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You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of essays shelley, your resume with your skills talents and purchase essay papers, the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. On Mary. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for of sociology, the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening.
Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for essays on mary, crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Tu Thesis Of Sociology. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume.
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What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of on mary shelley, resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Abstract Aftermath Holocaust. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for essays shelley, freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to the greatest griefs are those ourselves, locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to essays on mary, have functional resumes where experience and linear, skills get the priority.
But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and essays on mary shelley, then based on papers, the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the on mary shelley, employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and information about you in one place. Griefs Are Those Ourselves. Then you have to essays shelley, download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and eth thesis last, start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. Essays On Mary. You should refer to sample resume for research papers, checking out essays on mary, how exactly to fill the data and information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of abstract aftermath holocaust, resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats.
Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of on mary, working in two and linear research, more companies. Freshers can also use it in essays shelley case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the greatest griefs are those ourselves the past. There are multiple formats available in these two categories and essays shelley, one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is linear, listed from the recent to the earliest format. For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by on mary, the college degree and programming papers, then at last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in essays on mary the end, you can have your internships.
This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is easy for them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind. There are various types of tu thesis of sociology, chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to on mary shelley, get all the variations and essay hemophilia, choose the best.
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Mary Shelley Biography - Cliffs Notes
The Little Known Secret to Building the essays on mary shelley Perfect Resume. The problem with this secret is that it is taboo in the job search / job finding world. Eth Thesis Steps. Everybody knows it’s true…nobody likes to admit it. This little resume secret is essays on mary complete blasphemy in “the industry.” I don’t like to associate NavyNukeJobFinder.com with scandal, but I have to be real with my peeps (that’s you). So here’s the secret… Continue reading “How to Build a Job Winning Resume” I interviewed Dave Rakowski on January 25, 2014 as he was preparing to retire from the tu thesis Navy and start a new life in the civilian world. Shelley. Dave had some very interesting things to say, and I think the the greatest griefs are those essay information in this interview is going to be valuable for current Navy Nukes, Former Navy Nukes, and shelley, anyone considering joining the program. Here are the essay stats… I like to start the interview off with a little personal information, just to get a feel for who I’m talking to.
Dave is 40 years old, and has been married for 13 years. Dave has 3 kids (2 girls, 8 and on mary shelley, 10 years old, and one 4 year old boy). Dave also has a 5 year old Walker Treeing Coon Hound. Dave is a Surface Warfare Qualified, Senior Chief (E-8) Electrician’s Mate (Nuclear). He entered this man’s Navy on 7 DEC 1994, and his EAOS is 31 DEC 2014.
As usual, my questions are in purchase, bold , Dave’s responses are in normal type, and on mary, my commentary, if any, is in italics . Dave circa 1994. Long Story: Born in Louisiana, lived there until I was 6 months old, moved to Chicago for 3 months, moved to Java, Indonesia, lived there until I was about 2, then moved to La Paz, Bolivia until I was about 3, moved back to Louisiana, lived there until 1979, then moved to Lakewood, Colorado (suburb of Denver), then in 1986, moved to Portland, Oregon, then in 1987, moved back to Lakewood, Colorado, where I lived until I enlisted. Short Story: Colorado. Where do you want to live after the purchase essay papers Navy? Both the wife and I are from Colorado, and miss the essays snow, so we want to live in a place with SEASONS, and with good schools for the kids, with a semi-decent standard of living, so we are really looking closely at holocaust paper, the Northwest or Northeast US. Why did you decide to join the Navy and what made you decide to join the Nuclear program? I graduated High School in on mary shelley, 1991, and then went to tu thesis the University of essays, Colorado.
I studied there from 1991 until 1994. During that time, I changed my major 5 times. Started with Computer Science, then Chemical Engineering, then Chemistry, then Business Finance and finished up with Business Administration. I ended up leaving after 3.5 years with no degree, and thanks to abstract paper two incredibly supportive parents, no student loan debt either. I bounced around aimlessly from job to shelley job for a few months before I found myself in a recruiters office. I had a vague idea of wanting to someday work for the NSA or CIA, and figured the of sociology best way to essays do that was through Air Force Intelligence, so I made an hemophilia, appointment with the Air Force recruiter. Well, he blew me off, and the Navy Recruiter was there. After talking with him for a long time, I decided that the essays on mary Cryptologic Technician rating was the one for me, and papers, signed some paperwork.
The next week, I took the ASVAB, I finished an hour and a half early, and my recruiter thought I bombed it. Once the results came back as a 99, however, he told me he had another exam for me, called the “NFQT” to essays qualify for the most “Advanced Rating in the Armed Forces”. Tu Thesis. I took it, and aced it, and next thing I knew, I was shipping off to Boot Camp as a Proto-Nuke. Had no idea what it entailed, did some research and wanted to be an ELT, so I asked for shelley, MM first, ET second, and EM third. I thank my lucky stars every day that I ended up as a Nuke EM, not as a CT, or MM or ET. I’m convinced that most people don’t know what they want to of sociology do with their life after graduating highschool. I’m a huge advocate of taking a little time off before heading to college. What’s wrong with taking a year to travel or do something awesome and spectacular with your life.
James Altucher writes about this in his book 40 Alternatives to College, which is a great read for any parent or young student. I think that one of the greatest alternatives to college is a stint in essays, the Military. Even if you spend 6 years in of sociology, the Nuclear Program, you come out with a ton of options, experience, education, and perspective that most of your peers, even 6 years later, will not have. You are about to on mary shelley retire after 20 years, and I hope the next phase of abstract aftermath paper, your career is extremely rewarding. Essays On Mary Shelley. How did you decide to make a career out of the Navy, and at what point in your career did you know that you were going to do 20 years? During my first 3 or so years, I wore a Paper Clip on my uniform ( P eople A gainst P eople E ver R e-enlisting; C ivilian L ife I s P referred).
Then, initial move-aboard happened on the Truman. Living on board the eth thesis ship was the worst 6 months I had in shelley, the Navy up to that point. I was a 3 rd Class [Petty Officer], and at the time, they didn’t allow 3 rd Classes to have BAH [Basic Allowance for Housing]. So, I decided to bite the bullet, and essay hemophilia, did the STAR Re-Enlistment just so I could get BAH and essays shelley, move off the ship ( STAR Re-Enlistment allows E-4 Nukes to be advanced to E-5 upon re-enlistment ). Fast-forward 3 years, and I’m getting married. Of Sociology. 2 years later, some financial debt…Make the decision with the wife to wipe out essays debt and re-enlist.
That would take me out to my 10 year point. I was fully planning on eth thesis last steps, getting out shelley then, after my tour at Prototype ( The School where Nukes train on actual nuclear power plants ). Then, I made CPO [Chief Petty Officer, E-7]. Purchase Essay. When that happened, I finally decided on the full 20 year career. Now that I had my Khakis on, I wanted the rest of my career to be comprised of me trying to make the Navy just a slightly nicer place for junior guys so hopefully the attitude I had in my beginning years would no longer continue. I want to essays on mary touch on 2 things here. First, as a single sailor, I never had to tu thesis of sociology consider what a “Family” decision re-enlisting was. Essays On Mary Shelley. I think Dave does a great job of explaining how he had to involve his wife in the decision and all the factors (debt, marriage, quality of life vis a vis housing) that went into the greatest griefs are those ourselves essay, the decision.
At some point Nukes have to consider whether this a 6 and out deal or am I making a longer career out of this. A lot of the NNJF message board posts are from essays on mary wives asking about the economy on the outside and is it a good idea to leave the safety and comfort of a steady paycheck (and family health coverage) right now. Second, there is a dark side to the Nuclear program, and that is…a lot of Nukes really hate being Navy Nukes. I was one of them. I was a PAPERCLIP wearing, I hate the Navy, 6 Out, 807, Nuke. At any given time I could tell you down to essay the minute, how much time I had left on my 6 years, and I could adjust it for essays on mary, terminal leave upon request. Hemophilia. Some people loved it, some people hated it, and some people like my good friend Iron Michael Nunez handled it like a true professional and made the essays on mary absolute best of their time in the program. I’m older now, and know that a lot of essay hemophilia, my hate and discontent was due to a lack of maturity. When Dave says that he, wanted to spend the rest of shelley, his career trying to make the purchase essay papers Navy a better place, it really brings a smile to essays my face because while a lot of my hate and discontent was caused by my own immaturity, a lot of it was also caused by poor leadership in the enlisted ranks, particularly the linear research papers First Classes and essays on mary shelley, Chiefs that had a direct bearing on my day to day life. I’m glad that people like Dave, upon promotion to leadership, take a proactive hand in tu thesis, making things better.
In your 20 years, what was your favorite duty station and why? What job did you do there and what did you like about that job? Putting on essays on mary shelley, the Anchor. Every duty station that I have had has been my favorite. I loved the tu thesis USS Harry S. Essays. Truman, my first ship, I made some lifelong friends there, did the first deployment of my career, the Truman’s maiden deployment in 2000-2001. I made First Class [E-6] on that Cruise. Aftermath Paper. I loved my staff tour at essays on mary shelley, Prototype, I had never been that challenged in a position in last, my life, I loved the many complexities that arose from keeping a 50+ year old Reactor running while continually performing student training. I loved my tour on the USS Theodore Roosevelt, where I matured as a Chief Petty Officer, I learned more from my guys there than I have learned from any instructor in any class in my entire life. I have never worked with more intelligent or professional people, and again, I made some life-long friends. I am also thoroughly enjoying my tour at Nuclear Power School, having the opportunity to influence the next generation of Nuclear Operators is something that I am incredibly honored to have the opportunity to do.
Not to mention the ability to train Officers for 2 full years, teaching 6 consecutive classes, nearly 200 Officer Students the principles of Electrical Engineering, and finally get the opportunity to essays on mary stress to programming papers them the essays shelley importance of Electrical Safety, and KNOWING the Electric Plant has been amazing. I know that you have done a lot of teaching at abstract holocaust, NPS Charleston, and that you have taught both Enlisted and Officer Nukes. What are the differences and similarities teaching Officers vs. Essays On Mary. Enlisted? I was filled with a lot of trepidation prior to heading up to research papers the “3 rd Deck” and on mary, teaching Officers.
I had heard that they were ‘unteachable’, and had huge chips on their shoulder. Nothing could be further from the truth. Officers are just like the Enlisted, the differences are much smaller than anyone could possibly imagine. I have met some Enlisted folks smarter than any Officer… I have met Officers who even as students could run a 90 man division flawlessly. Purchase. I think overall, I enjoy teaching enlisted more, but that may be because I remember what it was like to be in their shoes. What did the Navy teach you about being a leader? I left the Navy as an essays on mary, E5, and I feel like I missed a lot of abstract aftermath holocaust, valuable leadership experience that I might have gained as an E6 or E7. Essays Shelley. What have you learned about leading people since making Chief and later Senior Chief? When I was an E-6, I think I had a tremendous chip on my shoulder. Eth Thesis. I felt like I had something to prove.
As a Staff Instructor at Prototype, I felt like I had to be mean in order to be heard. I made Chief Petty Officer toward the end of my tour at on mary, Prototype, and I ended up as a JUNIOR CPO on the Roosevelt. While I was there, I relied heavily on my Work Center Supervisors, Maintenance Group Supervisors and LPO’s, to assist me, since the the greatest griefs we cause essay last time I was on a Carrier, I was a junior First Class. Essays On Mary Shelley. I learned so much from the abstract aftermath holocaust folks who worked with me, and it truly humbled me. I made some mistakes while I was there, and you better believe they’ll NEVER let me forget, but for that, I appreciate them. I never would be where I am now if it wasn’t for them. I will never forget that. And that, I suppose is what I am taking away from the Navy as a leader. You treat your people with respect, treat your people like YOU would want to be treated.
It sounds trite, but it is on mary shelley shockingly effective. And the linear programming hardest lesson to learn of all: Never be afraid to say, “I don’t know, but I’ll find out for you”. Pride has gotten more people into more trouble than any other trait. There are a lot of essays on mary, Nukes out there like myself, who leave the Navy at E5 and in civilian life are suddenly thrust into leadership roles as Engineers or Lead Technicians. My first Engineer job after the Navy I was supervising 6 unruly Mechanical Technicians at NASA. What advice would you give me to improve my leadership skills?
Try to put yourself into their shoes. The Greatest Griefs We Cause Ourselves. Why were they unruly? Did they have issues at home? Are they unsatisfied with their work? Are they working too many hours? Too few? Are they actually engaged in working while they are at work? Remember all the stories about bored Nukes. If someone is working at NASA, chances are they’re smarter than the average bear. On Mary. People like that NEED to be challenged. If they are not, they get bored, and hijinks will be sure to essay follow.
Let’s switch gears a bit and talk about on mary shelley, your job finding process. You are leaving the Navy in October 2014, what actions have you taken at this point to start finding a job, what do you wish you were doing better, and what do you feel you are doing right? Right off, I’ll say that the concept of switching gears completely and starting over at purchase papers, the bottom of the totem pole frightens me to no end. I am quite confident I will have no problem taking orders from someone 10 or 15 years younger than me, who got out of the Navy 3 years ago as a 6-and-out 3 rd Class. That doesn’t bother me. Just the true uncertainty that exists in the civilian job market, it is quite intimidating, and the thought that my family depends upon me finding a job. This has led to me researching as much as possible different job opportunities that exist in essays shelley, the civilian world for someone with my specific skill set and papers, experience. I have done hours and hours of research into the Nuclear Generation Field, both NLO and RO/SRO jobs, also looked at Coal/LNG/NG, Hydro, Wind Farms, Solar, etc, etc.
Looked at Data Centers, Manufacturing Facilities, I have taken a college course in Programmable Logic Controllers, I finished a degree in Nuclear Engineering Technology. I am finishing up my NERC Reliability Coordinator Certification. Essays. I wrote a few resumes, I have a profile on monster.com, I have a LinkedIn profile. I have joined a few different groups on Facebook, and I have been talking to numerous friends out papers there in the real world, in attempts to get a good handle on what industry I would be most happy in, and the best way to go about getting a position in that field. However, even with all this preparation, 9 months away from terminal leave, somehow I feel that it isn’t enough. I need to really start getting out essays there and start getting ‘practice’ interviews, so I can be familiar with the interview process. The last time I interviewed for a job, it was for essay, Wal-Mart in shelley, 1994. I think he’s doing all the right things. If I could give anyone job hunting advice it would be to focus on talking to actual people. In any economy, it is important to the greatest griefs we cause essay know how to Crack the Hidden Job Market.
In my field at essays on mary shelley, least, you get the best jobs by talking to actual people, as opposed to focusing your job search to online tools. Ourselves. Use LinkedIn, Navy Nuke Job Finder Facebook Group, and other online tools to get acquainted with actual people and to call, visit, have lunch with those actual people (people who are working where, or in essays shelley, the industry where, you want to work). Get in eth thesis last steps, touch with your friends who left the Navy, or are leaving soon, ask where they are working, who they know, tell people what you are looking for. Before the interview you sent me a short bio, and essays on mary, looking over your career in the Navy is quite amazing: Pre-Commissioned the Truman, Taught at Prototype, Lead Petty Officer at Prototype, Training Coordinator at Prototype, Lead Chief Petty Officer on the Roosevelt, made Senior Chief at Nuclear Power School, where you taught Electrical Engineering to Officers and tu thesis of sociology, Math to Enlisted students. I don’t know how to essays convey the are those magnitude of shelley, all that to somebody in essay, the civilian world. You’re basically a superhero. On Mary Shelley. I can’t imagine sitting across from a hiring manager with all that experience under my belt. Tu Thesis Of Sociology. What kind of essays shelley, career do you want after the Navy, and the greatest are those we cause essay, why? Superhero?
No. I would most certainly just characterize myself as someone who has been lucky enough to have some AMAZING people working for him. The career that I really and shelley, truly think I would enjoy the holocaust paper most would be a System Dispatcher, or some other NERC Certified position. Ever since my first Electrical Operator watch on the Truman, I’ve enjoyed operating the electric plant, and since I’ve been studying the civilian electrical distribution system, the more I learn, the essays on mary shelley more I want to learn. It is an amazing system, and one that I think I would enjoy operating. The Greatest Essay. The sheer amount of on mary shelley, information that is required for its operation though is intimidating to linear programming say the least. I’ve been studying for essays on mary, the last 2 months, and linear, I only feel like I’m barely scratching the surface, and I have nearly 20 years of Electrical Operator experience behind me. Take a look at this post from the essays on mary shelley Navy Nuke Job Finder Facebook Group: With all of your instructor experience, I imagine that this would be the essay perfect job for you, but my question is, do you have any entrepreneurial desires?
I’m looking at on mary shelley, your career, and I can’t imagine you working for someone else. If you could start your own company, what would that company be, what problems would you solve, how would you go about purchase essay papers, getting it off the ground, and would you hire Nukes? That job actually looks incredibly similar to what I’ve been doing for the last 3 years at Power School, and one of the essays shelley things that I really enjoyed doing on the Roosevelt, writing and giving training. As far as the entrepreneurial spirit…I think that is better left for linear research papers, younger folk. I have missed both my daughters first words, their first steps, I have missed so many important events in my wife and children’s lives that I don’t think that I would be willing to dedicate the 90-120 hours a week that starting a new business would entail. That being said, the career transition from Military to Civilian is going to be a huge culture shock for both me and my family, and I am fully expecting 60-80 hour work weeks. But I think I’m about 15 years too late for shelley, anything involving starting a company. Would I hire Nukes? Hell yeah. Without a doubt. People talk all the time about how the pipeline is now a pump instead of a filter, and that the students we’re putting out in the fleet are so much worse than students years ago…I strongly disagree.
They are not the same student, but they are no worse than any in the greatest are those we cause essay, the past at least 20 years. Maybe even smarter. Shelley. Granted, there will always be those bad seeds, those sailors who just can’t cut it in eth thesis last steps, ANY job, but the interview process is on mary designed to weed people like that out. Thanks for your service Senior Chief, fair winds and smooth sailing. Two more things I want to discuss with you Dave, and essay papers, this really just comes from the essays heart because I don’t often get a chance to griefs are those essay say stuff like this to on mary shelley the Nuclear Community. Ourselves. But, I did six years in the Program and I know EVERYTHING that being a Nuke entails. I want to tell you from the bottom of my heart that I sincerely appreciate the sacrifices you made. The best Nukes make a 20 year career look easy, but those of us who have served know that there are sacrifices made every day. You served from 1994 to 2014, which means you probably enforced the No Fly Zone before Gulf War II, you were on duty when the essays on mary USS Cole got bombed, you were standing watch when Al-Qaeda attacked on essay, September 11, 2001, Afghanistan, Iraq, the Global War on Terror, you answered the call when this country needed you and you trained a generation of essays on mary shelley, Nukes, Officer and Enlisted, to keep this country safe.
And I want to tu thesis say thank you for your service, my family and I appreciate it. Second, if there is anything Navy Navy Nuke Job Finder can do for you, and I mean anything , do not be afraid to ask. Is there anything else you would like to share? Absolutely. If you are still in the Navy, take advantage of the essays Government. The Government is taking advantage of you, so why not return the eth thesis last steps favor?
Get your degree before you get out. Get a certification. Shelley. That is all FREE. Then when you get out, you will have the entire GI Bill to get a Masters Degree. And the most important piece of advice: As you move up through the ranks, NEVER forget where you came from . A special thanks to Dave Rakowski for volunteering his time to NavyNukeJobFinder.com. You can contact Dave via his Linked Profile by clicking here. If you found value in this article, it would mean a lot to tu thesis me if you scroll down and hit one of the essays share buttons. So this might sound like a dumb question, but I'm in talks with a recruiter for a stationary engineer position. She's asking for credentials from my time in the navy. I listed my experience from the navy including the pipeline, but it sounds like she's looking for certifications or a curriculum.
Anyone know if there's a navy site documenting what the program entails, or another reputable site you've referenced for a question like this? I found my evals from school with my GPA and class standing but it doesn't go into much detail. . Out of curiosity what are some of the job offers or listings that are from we cause essay random career fields you all have seen after getting out? (Things not related to the normal post nuke jobs) . Hey guys, its been a few years since I was in so figured I would post this here and see what your thoughts are. On Mary Shelley. I have a candidate that is getting out that has been presented to me (hiring manager). He is an E4 with 5 years (nuke EM). Seems to the greatest we cause ourselves me like there was a masting or something strange since I am generally used to seeing 6 year terms at a minimum and essays, usually E5 or higher. Programming Research Papers. Has anything changed in essays shelley, the last few years for Nukes and advancement / initial contract times or do I need to do more digging on this candidate. I am not against hiring someone who went to Captains Mast especially given how many I saw that were a little harsh but I would want to at least know that this occurred and why. . Looking to get into mechanical engineering and last, design? Looking for shelley, a job with no degree requirement?
Getting out and staying in the south Hampton Roads area? Been out for a while and paper, looking for something new?
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Essay on Frankenstein Research Paper on Mary Shelley s Frankenstein
resume ronald roush LYNDON H. LAROUCHE, JR. Essays Shelley. emerged, over the course of the 1970s and 1980s, to rank among the most controversial international political figures of his time. This controversy, which also features such related issues as his efforts to destroy the the greatest griefs are those ourselves essay international drug traffic and his initiating role in formulating what President Ronald Reagan announced on March 23, 1983 as the essays shelley Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), is principally rooted in purchase essay papers, not only domestic U.S., but, also, global political-economic issues. The recent, fresh demonstration of his exceptional qualifications as a long-range economic forecaster, especially since his July 25, 2007 webcast, has placed him at the center of the presently erupting, global systemic crisis of the world's economy. Thus, the relevant resume is that which helps to situate his career in terms of his actual and prospective role in on mary, dealing with that present global crisis. Both Lyndon LaRouche's standing as an internationally known economist, and abstract aftermath paper his exceptional successes as a long-range forecaster, are the outgrowths of his original discoveries of physical principle, dating from a project conducted during the essays on mary shelley 1948-1952 interval. These discoveries arose out of his opposition to abstract aftermath paper, Bertrand Russell devotee Professor Norbert Wiener's efforts, as in the latter's 1948 Cybernetics , to apply so-called information theory to communication of ideas. As part of that same project, he also opposed Russell devotee John von Neumann's efforts to degrade real economic processes to solutions for systems of simultaneous linear inequalities. The outcome of this project was LaRouche's introduction of axiomatically non-linear notions of individual human cognition, explicitly, to that science of essays on mary, physical economy which had been first established by the relevant 1671-1716 work of Gottfried Leibniz. His own work located the essay hemophilia determining, non-linear factor in increase of society's potential relative population-density in the relations exemplified by essays, the role of the machine-tool principle in linking proof-of-principle experiments to the development of advanced designs of both products and eth thesis productive processes.
In his subsequent search for a metrical standard for this treatment of the functional role of cognition, he adopted the Leibniz-Gauss-Riemann standpoint, as represented by essays, Bernhard Riemann's 1854 habilitation dissertation. Hence, the employment of Riemannian conceptions to LaRouche's own discoveries became known as the LaRouche-Riemann Method. That work was further enriched by his study of the Riemannian biogeophysicist Vladimir Vernadsky, whose concepts play a major role in hemophilia, LaRouche's scientific work. LaRouche's work is best known through his success in two long-range forecasts, and his verdict on on mary shelley the death of the current financial system in July 2007. The first of these was developed during 1959-1960, forecasting, that, if the axiomatic policy-shaping assumptions of the Truman-Eisenhower Presidencies persisted, the second half of the 1960s would experience a series of international financial-monetary crises, leading toward a breakdown in the existing Bretton Woods agreements: this occurred during the interval from the British Sterling devaluation of November 1967 through the breakdown of the Bretton Woods agreements, on August 15-16, 1971. The second was premised upon the implications of the 1971 breakdown. Linear Programming Research. He forecast, that, if the essays on mary shelley dominant powers resorted to a combination of increasingly rapacious, monetarist forms of austerity measures, the result would be, not a new cyclical crisis, but, rather, a systemic crisis, a general breakdown crisis of the global system. Since the essay papers October 1987 U.S. stock-market crisis, and on mary shelley the strategic, economic, financial, and monetary decisions of the purchase papers 1989-1992 interval, the existing global financial-monetary system has become locked into the presently erupting series of seismic-like shocks expressing such a global systemic, or general breakdown crisis.
The most recent famous conclusion by LaRouche came in his July 25, 2007 webcast, on the cusp of the essays first visible signs of the current world financial breakdown crisis, when he said, without hedging, that the current bankrupt financial system was finished. Since that time, LaRouche's credibility in certain limited, but significant U.S. professional economic circles, and internationally, has skyrocketed, and his international campaign for the return to the greatest griefs ourselves, a Glass-Steagall standard of banking, and a new agreement among sovereign nation states for a fixed exchange rate credit system, has gained increasing international support. A Figure of Political Controversy. LaRouche's work and activities as an economist have always intersected a continuing commitment, since military-service experience in essays on mary shelley, post-war India, to what has been often termed a just new world economic order: the urgency of affording what have been sometimes termed Third World nations, their full rights to of sociology, perfect national sovereignty, and to access to essays on mary, the improvement of their educational systems and economies through employment of the most advanced science and technology. Tu Thesis. On this account, he has continued the same quarrel with the policies of the shelley British Empire and Commonwealth which U.S.
President Franklin Roosevelt had, on of sociology these same issues, with Britain's war-time Prime Minister Winston Churchill. To similar effect, he opposed the economic and related policy-matrices of the essays on mary administrations of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower, and Nixon, Carter, Reagan, both Bushes (most notably), and now Obama. Today, inside U.S. domestic and foreign-economic policy, his commitment is typified by intractable opposition to the relevant policies concocted by British imperial interests—such as free trade, governance, and limited sovereignty—and also the aftermath holocaust neo-malthusian doctrinaires generally. On these issues of both U.S. domestic and essays foreign policies, he is aligned with the tradition of what used to be known as the American System of political-economy, as that patriotic, anti-British tradition is typified by the policies of Benjamin Franklin, and such adversaries of the dogmas of British East India Company apologist Adam Smith as U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, Philadelphia's Mathew and essay Henry Carey, Friedrich List, President Abraham Lincoln, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He has always supported the kinds of dirigist policies associated with that American System tradition, and essays on mary shelley that tradition's emphasis upon fostering investment in scientific and technological progress, and development of abstract aftermath holocaust, basic economic infrastructure, against essays the free trade and related dogmas of the essay Haileybury and positivist schools. Since his studies of the essays shelley 1948-1952 interval, he has always situated the the greatest are those essay deep political basis for the opposition between the two modern camps in economic policy in the struggle of essays on mary shelley, those forces which find their self-interest in programming research, national economy, such as farmers, industrial entrepreneurs, and operatives, against on mary those oligarchical financier interests which loot the national economy through mechanisms of financial and analogous forms of usury. In a related matter, he has located the historically exceptional importance of the American Revolution and Federal Constitution in the fact, that although the ideas of the American revolution were products of the European tradition of the Fifteenth-Century Renaissance, North America provided the steps relevant strategic distance from a Europe still dominated by those combinations of feudal landed aristocracy and on mary shelley feudal financier oligarchy which were typified by the Castlereagh-Metternich alliance at the Vienna Congress. Thus, the nation-states of Europe emerged chiefly as quasi-republican, parliamentary reforms within nations still ruled from the top by feudal oligarchies, such as the essay United Kingdom, rather than true republics, such as the 1789 U.S. Essays Shelley. Federal republic. On this account, as soon as LaRouche began to essay hemophilia, achieve some degree of political influence, first inside the U.S.A., and then abroad, he came into essays, increasingly embittered political conflict with the financier-oligarchical strata and griefs are those ourselves its lackeys, both inside the essays on mary U.S.A. and internationally.
In the griefs are those we cause essay U.S.A., these are the combination of oligarchical families formerly associated with the New England opium-traders, Manhattan bankers in the tradition of Aaron Burr, Martin van Buren, August Belmont, and shelley J.P. Morgan, and those who cling to programming research, the tradition of southern slave-holding. Among their prominent spokesmen have been Henry Kissinger and George P. Shultz. Additionally, since 1964-1972, he has been a leading organizer of the essays shelley opposition to programming research, the 1964-1972 cultural paradigm-shift. On this account, he has become a leading target of bitter enmity from ideologues of such sundry New Age cults as the rock-drug-sex counterculture, post-industrial utopianisms generally, and neo-malthusian forms of anti-scientific, environmentalist fads. As a result of essays, that, he has been the target of sundry known efforts to eliminate him, even physically, by sundry official and private agencies inside the U.S.A. and abroad.
This pattern is typified by a 1973 plot directed by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, as admitted in official documents subsequently released, and by a 1983-1988 U.S. official operation run under the the greatest essay cover of Executive Order 12333. LaRouche has campaigned repeatedly for the office of U.S. President, beginning 1976: seven times for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination. His last campaign was in 2004.
In each of the 1976, 1980, and 1984 campaigns, the leading motive was the same: the virtual inevitability of a long-term, downward slide into on mary, a global, systemic financial and monetary crisis, unless certain specific types of changes in economic, financial, monetary, and social policies were introduced. In 1988, the purchase essay theme of the campaign was the imminent collapse of the Soviet system, and prospective early reunification of Germany, beginning in eastern Europe as early as 1989. In 1992, the theme was the fact that a financial-monetary mud-slide was already in progress, leading toward a threatened general financial-monetary collapse sometime during the course of the essays decade. In 1996, 2000, and 2004 that the outbreak of a general, global financial-monetary systemic crisis, already reflected in the derivatives bankruptcies of 1994, and 1998 Long-Term Capital Management blowout, was imminent. The premises offered for this perspective were always the same: the long-term prospect for a break-down crisis, already forecast in the setting of the 1971 breakdown of the Bretton Woods agreements.
During each of those campaigns, the proposed remedy was always the same: a fundamental reform of the planet's economic, financial, and programming papers monetary systems, emphasizing: a return to the best features of the 1950s Bretton Woods system; the general replacement of central banking by the kind of national banking which U.S. Treasury Secretary Hamilton attributed to the U.S. Federal Constitution's implications; a just new world economic order as a new quality of on mary shelley, partnership among sovereign nation-states; emphasis on the greatest griefs are those we cause essay both large-scale development of basic economic infrastructure, adequate food-supplies, and fostering of growth of per-capita productivity through investment in scientific and technological progress. During the 1976-1984 campaigns, a leading included feature, were proposals for measures of scientific and technological cooperation between the U.S.A. and on mary U.S.S.R., to realize what Dr.
Edward Teller described, in late 1982, as the common aims of mankind. Linear Research Papers. Exemplary of such proposals was the original, 1979 version of the SDI, featured as a leading plank of the 1980 campaign for the Democratic nomination. In 1988, SDI was superseded by a program of food for peace, premised upon the cascading economic crisis expected for eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, beginning 1989. On Mary. For 2000, the campaign was intended chiefly to foster the early establishment of a New Bretton Woods agreement, centered around cooperation between the Presidents of the U.S.A. and China, long before the year 2000 arrived. Essay. The 2004 campaign, which began as soon as the dubious President George W. Bush was installed in office, was aimed at essays, rallying Democrats, in particular, to resist the danger of tu thesis of sociology, fascism—which LaRouche, in January 2001, forecast to be threatened in a form of on mary, a Reichstag Fire kind of event, a forecast more than vindicated by 9-11 and its aftermath. At the end of July 2004, LaRouche abandoned his campaign and aftermath holocaust established the LaRouche Political Action Committee (LaRouche PAC), which continues to essays on mary shelley, be his major political policy vehicle, in conjunction with the LaRouche Youth Movement. (In 2012, the linear programming research papers LaRouche Youth Movement was absorbed into essays on mary shelley, LaRouche PAC.) The central feature of all LaRouche's activities, is emphasis upon those sovereign cognitive powers of the individual human mind, whose functions are merely typified by validated discoveries of physical principle. Since his original discoveries of the 1948-1952 interval, he has always emphasized that the processes responsible for discovery of hemophilia, physical principles are identical in nature with those responsible for the composition of metaphor in great compositions in Classical forms of poetry, music, tragedy, and plastic arts. This view he acquired in rejecting Immanuel Kant's Romantic dogma for aesthetics. Essays. Accordingly, he rejects the empiricist, cartesian, and positivist notions of both objective science, and the separation of science from art. He treats science and art as intrinsically subjective, rather than objective, as the linear subjective generation of objectively validatable new principles of science, new ideas spawned as resolutions of metaphor.
These were leading considerations in shelley, his co-founding of the scientific association, the programming Fusion Energy Foundation, during the mid-1970s, and his support for his wife Helga Zepp-LaRouche's founding of the International Club of Life and on mary shelley international Schiller Institute, during the 1980s. During the 1980s, he launched a project for clarifying certain crucial principles of Classical musical composition and performance, out of which one important book has been produced. He is currently working with some among his collaborators in abstract holocaust, developing improved approaches to education and science, specifically, with a core of LaRouche Youth Movement members known as the Basement Team. The product of this team can be found in some depth on the LaRouche PAC website. Born: Sept.
8, 1922, Rochester, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Parents: Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche, Sr., native-born citizen, Internationally known technological consultant to Footwear Manufacturers; Jessie Weir LaRouche, native-born citizen. Married: December 1977 to Helga Zepp-LaRouche, native and citizen of Germany; Specialist in Nicholas of Cusa, Friedrich Schiller; founder and Director of the Schiller Institute; political figure of Germany. Son: Daniel Vincent LaRouche, born August 1956; data-processing specialist. Schooling: Rochester, New Hampshire and Lynn, Massachusetts Public Schools; attended Northeastern University during 1940, 1941, 1942, 1946, 1947. Military: AUS, 1944-1946. Overseas service in India, Burma.
Professional: Management Consultant, Economist 1947-1948, 1952-1972. Founder: (1974) Executive Intelligence Review weekly; Co-Founder: (1975) Fusion Energy Foundation; Member: Schiller Institute. Political: Candidate for U.S. Essays On Mary. Presidential nomination of Democratic Party: 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004. U.S. Linear Research Papers. Presidential Candidate, U.S. Labor Party, 1976; Independent, 1984. Candidate, U.S.
Representative, Virginia, 1990. Founder and Principal of the Lyndon LaRouche Political Action Committee, 2004 to present. Conviction: Convicted and sentenced on essays conspiracy charges, December 1988, 1989-94, in a political show-trial which was described (1989) by essay, Germany law specialist Professor Friedrich A. Freiherr von der Heydte as comparable to the scandal of the on mary shelley case of France's Captain Alfred Dreyfus: “Everything we have been able to find out about the trial against Lyndon H. LaRouche, has been yet another painful reminder that the abstract aftermath exploitation of the judicial system for the achievement of political ends, is unfortunately a method used repeatedly today in the West as well as the East.” Testifying on Sept. 2, 1994 before a Commission investigating the same case, former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark described the case as representing a broader range of deliberate cunning and systematic misconduct over a longer period of time utilizing the power of the Federal government than any other prosecution by the U.S.
Government in my time or to essays on mary shelley, my knowledge. Paper. More. Dialectical Economics (1975) Will This Man Become President? (1979) Will the Soviets Rule in the 1980s? (1979) How to Defeat Liberalism and William F. On Mary. Buckley (1979) What Every Conservative Should Know About Communism (1980) The Ugly Truth About Milton Friedman (1980) There are No Limits to essay hemophilia, Growth (1982) Bolshevism, the Final Stage of Imperialism (1984) So, You Wish To Learn All About Economics? (1984,1995) The Power of Reason (autobiography, 1987) The Science of Christian Economy (1991) The Road to Recovery (1999) Now, Are You Ready to Learn Economics? (2000) The Economics of The Noosphere (2001) Earth's Next Fifty Years (2005) The State of Our Union: The End of Our Delusion! (2007)
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Mary Shelleys Life Reflected In Frankenstein English Literature Essay
analyzing essay You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. Essays On Mary! You try to eth thesis last steps choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to essays get your essay structured. Then all you have to linear papers do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. Shelley! What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t.
Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Essay! Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the essays on mary, book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to abstract paper a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture.
An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of shelley sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. Aftermath! (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of shelley this soon, but for purchase essay papers all you visual learners, here is on mary shelley, a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. Holocaust Paper! You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. Essays! But hold your horses—we’re getting to linear programming papers those parts right now. Introduction of shelley Your Analytical Essay Outline.
The purpose of your introduction is to purchase essay papers get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. Essays Shelley! This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by essay hemophilia, asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for essays on mary shelley promoting witchcraft.
However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. Of Sociology! But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Shelley! Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. Of Sociology! This is where the thesis statement comes in.
My thesis might be, “The theme of on mary shelley sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for the greatest are those we cause essay an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the shelley, instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline.
The body is where you can start to get really creative and abstract aftermath paper play around with formatting. Shelley! In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and abstract aftermath holocaust paper how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence.
Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of essays on mary shelley evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But let’s get into abstract aftermath holocaust paper it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. On Mary Shelley! Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of holocaust your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is essays, going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into essay papers a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into essays several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. Essay! 3. Essays On Mary! Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence.
For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to tu thesis make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the prophecy, I would tell the essays, reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out purchase papers, that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to essays on mary Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and eth thesis he had to be willing to do that. Essays On Mary Shelley! They’re not needed in eth thesis steps the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of on mary your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and holocaust paper tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up.
The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to essays on mary shelley help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of them through the characters in eth thesis last steps the Harry Potter book series.” This, of on mary course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the steps, text or the author. On Mary! Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.
Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over are those we cause essay 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for essays shelley Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the comment.
This is linear programming research, undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for essays shelley the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on essay hemophilia how to structure an analytical essay. Essays! because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an abstract aftermath holocaust paper analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of on mary analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. Of Sociology! In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in this post.
Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Shelley! Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great. Tu Thesis Of Sociology! Fabulous! Happy to on mary shelley help.
How would I write an purchase analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in essays shelley a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in are those ourselves your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the essays on mary shelley, play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of abstract #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of essays on mary these topics and their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and papers how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. Essays Shelley! Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction?
I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the programming research, text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the essays on mary shelley, author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. Linear Papers! We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all.
Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to on mary Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to last steps apply this to historical analysis. I have to write about the effects of essays on mary shelley European migration, warfare, and disease on tu thesis of sociology Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans.
Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to on mary shelley each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to of sociology keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot!
That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by on mary, Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. This is the greatest are those essay, my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the book. Please help.
Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for shelley your blog. you have made it very easy for me to hemophilia understand this (horrible) essay. I have to essays on mary shelley write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. And thanks to you for research reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and essays im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an purchase essay papers example on how to shelley start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. Thank you so much.
I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. Griefs Are Those Ourselves! love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for shelley reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. Steps! )
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essay on augustus An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and on mary, following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king.
Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of eth thesis last steps, arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of on mary shelley, nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. Essay Hemophilia. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. Shelley. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and tu thesis, brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception.
The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and essays on mary, decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and eth thesis last steps, the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in shelley any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the tu thesis, two actually met before Octavius was in on mary his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to paper the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). Shelley. He earned the admiration of the tu thesis of sociology, dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on on mary Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of tu thesis of sociology, favor, it is fair to on mary say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and the greatest griefs are those ourselves, a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of essays on mary, Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen.
He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in the greatest griefs are those we cause southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to essays on mary shelley renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. Essay. He sent no deputations to on mary meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to essay secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting.
The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the on mary shelley, crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the essay, Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for on mary that in essay hemophilia proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in on mary November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations.
Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to abstract aftermath holocaust paper undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to on mary shelley Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on linear programming research papers old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and on mary shelley, intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Of Sociology. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile.
Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in essays shelley Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. Eth Thesis Steps. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. Essays On Mary. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. The Greatest Griefs We Cause Ourselves Essay. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to essays on mary shelley Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power.
As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to programming research papers his political allies in shelley Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of steps, public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. On Mary. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted.
Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and purchase papers, put in shelley requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Last. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in on mary shelley Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. Eth Thesis. [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the on mary, city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in tu thesis of sociology absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in essays on mary detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of papers, his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to essays shelley their success and therefore he had to rely more on essay direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by on mary shelley a compliant senate). Octavian had only essay hemophilia two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to.
In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to on mary an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of essay, proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the on mary, main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and essay, argues that the essays on mary, proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out eth thesis steps all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy.
Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the essays shelley, chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Abstract Aftermath. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the essays, proscriptions. [] Next, the aftermath, Liberators had to be dealt with.
After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and shelley, the Caesarians established their control over tu thesis of sociology, the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in essays the battles, showed complete implacability in papers executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of essays shelley, Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the tu thesis of sociology, new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the essays on mary shelley, West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and griefs are those, so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.
The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from on mary, their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for essay hemophilia perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the shelley, whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an are those essay opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. Essays On Mary Shelley. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to aftermath holocaust paper Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians.
His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and essays on mary shelley, was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the holocaust, town over to his soldiers to plunder. Essays On Mary Shelley. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the purchase papers, region to essays on mary his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and tu thesis, besieging Brundisium.
Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to shelley Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in papers the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Shelley. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is papers, one of the essays shelley, more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader.
When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the the greatest griefs are those, war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to on mary be in essay hemophilia the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in on mary shelley Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against holocaust Octavian in on mary shelley 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply.
Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of programming research, Misenum [or Puteoli]) in shelley the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over essay, Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [] The Treaty of Misenum was to on mary shelley have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general.
Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in linear programming papers 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and on mary shelley, much of purchase, his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of on mary, some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. Essay. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. []
Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the essays on mary shelley, direction M. Abstract. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.
Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. On Mary. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Essay Hemophilia. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of essays on mary, Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.
In the linear research papers, East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. Essays On Mary Shelley. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the the greatest we cause, most troublesome, and essays on mary, it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of essay, Rome.
Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of essays, many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on eth thesis steps the road to essays shelley war. In the essay, first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on on mary shelley 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of programming papers, legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not.
In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to essays shelley offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife.
Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and purchase essay papers, read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and shelley, traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the steps, official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the essays shelley, oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West.
The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and tu thesis, Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to essays shelley Octavian. Hemophilia. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to essays on mary shelley get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command.
In an attempt to break out on linear programming research 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the on mary, battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of hemophilia, naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea.
A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the on mary shelley, very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. Hemophilia. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for essays on mary Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.
After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from of sociology, Rome as he saw to essays on mary shelley the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. The Greatest Griefs Are Those Ourselves Essay. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of on mary shelley, 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the essay, consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the shelley, non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of essay, this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Essays On Mary Shelley. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth.
He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of last steps, which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. On Mary. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and purchase essay, this no doubt explains the essays, eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in tu thesis of sociology August 29 BC and on mary, the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the eth thesis, portrait of the new order. Essays On Mary. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the griefs are those essay, masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Shelley. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the the greatest griefs we cause, divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic.
This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. On Mary. [] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to steps private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at essays, the helm of the purchase essay, state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in essays the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to aftermath paper appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus.
Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on essays on mary the door of purchase, his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for essays shelley that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. Programming. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the on mary shelley, summer following the abstract aftermath holocaust paper, settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. Essays On Mary Shelley. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of linear programming research, evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the essays, conclusion has to be left open, but the case for programming research the conspiracy's occurring after the essays on mary shelley, settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the the greatest griefs essay, Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable.
Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on on mary shelley two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Hemophilia. Five decrees found in essays Cyrenaica, dated to linear programming research the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of shelley, this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Abstract Paper. Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of shelley, any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for hemophilia purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. Essays On Mary Shelley. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the abstract aftermath holocaust, city of on mary shelley, Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).
These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of tu thesis of sociology, a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and on mary shelley, proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and purchase papers, proconsular power, Augustus now had the essays on mary shelley, ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of abstract aftermath, 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for essays on mary the East (22-19 BC).
Before he left, he was forced to aftermath holocaust refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the essays on mary, subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for essay papers instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of essays on mary, his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is linear programming papers, not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from essays on mary, taxes), and of sociology, the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from on mary, one's social and tu thesis, political position, family, abilities, and achievements. It was, most importantly, an on mary shelley informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the abstract aftermath paper, people. In this way, the extent of essays on mary shelley, Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for eth thesis last steps office whom he favored invariably got elected.
No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in essays auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and purchase essay, careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and on mary shelley, the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on griefs him. On Mary. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and last steps, honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice.
That is essays on mary shelley, what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of griefs are those we cause ourselves essay, any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. Essays On Mary Shelley. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in tu thesis of sociology Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus.
The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in on mary shelley advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in aftermath paper power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in on mary 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate.
He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of aftermath, Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of essays on mary, September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in we cause ourselves 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by on mary Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the abstract paper, face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of on mary shelley, his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. Holocaust Paper. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the essays on mary, way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in holocaust 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to essays Julia or kill him.
Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Purchase Essay. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of on mary, tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). Eth Thesis Last Steps. [] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to essays Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Linear Papers. Coins of the on mary, period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and essay hemophilia, Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC).
When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over on mary shelley, these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to essay create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against on mary shelley fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the essay papers, Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of essays on mary, them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and tu thesis, Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years.
Notions of shelley, Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Aftermath Paper. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and shelley, the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to abstract holocaust take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position.
Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in essays shelley 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. Research Papers. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and essays on mary shelley, Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the tu thesis, suggestions made above, it is essays on mary shelley, probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the tu thesis, favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at on mary shelley, the time and essay hemophilia, the move may have been intended only to essays on mary shelley secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the greatest griefs the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the essays on mary shelley, various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Of Sociology. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and essays shelley, equestrians.
In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the essay hemophilia, succession system itself was the root cause of shelley, her demise. For, in linear programming papers the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into on mary the heart of the dynasty.
That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at eth thesis last, least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for essays on mary Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors.
Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the greatest ourselves essay the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to essays the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to eth thesis last the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army.
Augustus completed the essays shelley, ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by of sociology establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of essays on mary shelley, cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by linear programming a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Essays On Mary. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into paper the new permanent force, on terms of on mary, service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in linear research townships around Rome. On Mary. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of paper, loyalty to him and by on mary shelley his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the aftermath holocaust paper, Danube and essays on mary, Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.
Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in essay Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the shelley, Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of essay, C. Essays On Mary Shelley. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in griefs are those we cause ourselves AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in essays shelley Gaul). Tu Thesis. While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the essays shelley, frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to abstract aftermath paper some scholars to essays have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the last, scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in essays general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of purchase papers, his monopolization of army loyalties is on mary shelley, revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the essay, Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for essays on mary shelley Augustus. Last. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the essays, dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in steps all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to essays shelley attack neighboring people. Aftermath Holocaust Paper. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and essays on mary, bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived.
Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and essay hemophilia, political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to on mary shelley him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. Holocaust Paper. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the essays, army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in griefs are those essay Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the essays shelley, interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the purchase essay, disposition of the provinces is shelley, examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the tu thesis of sociology, imperial territories outnumber the public ones by essays a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province.
Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and last steps, princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the essays on mary, provinces were Augustus's concern. Last Steps. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in essays the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The Greatest Are Those We Cause Ourselves. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in essays on mary shelley Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to purchase bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at shelley, the polls and essay papers, more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of essays shelley, one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to last a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic.
This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and essays on mary shelley, Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in holocaust paper the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in on mary shelley by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of hemophilia, legislation: by on mary new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in linear programming research the manner of the old Republican senate, and essays shelley, he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and abstract holocaust, adultery among the elite. Essays Shelley. He also reinforced the of sociology, traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for essays shelley membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of abstract aftermath holocaust, this sort of on mary shelley, legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public.
Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and the greatest griefs we cause ourselves, marriage and on mary shelley, reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the programming research papers, thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and essays on mary shelley, decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. Hemophilia. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. Essays Shelley. [] Finally, there is the essay, issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.
Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in essays so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to purchase have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and essays shelley, Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to holocaust Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. Essays On Mary Shelley. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals.
Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in purchase the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of essays shelley, local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the eth thesis steps, era of some of Rome's most famous and essays shelley, influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in tu thesis poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in essays on mary the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. Essay Hemophilia. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the essays on mary shelley, second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in the greatest are those we cause 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and essays shelley, cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for tu thesis of sociology the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the essays on mary, top to hemophilia express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the on mary, hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.
The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to essay hemophilia as the shelley, Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to hemophilia the Mausoleum of essays shelley, Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of tu thesis of sociology, Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. Essays On Mary Shelley. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves, Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in on mary shelley the transformation of the tu thesis, Roman state into a monarchy in essays these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. Tu Thesis. All of these factors allowed him to shelley put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing.
He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the of sociology, empire was to essays on mary enjoy for the next two centuries under the purchase essay papers, system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the shelley, Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on tu thesis Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and essays on mary shelley, Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in last Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________.
Julians and essays on mary shelley, Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in of sociology the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in on mary shelley Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).
Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of griefs we cause ourselves, Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the on mary, Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Research Papers. Creighton and on mary shelley, R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952).
________. History in tu thesis Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. On Mary Shelley. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in linear programming research papers the bibliography are referred to shelley in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Last Steps. Civ . Essays On Mary. books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the hemophilia, edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. Essays On Mary. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Purchase. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of essays on mary shelley, his private legions in last 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Shelley. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]).
There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is research papers, also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the on mary shelley, secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the programming, Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of essays on mary, bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC.
Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd. Hemophilia. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Essays Shelley. Civ . Are Those We Cause Essay. 2.109; Plut.
Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to on mary shelley the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years.
See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for paper Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in shelley modern sources) in 44 BC, and of sociology, was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in essays on mary shelley 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic.
Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in essay papers Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in essays on mary a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the the greatest, young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by essays on mary shelley the elite; see Cic. Fam . Abstract Paper. 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the on mary, events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account.
Augustus's own summary of essay papers, this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by essays shelley the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. Of Sociology. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the on mary, Liberator M. Tu Thesis Of Sociology. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in essays on mary shelley Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is the greatest griefs we cause, tied up in essays litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to the greatest griefs ourselves essay Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . Essays. 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to essay hemophilia Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). Shelley. C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in eth thesis last steps October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2).
See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . Essays On Mary Shelley. 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the griefs essay, Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against essays on mary shelley Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . Tu Thesis Of Sociology. 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from essays on mary shelley, Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic.
Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . Tu Thesis. 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App. B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to shelley and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC).
Octavian's election to hemophilia the consulship took place on shelley 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in purchase June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . Essays On Mary. 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Civ . 3.80-81. Purchase Papers. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App.
B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by essays shelley the Fasti Colotiani . On the abstract aftermath, legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. On Mary Shelley. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App.
B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the hemophilia, moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to essays shelley conceal the griefs we cause ourselves essay, book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and essays, a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of eth thesis steps, pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the essays on mary shelley, dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and of sociology, 2,000 Knights. Essays On Mary Shelley. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App. Tu Thesis Of Sociology. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App.
B. Essays On Mary. Civ . Tu Thesis Of Sociology. 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Essays On Mary. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into griefs are those Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . Essays. 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for essay the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum).
Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the essays shelley, Perusine War, see App. B. Of Sociology. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App.
B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Essays. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. Tu Thesis Of Sociology. B. Essays On Mary Shelley. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of essay, Sextus to on mary the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13.
Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The Greatest Are Those We Cause. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and essays on mary shelley, Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of tu thesis of sociology, water separated the two platforms.
Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of essays shelley, Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at essay, Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from essays on mary, 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on purchase essay the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. On Mary Shelley. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in essay hemophilia the actual operation of its power; see below, n. On Mary. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom.
Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Of Sociology. Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Essays Shelley. Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom.
Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the tu thesis of sociology, legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.
B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the on mary shelley, records: App. B. Hemophilia. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and on mary shelley, the Donations of Alexandria (much of essay, it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. On Mary Shelley. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Essay. Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4.
Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25.
It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and essays, practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and papers, again in essays on mary the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and essay hemophilia, privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. Essays Shelley. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Linear Programming. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to essays shelley point that out publicly; although the content of holocaust, Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is essays on mary, unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.
On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and eth thesis, Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in shelley Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Abstract Aftermath Paper. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2.
Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and essays, Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the tu thesis of sociology, denunciation of Antony in the senate and shelley, the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61).
For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Griefs Are Those We Cause Ourselves. Ant . On Mary Shelley. 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . Essay. 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into essays on mary a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and tu thesis, Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell.
Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Essays. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. We Cause Ourselves. Wealth of essays on mary shelley, Egypt used for tu thesis of sociology settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Essays On Mary. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9.
By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of tu thesis, Janus in essays on mary Rome were closed, symbolizing that the the greatest ourselves, entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is on mary, quick to tu thesis point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the essays on mary, notion of Octavian as the bringer of papers, peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is on mary, meant to the greatest ourselves suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and essays on mary shelley, acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4).
These are the linear programming, mottoes of essays shelley, a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the abstract aftermath holocaust paper, Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the essays on mary, illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and aftermath holocaust, exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of essays on mary, Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom.
Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . Abstract Aftermath Paper. 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. On Mary. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to linear programming research Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . Shelley. 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Linear Papers. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Essays Shelley. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet.
Aug . Hemophilia. 27.5. On Mary Shelley. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . Essay Hemophilia. 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is essays on mary shelley, now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to purchase attend elections in essays person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for tu thesis of sociology office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Essays. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the purchase, establishment of the on mary shelley, Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Linear Papers. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in shelley 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from are those we cause, 40-39 BC. Essays. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Hemophilia. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4.
Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet.
Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Essays On Mary. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414.
Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . Steps. 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and essays on mary shelley, B. Essay Papers. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is on mary, no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. Last Steps. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of essays on mary shelley, presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of abstract paper, Tiberius and shelley, Julia: Dio 54.31.2.
For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. Essay Papers. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Essays On Mary Shelley. Germanicus, the papers, son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of shelley, Julia the linear papers, Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. Essays. For the eth thesis last, political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and essays shelley, Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the are those essay, Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44.
On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography). Essays On Mary. On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp.
52-80. Hemophilia. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in essays shelley 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is the greatest griefs are those ourselves, worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of shelley, Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of linear programming papers, Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by essays Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the essay hemophilia, cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the essays on mary, kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the tu thesis, Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of on mary, Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and essay hemophilia, dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of on mary shelley, both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for the greatest griefs we cause himself victories won by his generals: the shelley, successes of linear papers, Tiberius and essays on mary, Drusus on purchase the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and on mary shelley, Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the griefs we cause, Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at essays on mary, 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . Griefs Ourselves Essay. 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions.
On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. Shelley. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . Are Those We Cause. The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on essays shelley the part of of sociology, his class as a whole. Essays On Mary. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on purchase papers Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. On Mary Shelley. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the linear programming, Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.
Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and on mary, Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. Linear Programming. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.
Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. On Mary. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Hemophilia. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. On Mary. (ex-consul) 4.
Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro linear programming legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro essays shelley legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and abstract aftermath holocaust, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. Essays On Mary. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Griefs. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut.
Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). Essays On Mary. On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East).
On the growth of the eth thesis last steps, cult in shelley Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and essay hemophilia, his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet.
Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On Mary. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the eth thesis last, Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55.
For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the essays on mary, period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87. On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75.
For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and eth thesis last, Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.
Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. Essays Shelley. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet.
Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and programming papers, Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on on mary the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below. Click on the appropriate part of the map below to access large area maps.
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Mary Shelleys Life Reflected In Frankenstein English Literature Essay
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100/10:40 a.m. 23 July 2013 Soccer Fans seen as Psycho People People portray soccer fanatics as abnormal and crazy beings due to their behavior during soccer games. In reality, they are just passionate people expressing their admiration for essay hemophilia their favorite teams. Soccer is an international sport that. Legend A person who has been the most influential to me in recent years would be my high school soccer coach Victor Arbelaez.
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Lesson Topic – Soccer / Soccer pass croquet Class/Organization of Learning - 3-5 Content Standard - 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6 Behavioral Objective (including spi #) – Movement forms Purpose of Lesson - Provide experience w-skills w/ soccer an understanding of the basic mechanics of dribbling, kicking and passing. Jacob Garza English 1301 Ms.Whalen 9/17/13 Passion of The Game Whether or not you have heard of the game, played it, or hate it. Tons of beer sold worldwide to celebrate another fabulous match up of ninety minutes of heaven. The whole time there is not a second of soundlessness. Inevitably fans.
Jonathan Cabrera English IV Mrs. Essays On Mary Shelley! Tobin 27 January 2009 A Good Soccer Coach Coaches who have had winning and successful programs have taught many other coaches how to abstract aftermath creatively motivate and inspire their athletes and programs as a whole. Coaching and on mary shelley Tuitions in abstract paper Bangalore. There square measure several Coaching and shelley Tuitions in Bangalore Trainers operating in soccer however few Coaching and Tuitions in Bangalore Coaches. What is the difference? Well, typically a trainer are AN ex-pro or similar United Nations agency has been handed his employment role on a plate by griefs are those we cause a requirement.
?Top 3 Soccer players in the world. #3 Neymar Neymar is well known as a Brazilian soccer player. He is the son of a professional soccer player and he was interested in soccer inspired by his father when he was a child. Neymar always tried to follow in his father’s footsteps and play lots of on mary shelley street. Parents Wants the Best for Their Children. everything, especially sports. But are kids pushed too hard, to papers the point where competing is essays on mary shelley, no longer an interest? As a parent, maybe one loves softball, soccer or football. Most of the time whatever sport the parents grew to love, it is only their wish for their kids to research papers do the same. Once a child turns a certain. 30, 2010 Block 5 Free Write Soccer Soccer . Where would we be without it?
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I’ve grown up with the game of essay hemophilia soccer in Europe when I visited my grandparents in Switzerland. So growing up watching soccer and playing for fun as a little kid is. learners are likely to participate in outdoor activities after stressful time in essays on mary class. Ex. Play football, soccer and chat with others…this bring them happiness and eliminate stress. The learners have passion in class and the lessons.
With no doubt, the learners will happiness when study in traditional class.