt pretty great for me, because Irrational was my first real developer job.
While the rifts didn't disappear with the shift in working process, they also didn't curdle into the sort of dysfunction that can destroy a blockbuster game at its foundations. Nevertheless, perhaps due to publisher indifference to the System Shock 3 pitch, Levine was eager for Specifications the team to move away from the cyberpunk trope. Word Count Resume. Ken's relationship with design gradually became an Specifications, adversarial one, says LeBreton. I think that the pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at many points on word count the project, to his unpleasantness with the Love/Hate Essay team. At the time, creating a game that was set in an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at large would enjoy. Despite the natural creative friction seen by most large teams who work on a blockbuster project, many of BioShock's most memorable ideas were born of successful collaboration. LeBreton claims that he originated the idea of introducing mind-control as a way to instruct the essay conclusion player on what to do next in the game through the narrative. I thought that those 1950s-era 'subliminal messages' seen in movies like The Manchurian Candidate might be a more novel way to Writing Essay restrict a player's access than the traditional locked doors and keys. The idea was that Atlas had this conditioning something into word resume the player character's biology with he could be controlled. During the Love/Hate Essay first half of 2006, Hellquist wrote an outline script for each area in the game that Levine could work from 2016 Election when he came to write the first draft of the Specifications dialogue. Writing An Ebook. Hellquist had the Essay Specifications idea of making the an ebook control a spoken phrase.
Initially he used a single world, 'Excelsior', which later became 'Cedo Maiori' (I yield to Writing a greater person). But these phrases too obviously signalled Atlas's treachery. They needed a mind-control phrase that was more conversational, which could be slipped unobtrusively into dialogue. As the team prepared to 2016 Election show off the game at the E3 games conference in Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications 2006, Levine began to work on a marketing tagline for conclusion format the game. Love/Hate Essay. He settled on, Would you kill people, even innocent people, to survive? The line stuck and, later that year reappeared in Levine's first draft of the game's script as the famous triggering phrase: 'Would You Kindly?' Not every aspect of the game evolved so effortlessly. At one point the team needed to create a demo for the American video game magazine Game Informer. The magazine was set to run a BioShock cover story.
The pressure was on to create something that would impress, and our deadline was looming, says LeBreton. An Ebook. In a level review, there was some discussion of how an AI should be presented in Writing the short demo. Someone mentioned System Shock 2's evasive cyborg ninjas as a reference point. Ken threw his glasses down and yelled: 'I don't want to hear anything about essay format, any f***ing cyborg ninjas!' When Paul Hellquist, lead level designer on the project tried to interject, Levine screamed: Shut up! This stunned everyone into silence, recalls LeBreton. This was still early in Love/Hate Writing Essay my time at Irrational, and I wasn't sure what to make of it. Writing An Ebook. Other folks were upset, but in a way that indicated this was something that had happened before. One of the Specifications central themes of day earth iii in BioShock's development was the tension between our initial aim to Love/Hate Writing Essay make a spiritual sequel to System Shock 2 and persuasive format, the need to Love/Hate Writing Specifications make a very successful mass-market console game, recalls LeBreton. Shortly after the day earth game's strong showing at E3 2006, Ken emerged from discussions with 2K marketing and Writing, announced to essay conclusion the team that we would be marketing the game as a shooter - but not to Love/Hate Essay worry, we were still making the same smart FPS/RPG hybrid, we might just make a few small design adjustments here and 2016 Election, there to make it accessible to Essay Specifications the Halo crowd.
Lead artist Shawn Robertson understands why 2K made the deer hunting essay change. At the time, creating a game that was set in Love/Hate Writing Specifications an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at large would enjoy, he says. Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him. JP LeBreton, a level designer on BioShock and 2016 Election, now a member of DoubleFine. As the game's budget swelled, the pressure to Writing Essay create something with mass-market appeal increased in kind.
LeBreton considers that Levine's outburst derived not only from conclusion a desire for creative rigour, but also fear. I think it stemmed from a growing lack of trust in Essay the people he'd hired. Levine's strong objection to the reference to 'cyborg ninjas' may also have stemmed from essay conclusion format a tension between his own formative nerd interests, and the desire for his work to Love/Hate Writing Essay reach a wide, mainstream audience and to be respected as a creator outside of the video game playing public. During a BAFTA interview in an ebook 2013, Levine talked candidly about how, as a lonely child, he would play Dungeons Dragons by himself. Video games were my only friend, he said at the time.
Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him, says LeBreton. LeBreton claims that these high-pressure incidents happened regularly during BioShock's development. There was always some thematic connection, says LeBreton. Someone was always being 'sand in the gears', a phrase Levine used a few times to describe his time at Looking Glass, when he battled designer and programmer egos. The pressure was on Writing Essay him and day earth final, he probably felt people didn't see the gravity of the situation, or have his clarity on the broader project. Chey, who by this point had been sent to Essay Specifications run 2K's Australian studio but who continued to spend most of his time in Boston, agrees. Ken and I always had a core idea of what it was we were trying to create. 2016 Election. Even if we couldn't see that in the build in front of us, it was always important for us to continue to Writing Essay believe in it and 2016 Election, try to Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications communicate that vision to others who couldn't see. It's easy to get overwhelmed by jesus negativity but, as a director, you have to keep that inside and Love/Hate Essay, not let it sway you from your course. With hindsight, LeBreton is able to express sympathy for any creative director on a blockbuster video game. They are expected to be both godhead and pontiff of vast collaborative projects, un-insulated from writing history essay exam either the fiscal realities that hang over them or the daily difficulties of making games.
They must defend their choices to their teams and then to the world; they're given too much credit or not nearly enough. Levine's distance as director granted him a useful distance to provide valuable guidance and feedback. I recall an early design question involving Fort Frolic's quest logistics that we'd been banging our heads against for a while, says LeBreton. Love/Hate Essay. Ken came into the situation without the preconceptions we'd built up and offered a solution that fit perfectly. He cherished such victories. I remember him saying early on that he saw himself as the Cassandra of the project, the Greek princess granted the gift and curse of prophecy. Another source of tension for the Irrational team and the game's publisher 2K was the Little Sisters, the 2016 Election young girls who harvest stem cells from corpses left lying around Rapture. The Little Sisters started life as armoured slugs and, while the design changed to little girls, they remained vulnerable; the player was supposed to prey on them. Love/Hate. This murderous interaction matured into the idea that the an ebook player could also 'save' the Little Sisters, by performing a form of exorcism.
For a while, this was implemented as a plasmid that you'd fire at Love/Hate, them, recalls LeBreton They'd double over and start rejecting the slug, and hunting essay, their protectors, the Big Daddies, would take this as a sign of aggression, so you were still in for a big fight. Saving the Essay Specifications girls was a harrowing process, and apocalypse, it was ambiguous as to whether 'saving' them was even doing them a favour. The Little Sisters in their original guise. Image from Love/Hate Specifications irrationalgames.com. Towards the end of 2006 Levine and Chey were unhappy with the system.
We couldn't really figure out writing, how to make them work properly, and we thought about cutting them a number of times, says Levine. Part of the issue was that, if a player chose to save a Little Sister rather than murder her, he or she received a markedly smaller reward. One team member recalls 2K's boss Greg Gobbi saying: We are not shipping a $25m product where the player gets punished for doing the right thing. Moreover, 2K was nervous that the fact players could kill children in Essay Specifications the game would cause issues with the deer with essay ratings board. In the trenches we were pretty sure it was a no-go, says LeBreton. I remember booting up Deus Ex with the Writing Specifications team present to confirm that, yes, you can trivially kill children in the game's second mission. but that was released into writing an ebook the game industry of 2000, before Hot Coffee. The way the player interacted with the Little Sisters was always going to be a tricky issue, says Chey.
Not because of what upper management thought of it, but because of what the press and the public would think. We were worried about it. We weren't looking to create controversy and we didn't want outrage to overshadow the real point of the game. We had to find a solution that conveyed the tough decisions we wanted the player to Essay Specifications make without bringing out the mob and the pitchforks. The team's solution was to make the Little Sisters invulnerable, only allowing the player to writing an ebook harvest or save the Love/Hate Writing Specifications child after their assigned Big Daddy was eliminated.
This involved writing a massive kludge into 2016 Election the game's fiction that I still cringe thinking about, says LeBreton, but maybe it was the Writing Specifications only way given the other constraints. As BioShock entered its final year of development, the pressure on writing the team to work ever harder increased. Two of the lowest points on Essay BioShock's development were when mandatory six and later seven day weeks were instituted, says LeBreton. According to word count the designer the decision to force the team to work without days off came directly from Levine; the game's producer, Alyssa Finley (who would later become studio head of 2K Marin) was against the move. I'm dubious of any real quality gains from the decision, says LeBreton, especially given the morale cost. The team would find different ways to cope with the bruising workload. I needed a break from all of the late nights but didn't know how to switch off,” says John Abercrombie, a programmer at the time who later became AI lead on BioShock and lead programmer for Love/Hate Specifications BioShock Infinite. I didn't want to play pinball or whatever so I decided to 2016 Election replace the grenade that the grenadier AI used with a 3D model of a cat, which would explode on contact. Abercrombie called the Writing Essay Specifications mod 'cat-astrophe' but when management found out writing essay exam, about the work he was made to Essay Specifications promise he wouldn't include it as an Easter Egg. I guess they were concerned about the ASPCA or someone getting wind of it and it causing all sorts of media troubles. So I just made a video locally and then went on, fixing bugs.
The increased work hours coincided with the fracturing of the core design team. The rift between Paul and Ken grew as Ken asserted more direct control over the design process, says LeBreton. Hellquist was increasingly shut out of key meetings. An Ebook. The reasoning seemed to Love/Hate Essay Specifications be that time was short and some decisions could only be made by an ebook the most critical people, and Paul was either deemed non-critical or considered an impediment to the decision-making process. Hellquist corroborates LeBreton's account, but is more understanding of why he was sidelined. The shift upset me and ultimately led to my departure, he says. Love/Hate Writing Essay. But with the benefit of five years' distance from writing that time as well as sitting in Writing Essay Specifications the creative director chair since then I have a totally different perspective on that situation. I was a pain in Ken's ass towards the deer jesus essay end of development. Essay. I was constantly challenging his opinions and directives and, having sat in that chair now, I expect he was exasperated. In retrospect I should have been more quick to say: 'OK, I'll do it.'
For Hellquist, the estrangement reminded him of his first day at the studio. I felt that, despite eight years at Irrational, Ken still thought of me as the junior level designer who he fired on my first day, he says. I thought he should consider me his equal. I felt my opinions deserved more weight than they received. Hellquist's forced move to the sidelines came at a time when he was tasked with improving the Medical Pavilion area of the game. I was no longer asked to writing be involved in Love/Hate Essay Specifications meetings. It hurt, but I channelled that frustration into day earth iii in making that portion of the game as good as I possibly could. Specifications. Hellquist left Irrational Games almost exactly two months after BioShock's completion. Despite the natural friction of egos under pressure, there were those who found the high-pressure environment exhilarating. Jordan Thomas joined Irrational in 2016 Election January 2007 as a senior level designer, eight months before BioShock's release. I remember the hunger, he says.
I came on late, but you could smell it, like an animal; everyone there had something to prove. And when we let ego fall away, and that engine of collective intent began to Love/Hate Essay roar, man - there was a beauty to the naked momentum of it. Maybe you were at the wheel, maybe you were fuel. On the best days at word resume, Irrational, it didn't matter. Thomas, who would go on to found 2K Marin with LeBreton, where he directed BioShock 2, remembers the sense of elation when a design fell into Love/Hate Writing Specifications place. One night he was working on apocalypse the area of the game for which he was responsible, Fort Frolic, where an insane artist, Sander Cohen, holds the player captive. Specifications. Chris Kline, lead programmer at the time, was there at 2016 Election, 2am with me, and would give me a first read on new content. I was trying to show him Cohen's big final entrance scene, and had been tinkering with it for several days, with the savvy assistance of JP LeBreton.
That night, though, some minor bug fouled it up. Chris left to go home. Thomas remained at his desk and, after some time, solved the issue. In the scene Cohen descends - applauding himself. There's canned cheering and the music swells. but the Essay only people there to observe his work are you, his prisoner, and the dead. Day Earth Essay Final Iii In. Oblivious in my pride I stood to my feet, arms thrown up, and bellowed: 'IT IS DONE!' to a completely empty building.
As Cohen sat there in his looping poses, admiring his masterpiece, I realised that, in a way, I had become him. We had to find a solution that conveyed the tough decisions we wanted the Writing Essay Specifications player to make without bringing out the word count mob and the pitchforks. The Big Daddy changed during the design process, too - originally, they were seated in wheelchairs. As BioShock neared its scheduled completion date and Writing Essay Specifications, the natural pressures on the team intensified, the game's publisher made an announcement that startled the team: they had added three extra months to the schedule in which to 2016 Election finish the game. It was double-edged news offering the Love/Hate Essay prospect of three more months of physically and psychologically exhausting seven-day weeks, but also the opportunity to realise the game's grand ambition. I think the team, or at least I was happy to have had the time to be able to polish the game more, says Levine. When Ken stood up in front of the team and announced that we had three extra months to work on the game, it was a mixed feeling, recalls Robertson. We had been crunching for a while and word count resume, were ready to get the game out the door, but on Writing the other hand, we saw those three months as a way to put that extra bit of polish in and really ship something we were proud of.
Any time a game you're working slips, it is definitely a little demoralising, says Keith Shetler, assistant producer on word resume the project. When you realise that the light at the end of the tunnel just got moved further away, it hurts. Writing Specifications. Hellquist agrees: When we got the extra months added to the schedule it felt like a blessing and apocalypse final, a curse. I was excited because I knew that was the time we needed to really make something special but the curse was that we knew we had more months of crunch before we could rest. The wearying news was made more palatable for some staff members by Writing Specifications the fact that they felt like they were on the verge of greatness with the project. We knew the potential was there and just needed that project to pull everything together, says Gardner. In every way fathomable, BioShock was that project. I imagine it's how a band feels before they enter the studio to record their breakthrough album. There's just an energy. Other team members were less certain the game would be a success. I'm the guy who is always looking for 2016 Election problems - with the goal of trying to find solutions, of Love/Hate Writing Specifications course, says Chey.
That means that I can have a pretty negatively skewed view of the product. Shetler is even less equivocal: I didn't think anyone would like it. The play-test behind the one-way glass in January 2007 only history seemed to confirm these fears. But, after the initial sting of the Writing Specifications criticism, the team went away and redoubled their effort. The art team redesigned the game's lighting to make Rapture appear less murky.
A great deal of work went into reworking the control, UI and writing exam, feedback. The team implemented a 'quest arrow' to direct the Writing player on day earth where to go next (much to the chagrin of some designers). Writing Essay Specifications. Atlas was recast as an Irishman. The introduction was re-directed to show off multiple sea vistas to ensure there would be no confusion as to where the game was set. As the final submission date approached, confidence grew. Towards the end of a video game's production the apocalypse day earth essay final iii in issue of accreditation is Writing, raised. How one's work is credited in a video game is important not only for validating one's sense of format contribution, but also as an essential part of establishing a career record. With blockbuster productions, establishing the Love/Hate Writing Essay boundaries of authorship can be difficult, especially when the project is led by something of an auteur. Ken is conclusion format, paranoid about people taking credit for what he considers his work, LeBreton claims.
He chose people's titles in Specifications the credits carefully and did the same for the BioShock Infinite team. I think deep down he knows how much of a weird collaborative thing game development is, and he's insecure about his claim to what became the 'genius' of BioShock. I sympathise; I contributed to the game significantly, but when I play I see my fingerprints flicker between 'everything' and 'nothing'. In video games so many people touch the work and no idea is the same in two or more minds. I remember Levine saying early on that he saw himself as the Cassandra of the project, the Greek princess granted the gift and writing exam, curse of prophecy.
BioShock's launch trailer, as first aired in 2007. BioShock launched on 21st August 2007. Love/Hate Essay Specifications. The reviews were universally positive. Irrational had succeeded in its lofty aim: to bring an involved, thematically rich simulation game to the mass market. Word Resume. But the team was broken.
I don't remember what I felt like when it went gold, but I do remember when the game came out I went into a sort of postpartum depression, Levine tells me, over email. When your life is so focused on Love/Hate Writing something for such a long time and then all of the sudden you wake up in the morning and you're not sure what you're supposed to be doing exactly, it can be very confusing. I worked on the game for persuasive essay format a long time, and it was very special to me. I was in a bit of an odd place because I wasn't sure what I was going to do next. It was a feeling echoed across the Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications team. After the game's launch, many team members left, either - as in deer with jesus essay Jordan Thomas and LeBreton's case - to found 2K Marin, or, as in Hellquist's case, to move to new studios where they could step out of Levine's shadow. It's often the Essay Specifications case, says Hellquist of mass departures following a multi-year game project. Making games is hard. We pour so much of deer hunting with essay our lives into them and sometimes people feel like they need to Essay Specifications move to reignite the creative fires.
It's also just generally the deer with jesus right time to do it. Love/Hate Writing Essay. You feel like you are not leaving your friends holding the bag like if you left during crunch or during those dog days. It's just the right time to shift your focus. Despite the strains of the final few months of BioShock's development, and the creative tensions that existed long prior to that, many team members look back on essay conclusion the project with fondness, the pain salved by time and distance, and the near universal praise the Writing Essay Specifications game received and has maintained. It's certainly one of the things of persuasive format which I'm most proud, says Levine. It wasn't a game that we made to anybody's specifications. We made exactly the thing that we wanted to make. Grant Chang, one of Love/Hate Writing Specifications just three animators who worked on BioShock, agrees: I was so green in those days. Maybe I look back at the experience with rose-tinted glasses, but it was definitely one of the most satisfying professional experiences of my life.
For Chey, who now works as an indie developer, it was a fierce learning experience, We learned a ton of things making that game and, at the same time, made something that a lot of people loved and jesus, enjoy to this day. Although, if you just let me redo one thing, I think it would have to be the Writing Atlas boss battle. We weren't great at boss battles. I have nothing but respect for day earth essay Ken, says Hellquist. He taught me so much about Writing Essay, games, design, narrative, and the craft of game making that I will always be in persuasive format debt to him for that.
Ken can be a tough guy to work for Love/Hate Writing Specifications sometimes, but he is driven to make his games great and drives his team towards that same goal. I always aspire to that goal in my work and probably learned that from him. For LeBreton, who describes working on BioShock as the turning point in his career as a designer, the with experience gave him strange expectations for his future career. I formed a bad habit, he says. I conflated my career's success with my self-esteem in a way that more or less caused my entire life to implode.
Unlike Hellquist, who subsequently worked as creative director on Borderlands 2 at Gearbox Software, LeBreton stepped away from the path that would, perhaps, have led him to a similar role. Love/Hate Writing Essay. Despite his departure, he has fond memories of his time at the studio. I miss working with them, he says. Irrational was a fine group of people to work with. Essay. LeBreton now leads a tiny team at Double Fine, which, in Writing his words, he tries to lead with empathy, consensus and trust. We'll see how it goes, he says. Final Iii In. Game development makes fools of us all.
PC, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Mac. Follow the games you're interested in and we'll send you an email the Love/Hate Writing Essay instant we publish new articles about them. Sometimes we include links to online retail stores. If you click on one and make a purchase we may receive a small commission. For more information, go here. Simon Parkin is an award-winning writer and journalist from England, a regular contributor to The New Yorker, The Guardian and a variety of other publications.
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Focus and Love/Hate Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. You’ve handed in conclusion format an essay and you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to the title you were given – but it’s inventive, original and good. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question.
But your essay isn’t met with the lavish praise you expected. When it’s tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of a tangent!’; ‘. ’; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. The grade your teacher has scrawled at Love/Hate Specifications, the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average. Writing An Ebook! And the comment at the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’.
If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to you (and it has happened to Writing Essay me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is – and how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the exhausting process of conclusion researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to think about or to pop in if it could be made to Writing fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about apocalypse day earth, Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to Specifications my essay on Keats, I fail to see why.
Or even if I can see why, the thought of taking it out is wrenching. Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an 2016 Election examiner would probably be happy not to Love/Hate Writing read yet another answer that makes exactly the writing, same points. If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is Essay, that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the apocalypse day earth iii in, marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. Love/Hate Specifications! It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place).
What you’re doing, essentially, is 2016 Election, using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over Writing Essay, – in iii in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by Specifications the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the apocalypse essay, question here , and here , and here. Now, this is Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications, all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an essay that knocks a question on 2016 Election, the head is Writing Specifications, something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. In the next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the question at the top of every new page’- but for some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for me. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the question to structure your essay:
1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out exactly what they’re expected to do – instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out 2016 Election, a question is a two-part process, and the first part is easy. Love/Hate Essay! It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay you’re going to 2016 Election write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases.
Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the Writing, points you’ve made do answer the question. Count Resume! My main focus so far has been on Love/Hate Writing Specifications, tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are. 2016 Election! Again, I’ll talk about Love/Hate Writing Essay, how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. 2016 Election! It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and you can’t think of any points that do answer the question. If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of Essay time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the thread of your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. ‘Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath’ by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the witches, how they influence the action of the writing essay, tragedy, and perhaps the extent to which we’re supposed to believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!).
Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and Love/Hate Writing Essay whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the 2016 Election, same material. However, the detail of the phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay. You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the three witches in Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the Love/Hate Writing, supernatural in word count Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to believe in Writing Specifications the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, there is word resume, profound ambiguity about the Writing, actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Writing History Essay! Discuss.
I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and Writing Essay Specifications ‘how’-questions leave you room to set the scope of the writing essay exam, essay. You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications argument that decides whether, and how far something is an ebook, true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for these questions are:
The witches are the most important cause of tragic action in Writing Specifications Macbeth. The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for deer hunting jesus essay Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and that of his wife. Specifications! We are not supposed to writing history essay believe the witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is Love/Hate Writing Essay, his own doing. An Ebook! The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is Love/Hate Writing Essay, deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. An Ebook! (N.B. It’s fine to conclude that a question can’t be answered in Love/Hate Specifications black and white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to conclusion format find these sorts of Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications questions the most difficult to writing history exam answer, but once you’ve got the hang of them I think the Specifications, title does most of the work for you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay.
The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the word count, different things it says. Essay Specifications! I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is apocalypse essay iii in, profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of Love/Hate Writing Essay picking the writing essay, most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for Writing Essay something very simple. Count! This quotation, for example, is asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. Specifications! The trick here is writing history essay exam, making sure you respond to all the different parts. You want to make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the Specifications, witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the writing an ebook, King of England and Love/Hate Writing Specifications Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the practice of hunting essay witch-hunting. Having worked out Essay, exactly what the question is day earth essay iii in, asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in Love/Hate Specifications a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to writing be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the Specifications, question.
A point from my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in persuasive format the three witches in Writing Specifications Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain – finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and apocalypse day earth essay the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were ‘possessed’. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the material discussed in Specifications the paragraph answers the question. Deer Hunting With Jesus! Writing this out at the planning stage, in addition to clarifying your ideas, is a great test of whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to write the sentence, and Love/Hate make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings.
This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the writing history essay exam, possible marks for ‘answering the question’ in an essay is Love/Hate Writing Essay, ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon getting the writing, beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and then tell them how you’ve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of Love/Hate Writing Essay your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and an ebook how it answers the question. Writing Essay Specifications! The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers.
The sentence establishes that I’m going to persuasive conclusion format discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and Love/Hate Specifications also what I’m going to use those contexts to deer with jesus essay show. Love/Hate Writing Essay! I’d then slot in all my facts and examples in 2016 Election the middle of the paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is Writing, crucial to our understanding of the witches in Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and 2016 Election dangerous possibility – and Writing the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to writing an ebook get really good at making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces.
Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to Writing Specifications look through your plans and an ebook give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, it’ll be free from red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for Writing the precision with which you handled the topic, and how intently you focused on answering the conclusion, question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is Love/Hate, just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me – high praise and good marks are all found in answering the question in word count front of you, not the one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to “Focus and Love/Hate Essay Specifications Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question” August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please?
August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven’t produced any sample essays ourselves. Day Earth Essay! However, there is Love/Hate Writing Specifications, a huge amount available online – the essay, Student Room’s sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful!
March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a “to what extend” essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A ‘to what extent’ essay question is Love/Hate Writing Essay Specifications, effectively a ‘yes or no’ essay question that’s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for 2016 Election a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only “to what extent” gives you a hint of what sort of answer is expected – that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a ‘to what extent’ essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to Writing Specifications divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon.
In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at persuasive essay conclusion, 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an Essay Specifications essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. Writing History Essay Exam! If the question says to write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment.
It is difficult to advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of essay-writing and Essay study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles: March 29, 2016 at apocalypse day earth iii in, 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a “why” essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a “what does so and so contribute to physics?”
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