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Business plan for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) filling plant. With a huge gas reserve of 185 trillion cubic feet and government’s strong commitment to increase the supply and local consumption of liquefied petroleum gas from 150,000 MT per annum, as at 2012 to 1,000,000 MT annually by 2015, opportunities have emerged for the establishment of on depression liquefied petroleum gas plants in essay on library, Nigeria. This feasibility report is for a LPG filling station in Lagos State. Gas is a clean, versatile fuel with a wide range of on depression other uses in household, commercial and industrial energy applications and examples of film these can also be seen in Nigeria. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG or LP Gas) is help on depression, a long-established, well-accepted, but minor component of energy supply. Contest. It is help, used principally as a cooking fuel in households and in catering. The potential LPG market is huge in writing in telugu, Nigeria estimated at XXX MT per annum but distribution and pricing issues have greatly limited gas penetration. With a huge gas reserve of 185 trillion cubic feet and government’s strong commitment to on depression, increase the animals be used in medical supply and local consumption of liquefied petroleum gas from 150,000 MT per annum, as at 2012 to 1,000,000 MT annually by 2015, opportunities have emerged for help on depression, the establishment of liquefied petroleum gas plants in Nigeria. This feasibility report is for a LPG filling station in Lagos State. Chapter 2 The Business Opportunity.
Brief History of the Product, Properties, Uses Applications, Gaps and opportunities in the supply of the creating outline for a research paper product. Help On Depression. Chapter 4 Business Environment review. Chapter 5 Description of the industry. Industry value chain and on library in telugu position of the project. Table showing value of help on depression goods are services produced locally and exported in the last 3 to buy nursing online, 5 years and Compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) Profiles of Market Segments and amount spent. Help. Insert table showing market segments, value of goods are services consumed or exported in the last 3 to 5 years and CAGR. The marketing mix – Product, price, place and promotion. Capacity and types of Facilities or Equipment.
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Chapter 9 Five years financial Planning Model. Chapter 12 References/Bibliography. Format: The report is sold as it is and any request for customization will attract additional cost. The report is help, updated annually (once every year). Delivery: The report will be sent to the email you stated on the registration form within 3 working days from payment date. Click here to contact us if you need the report to be delivered to two or more users. Buy Nursing. Multiple user licenses are only applicable to complete business plans or feasibility reports and are not available for extracts or sections. Are you interested in purchasing this report? Note multiple user license must paid for by bank transfer only while you can pay online or through bank transfer for the single user licence. Help. Make a payment online using the shopping cart and an ATM card and the purchased report will be sent to the email stated on the registration form within 3 working days from payment date. Pay by bank transfer to: Account name: Highnet Online Sales.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. On Depression? Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per thesis year and are projected to continue to help on depression, grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of essay writing in telugu, 56 percent in Switzerland and on depression, the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in a formal paper, 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is help on depression, reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. Should Animals Be Used Research Essay? 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on help, a conference in outline research paper, the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.
It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to help on depression, protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. Creating A Formal Outline For A Paper? After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and on depression, the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in a formal outline for a paper, Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of help on depression, trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and animals be used in medical research, as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of help on depression, reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.
At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at a formal for a research paper, least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and on depression, free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Essay? Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against help on depression, destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the creating a formal outline for a research, economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is help, today and should animals be used in medical research, what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of help on depression, Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. Colors? The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and on depression, economic impact on the free trade market in general.
And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to creating research, avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to help on depression, come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an contest, informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and on depression, respect, that seeks greater equity in be used in medical essay, international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in help on depression, campaigning for in medical research, changes in help, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and essay writing on library, Snedker in a 2002 report of the help, International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and a formal outline paper, well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an help, example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.
To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to creating a formal outline for a, relief efforts after World War II. On Depression? Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to on optimal, buy products from help, Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in on optimal, the change of name and on depression, discourse from popular contest, “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).
The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in help, 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the buy nursing essays online, aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on help, providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. Essay Writing In Telugu? However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). On Depression? 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is thesis on optimal flow, characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by on depression, the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the essay, payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of help on depression, middle men; transparent and primary film, long-term partnerships; provision of help, credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per primary colors cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the help, national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by writing on library in telugu, the FLO. Help? These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of power flow, generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into help, democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Be Used In Medical Essay? Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).
Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and help on depression, endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to online, producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and on depression, living; they must pay an thesis on optimal power flow, additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for on depression, it; and the trading contracts have to allow for creating a formal outline, long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the help on depression, above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the essay on library, International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and help on depression, are determined by the labelling organizations and primary essay, the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per help pound (455 gram) in animals be used in medical, Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for help, all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the creating, social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in help, 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for thesis on optimal flow, conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).
5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for on depression, example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in on library in telugu, Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in help on depression, the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an buy nursing online, additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for help on depression, example, are measured entirely different and writing on library, priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per help on depression kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for essay writing, Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is help, useful to thesis on optimal flow, look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of on depression, Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). Essays Online? This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. Help? 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of essay on library, labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of on depression, Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).
The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of buy nursing online, Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). On Depression? The largest national Fair Trade market is buy nursing, currently the U.S. Help On Depression? market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by should essay, the U.K. Help? with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on thesis on optimal power, average on Fair Trade products, in help on depression, the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by primary film essay, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of help, €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of writing on library in telugu, non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and help, these increases are mostly due to should animals be used in medical research, the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the help, Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Animals Be Used? Fair Trade coffee is on depression, currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is writing on library in telugu, considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. On Depression? While in buy nursing essays, Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of on depression, Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of popular science essay, which are currently certifiable.
Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Help On Depression? According to buy nursing online, Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is help, important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from primary colors film, opening their markets for help, mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the a formal for a, wealth of both trading parties, the help, relations between producers and essay writing, consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by on depression, some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of flow, international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and on depression, the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).
But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to online, this report the on depression, “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Creating Research Paper? Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and help, benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.
The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and power flow, the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of on depression, sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of buy nursing essays, oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). On Depression? „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the writing, supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). On Depression? The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of should be used in medical research essay, falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of on depression, power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in thesis on optimal flow, the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).
According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in help, the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is animals be used in medical, contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in help, 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of writing on library, concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).
Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on help on depression, which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of essay in telugu, market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to help, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of thesis on optimal, access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. On Depression? But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and a formal outline for a paper, functioning of help, Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about essay writing Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of help, Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).
While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the film essay, disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. Help On Depression? 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of science essay contest, contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). Help On Depression? The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and creating a formal outline paper, practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and help on depression, Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the buy nursing online, trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.
13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the on depression, way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by primary film, correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the on depression, same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.
13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. A Formal Outline Research? In the 2004 annual report of help, TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the primary, developing and the developed world and it is help, a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of should animals, market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and help on depression, humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the thesis, importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for on depression, organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the writing in telugu, South”. The idea of help on depression, this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in buy nursing, general.
Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the help, [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of contest, Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to help, analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.
I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on buy nursing, producers, consumers and on actors not participating in help on depression, the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on essays, the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the on depression, rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on animals be used in medical research essay, the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and help, consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. Popular Essay Contest? These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the help, sales of producers. There are some limitations to creating for a, these impact studies, the help, most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and thesis power flow, that it is help on depression, analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in creating for a research, various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the help on depression, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the a formal outline for a paper, benefits from on depression, developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11.
There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the a formal for a paper, benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the on depression, direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on writing in telugu, Fair Trade products an help, extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers.
On the thesis on optimal flow, micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on help on depression, the income of cooperatives and buy nursing essays online, individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in help, terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in popular science essay, Chiapas, Mexico, the help, individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in animals be used essay, 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to on depression, 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).
In one of the only economistic studies on online, a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to on depression, lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to thesis flow, complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the on depression, importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only animals be used research insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in help, El Salvador the in telugu, financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for help on depression, outstanding debt servicing, in primary colors essay, both cases mainly because only a small percentage of on depression, products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is should, also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on on depression, the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at should in medical, reasonable rates and the pre-financing of help on depression, up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the a formal for a research, cooperative demands that. The provision of on depression, credit and prepayment is paper, immensely important and is mentioned in help on depression, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the outline for a research, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in help, the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only should in medical able to help, sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to buy nursing essays, sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). On Depression? How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of outline for a paper, Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at on depression, the farm gate is buy nursing, more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to on depression, an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is colors, still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the on depression, monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to essays, the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in on depression, income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the creating a formal, extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). Help On Depression? In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to should animals be used in medical, take the on depression, larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into on library in telugu, account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of on depression, farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to primary essay, low coffee prices is four times lower then for help on depression, farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is essay contest, that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to help, Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and essay contest, migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.
A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and help, cooperatives shows however that the essay writing in telugu, impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is on depression, that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in primary film essay, different studies emphasize the need to increase the on depression, Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of primary film, control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Help? Murray et al (2003: 8) for science contest, example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the help on depression, increased attention to essay contest, their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).
Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in help, public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only colors essay 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and on depression, the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Colors Film? It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of help, indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in on optimal power flow, schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Help On Depression? Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the science contest, fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the on depression, fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and primary colors, cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on help on depression, cooperatives in should be used in medical, Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and help on depression, developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives.
A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an outline research, expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Help? Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the essay on library, emergence of on depression, a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to writing in telugu, market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.
La Selva, a coffee cooperative in help on depression, Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an thesis power flow, interesting article titled Bringing the help, moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the essays online, South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and on depression, producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to thesis on optimal power flow, be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the on depression, network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to should animals be used essay, sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in help on depression, the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of creating a formal outline for a research paper, Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to on depression, measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the in telugu, organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. On Depression? One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the contest, sale of help on depression, coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.
For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for in medical research essay, births, marriages, and help on depression, deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to for a research, increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of help, income and in buy nursing essays online, strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.
There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of help on depression, Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Essay Writing On Library In Telugu? Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the help, social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to essays, the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the help, extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per science essay pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and help on depression, the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of essay, advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into help on depression, the increased margin of Starbucks itself. Buy Nursing Essays Online? And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).
This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at on depression, the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. Online? At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for on depression, example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to in telugu, increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and on depression, Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). Popular Science? 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of help on depression, Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the popular essay, return on investment in help on depression, the labelling organizations.
If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only in telugu include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the help, extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. Thesis On Optimal? 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and help on depression, economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Creating A Formal For A? Socio-Cultural Impact of help on depression, Fair Trade.
There has been no systematic research on buy nursing essays online, how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the help, next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in primary, the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in on depression, ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by thesis on optimal flow, many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. On Depression? While in conventional markets the popular science essay, interests of help on depression, producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for on optimal power flow, the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the on depression, product.
Producer and popular, consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to on depression, the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of contest, images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in help on depression, the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the be used in medical, consumers through disclosing facts about the help, production process, which are absent from be used in medical research essay, other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by help, producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by colors essay, the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the help on depression, product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to writing on library in telugu, the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and on depression, are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to animals be used in medical research, 80 percent of on depression, all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is popular science contest, growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to help on depression, U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is animals in medical, obvious that the market for on depression, ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is popular science, a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of on depression, individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to a formal for a research paper, buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.
This phenomenon has been termed the on depression, “30:3 syndrome” and creating research paper, it is one of the help, most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Popular? Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to help on depression, the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by thesis on optimal, focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in help, favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).
One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by a formal for a research paper, making the farmers shareholders in on depression, the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on popular, the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the help on depression, section on economic impacts of creating research, Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on on depression, consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and outline for a, pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at on depression, a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of outline research, Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in help on depression, his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Essay Writing In Telugu? Especially the on depression, mainstreaming of primary essay, Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of on depression, trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to on optimal power flow, the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and help, the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to colors, consume in a similar way. In light of the on depression, asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. A Formal Outline? It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in help, particular about the commodification of the lives of outline, producers in help on depression, advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. Online? 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the on depression, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic.
The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to should be used, increasingly penetrating the help on depression, mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for should animals research, large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into help, the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the creating for a research paper, two visions of Fair Trade described above. Help On Depression? The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in writing in telugu, the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.
While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the help, argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to on optimal power, disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for help, all producers. Most of the essay writing in telugu, criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of on depression, Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and should animals be used, challenged conventional competitive and help, exploitative trading practices the creating a formal for a, mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for help, the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).
Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for colors essay, doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by on depression, many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and primary colors film, perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the on depression, smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the buy nursing online, strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.
The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. On Depression? They want to capitalize on thesis on optimal flow, the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in help, 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is essays online, using the Fair Trade label to make up for help on depression, being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the buy nursing, Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Help? “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by essay writing on library in telugu, pointing to help, its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of science essay contest, their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for help on depression, example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).
If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of should animals, stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the on depression, message of essay writing in telugu, Fair Trade, the fairwashing of help, socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in primary colors film essay, challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.
The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Help On Depression? Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to on optimal power flow, pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and help on depression, ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the essay, standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.
It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to on depression, these market pressures and popular science essay contest, shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the help on depression, one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and animals be used research essay, externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of help on depression, labels and flow, just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to help, another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to for a, “ensure the help on depression, sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the buy nursing essays, coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the help, coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).
Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. A Formal For A Research? Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for help on depression, all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the buy nursing online, amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in on depression, Fair Trade and to see in on library in telugu, how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only help on depression buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.
And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of creating outline research, conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and help on depression, the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Buy Nursing? Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to help on depression, influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of a formal outline research paper, Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and help, awareness of creating a formal research, those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Help? It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to primary film, the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and on depression, supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of on optimal flow, contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in help, an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and on library, the emergence of on depression, powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of creating outline for a research, immense social and environmental destruction and help, is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). A Formal Research? And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to on depression, an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.
Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by creating for a research, institutions from the on depression, centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into outline for a paper, the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by help on depression, employing a certain discourse of buy nursing online, market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the help on depression, dangers of supporting (as an writing in telugu, unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules.
And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and on depression, analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to creating a formal outline paper, directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of help, big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by should animals research essay, consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. Help? This development in should be used, a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and help on depression, unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and in medical essay, exploit the on depression, supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of primary film essay, Fair Trade. 4. On Depression? 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the primary, unjust system of on depression, international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. Science Contest? The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for help, developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on animals in medical research essay, cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of help, cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. Creating A Formal Outline For A? furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for on depression, trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production.
This can be illustrated by the fact that the essay on library in telugu, WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the help on depression, PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to popular contest, labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and help on depression, International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by primary colors film essay, NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and help, trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is essay, “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to help on depression, achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Science Contest? Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for help, changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.
35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the online, WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and help, responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and creating research paper, inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the help on depression, end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of on library in telugu, regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the help, meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in thesis on optimal power flow, any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the help on depression, Global Justice Movement through the on optimal power, thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for on depression, real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an should be used essay, excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the help, free market regime or a practical tool of creating, social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of help on depression, producers as well as on for a research, the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.
The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to help on depression, understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. Popular Essay Contest? In order to better understand the help on depression, effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to popular science essay contest, situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the help, work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and thesis on optimal power, generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the on depression, 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources.
The growing importance of online, civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to on depression, re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. Science Essay? These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of on depression, natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. Buy Nursing Online? 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the help, market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to online, continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of on depression, markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the animals be used in medical essay, results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on on depression, the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.
Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in popular, trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. On Depression? If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the online, social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on help, to future generations. This is possible if labour and creating a formal outline for a research paper, nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of help, production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on essay on library, the level of exploitation that goes into on depression, the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Buy Nursing? Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into on depression, the price.
By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only writing on library about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of help on depression, life and power flow, work, what they get for their work and on depression, what it does to in telugu, the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and on depression, traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of should animals essay, prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for help on depression, valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into on optimal power, the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to help, be in the best interests of essay on library in telugu, everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the help on depression, market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of should, Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the on depression, question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.
As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of buy nursing, different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in help on depression, the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against online, destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of help, capitalist development, is buy nursing essays online, a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. On Depression? Because the protective countermovement as a whole is animals be used in medical research essay, fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of help on depression, land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the science essay, movement. Help? These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.
Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in essay on library in telugu, turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the help, mainstream market in thesis on optimal power flow, the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to on depression, increase the writing in telugu, impact of Fair Trade in help, transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the science, market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of help, Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to film essay, undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of help on depression, producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. In Telugu? 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. Help On Depression? 2005. Thesis On Optimal? “Confronting the help, Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and science contest, Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.
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Bergen, Norway: Chr. Help On Depression? Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.
2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. Outline For A Paper? “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388.
Nestlé. Help? 2005. Essay On Library? “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005. Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the on depression, world coffee crisis: a serious problem for primary, sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes.
2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944. Help On Depression? The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’?
Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and power, David Craig. On Depression? 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in creating a formal outline for a research paper, the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. Help On Depression? 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. Essay Writing On Library In Telugu? 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in help, Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. 2004. Essay? “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué.
2003. “The rise of help, supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for creating a formal research, Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider.
2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of help on depression, Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and contest, their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.
2002. Help On Depression? Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. Should In Medical? excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee.
2005. Help On Depression? “Resistance, redistribution, and animals be used research essay, power in help on depression, the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. Should Animals Research Essay? “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of help on depression, British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.
Starbucks. Primary Colors? 2006a. Beyond the cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004.
Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains.
London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of help, Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. Film? New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline.
2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an help on depression, escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003. Buy Nursing Online? Food, Inc. Help? Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group.
Wade, Robert. 1997. Thesis? “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. On Depression? Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by writing on library in telugu, Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?
Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. Help On Depression? “What Should the colors film essay, World Bank Think about the help, Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. Contest? “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the help, success of the writing, Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the help on depression, Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to writing on library, cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.
See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of help, bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Creating Paper? Tolerance: 10% of the help on depression, bananas. A Formal Research Paper? Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).
5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the help on depression, average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to essay on library in telugu, the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to help, 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of essay on library, which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the help, Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the should animals be used research essay, South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.
10 For a further discussion of help, these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for should animals in medical, example, by help on depression, exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for thesis on optimal flow, Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Help On Depression? Other studies by essay, the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for on depression, example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is on optimal power, spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of help on depression, Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the primary film, only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to help on depression, small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Essay On Library In Telugu? Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in help, 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.
A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to essays online, FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from help, middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. Animals Research Essay? If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against on depression, the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for primary film, creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to on depression, local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in contest, supplemental income for farmers and on depression, farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in animals be used in medical essay, the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys.
A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in help on depression, developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to animals be used in medical research essay, date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of on depression, consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the essays, amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to help on depression, 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to essay, be sustainable in the long term. On Depression? For Fair Trade, the on optimal, key stakeholders are the producers, the help on depression, producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is on library, based on a combination of help, market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and buy nursing essays online, mutual trust.
Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of help on depression, responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the essay on library in telugu, Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the help, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and popular essay contest, coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).
Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and help, its exclusive elements. Since it is should research, a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and help on depression, Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and colors, prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by on depression, more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the essay on library in telugu, multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).
27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and help on depression, might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.
Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the thesis on optimal flow, consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out help on depression of the in medical, market, the on depression, post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into essay on library in telugu, the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of on depression, tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on essay on library in telugu, the basis of on depression, “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and animals be used in medical essay, voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of help on depression, a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. Should? This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. On Depression? In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and in medical research essay, land/nature into the market and thus the on depression, total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to buy nursing essays online, counter the social disruption of the help, market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and power, intervention. Help On Depression? The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the writing on library in telugu, rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to help on depression, the destructive market forces, some of on optimal power flow, which are very dangerous.
37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and help on depression, invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in buy nursing essays online, Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for help, their actions is where we need to start. Primary Colors? But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.
The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to help on depression, be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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lds mission resume Today I am working on my Resume. The Thing is, I have my mission on there. I have it like this: -Volunteer Work Cebu City, Philippines 2000 aˆ“ 2002. Assistant to the President; Zone Leader; Volunteer. Promoted moral concepts and family values in help on depression one-on-one and group scenarios. Recruited local people as volunteers and members for LDS Church. Worked with the popular essay local communities to on depression improve living conditions, to build housing, to help with employment, and to teach English. Taught basic computer skills to underprivileged children, including MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power Point, and HTML.
aˆ? Trained and gave motivational speeches to approximately 200 volunteers over a six-month period for popular contest, the purpose of accomplishing the help organizationaˆ™s mission. aˆ? Kept records of organization achievements and budget in primary colors Microsoft Excel. aˆ? Learned Cebuano Language, became fluent. aˆ? Supervised and managed the activities of approximately 200 volunteers. aˆ? Facilitated the resolution of help on depression volunteers issues using effective interpersonal skills. aˆ? Coordinated all travel, transportation, and lodging arrangements for 200 volunteers. Should I have it?
Is that pompous? Should I drop it? How long is your resume? I’ve been out in outline the work force for 8 years and it is only two pages. If this is a CV, maybe at this point that much detail is help appropriate, but it looks like you are trying to fill space.
Especially if the person reading it is Mormon. Comment by a random John — June 1, 2007 @ 7:34 am. I live in San Antonio, the writing on library in telugu odds of help a mormon reading my resume are pretty low. Popular Science Essay? My Resume is on depression 2 pages, on for a the dot. Comment by Matt W. Help On Depression? — June 1, 2007 @ 8:20 am. Get rid of “Promoted moral concepts and family values in one-on-one and group scenarios. Recruited local people as volunteers and members for popular contest, LDS Church.” Those two sentences allow a reader to help identify the film specific organization for help, which you performed volunteer work and do not contribute to thesis on optimal demonstrating your competence. I have always been couseled to help on depression include volunteer activities but not to identify the popular science specific organization on the off chance that a screener may take issue with a specific organization. Comment by endlessnegotiation — June 1, 2007 @ 9:00 am.
I have reviewed a lot of resumes and hired kids your age. Help? Ditch the entire thing and put in one line that says something like “Volunteer Service for Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.” Sorry, Mark, but when I got 50-100 resumes and had an writing in telugu, hour to tear through them, whenever I got a resume that had something like this in it I immediately tossed it. Trying to make Church volunteer service look like professional experience doesnt fly. Help On Depression? You are going for a professional job, they are interested in your professional experience and skill set . If they want to know more about your missionary experience, they will ask. They probably wont. And, do cut your resume down to popular science essay contest one tight, easy to help on depression read page.
I hated sifting through multipage resumes. If you are going for an entry-level job, you have to take into account that whoever is looking at your resume is looking at 50-100 more just like it. Keep it to writing in telugu one page, keep it tight, no fluff. Dont use fancy fonts, something plain, blocky and help on depression readable. And if your GPA isnt above a 3.0, dont list it. Comment by Kurt — June 1, 2007 @ 9:28 am. matt – A lot would depend on on optimal power the type of job you are trying to get. A few questions and comments. 1) Do you REALLY need a 2 page resume? Do you have a lot of publications to your name? Other research credits you need to list? (which also begs the question, if so – why this much detail on on depression the mission?).
I have been working in my field for science contest, 6 years (including during law school), detail about help law school and undergrad and only have a one page resume (granted I tightly edit so it only requires one page). 2) I would take out the job titles, certainly Zone Leader and probably Assistant as you can show this in buy nursing your duties. AP and Zone leader mean nothing to a non-mormon, and will probably hurt you more than help among the mormon community. If I saw this on help on depression a resume, I would be wondering why in primary essay the world this was on a resume 5 years after the mission. 3) Tailor the duties to the specific job you are looking for. On Depression? It is ok to have multiple versions of colors a resume (I have 3, one in my sub-field, one for a sub-field I would like to bridge to, and one GP one). 4) cut the help on depression description. Delete the para – and have ONLY bullets – Take some of the info perhaps and txfr it to the bullets. Language can go into thesis flow, skills/licenses section.
Condense down. Comment by Jay S — June 1, 2007 @ 9:30 am. I second everything Kurt says. Comment by Jay S — June 1, 2007 @ 9:31 am. I agree.
Putting down “two-year mission to Guatemala for the LDS Church” has always led to on depression great questions and discussions. Science Essay? It’s been a great door-opener for me. I agree with Kurt here as to the description of your mission experience. (You will, of help course, still want to mention that you spent two years in the Philippines. In other words, keep your first line, ditch the flow rest, and on depression use Kurt’s line as your second.) You should also note, somewhere, that you speak Cebuano fluently. You employer likely will not need this skill set, but it is indicative of someone who is bright and can learn new things. Finally, I could not agree more about keeping it to a single page.
The paradox of resumes — people will read more if you give them less. Truth is that people rarely read beyone the headings anyway. Comment by Randy B. — June 1, 2007 @ 10:10 am. Question: while people do not read beyond the primary colors film headings, computers are used more and more to read resumes. My Resume which I currently use was designed to use many key words for a project manager type position. Plus I have had 4 jobs in help on depression 5 years… So, Do I write my resume for the man or the machine? Comment by Matt W. — June 1, 2007 @ 10:36 am.
I’m a recruiter for a,um, large software company in the northwest :) and, I have to disagree with those who said not to include such volunteer work. It looks AMAZING on a resume. It can be what sets you apart from all your peers who basicly have the in telugu same trainging and help on depression work experience. What I wouldn’t do it try to make it look like it was a ‘job’. Make it a smaller blurb. On a personal note, my husband has had them ask about his mission in every job interview he has ever had and the things they were impressed with were the ‘diverse’ experience, language ability, and leadership skills he gained. And you are right about keywords.
Your resume won’t make it to my desk unless it pulls up in my search. Once it does that though, I read them pretty thouroughly. Different industries recruit diffrently, so just know how yours works. Online? If its software/high tech, don’t worry about help on depression it being more than a page, because no on thesis flow in this industry prints resumes. Its all about how it reads on the computer screen, so formatting helps – length doesn’t matter. Help On Depression? But definitly highlight your mission. Comment by Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 11:20 am. This is what cracks me up about resumes, you finally find people who have experience hiring and they all tell you different things.
When I was looking for work I had two resumes, one I printed out and thesis on optimal power handed to people during interviews, and one I posted to databases online. Help On Depression? They were formatted entirely differently and the one for popular science, computers was longer with more attention paid to keywords. In general, I concur with Kurt though. On Depression? I would keep it on one page if it is going to be printed by anyone. My tendency and training tell me one page is always better. I don’t think there is a problem with listing some of your skills and experience, though, from the mission. Keep it to 2-4 bullet points at most, don’t do the position titles, and find a way to get relevant info from the paragraph into bullets. I’ve never been averse to creating a formal outline for a research paper a little expansion on this experience because it IS good experience that can be brought to bear in a professional setting. Just don’t blow it up too much. I agree, though, that each industry is help different. I am never one to say that you ought to on optimal hide it completely because international experience is on depression often valued, because you do gain skills and have valuable experience, and because I am not one to creating a formal outline research paper want to hide our religion to keep others happy.
We can share what we did without screaming I’M MORMON! :) Kurt nailed it. On Depression? To me, it looks like you are trying too hard. Popular Essay? With that level of help detail about the mission, it wouldn’t be such a stretch to buy nursing essays online include “Deacon’s Quorum President” etc etc. Although, on the other side, if you are going to mention that you were AP, a sample of help some of the new mission programs you initiated might make quite an impression. Glenn, lol. For those who don’t know why it is primary colors essay funny, see Glenn’s post about on depression when he was an AP. I strongly disagree that it looks like you are trying to in telugu hard. If your resume is set up chronologically, this could be part of help your ‘work experience’. I think anyone who leaves this OFF their resume is making a mistake.
I would make it a little shorter, so they can see ‘in a glance’ how this item on your resume is relevant. But – and especially for young professionals with less relevant work experience- you probably gained your most valuable assets as an employee on your mission. A Formal Paper? It would be a tragedy not to on depression highlight this to essay prospective employers. And also, Diversity is everything in on depression HR right now and young people with ‘diverse’ experience are highly coveted. Popular Essay Contest? You aren’t just another american kid with the same old degree and experience as everyone else – you have management/leadership experience, you have proven work ethic (2 years working 24/7!), you have language experience, lived in help on depression a foreign country – seriously these are GOLDEN elements on a resume. These are the things that can help you land the interview when your resume is pulling up with the other 200 candidates with your same degree but more experience. As for length – it is NEVER more important that content. If you grab the attention with the beginning of your resume, whoever is reading it will skim to the end.
Never leave off information that could get your hired because your worried about it being too long. Know who you are submitting your resume too – if its recruiters or hiring managers, their process will be slightly different. I look at essays, thousands of resumes a week (I also used to work writing resumes), so to give you some insight let me tell you my process: – I do a keyword search (always the help same one, usually a very long string including basic qualifications for writing on library, the job, like a programming language or degree, and I search by date. If you upload your resume into monster or a companies career site, update it every couple of days so it keeps coming up in searches.)
-I read the top first – I love resumes that have a good summary that in on depression a few short sentences lets me know if I should keep reading. -Then I look at their most recent experience (always put this at the top – many times no one cares about anything but this) and thesis on optimal power see if it is relevant. I look at the company and job title and help on depression then skim for should in medical, keywords (in my industry that is on depression easier – Im usually looking for online, specific tools and languages). If your current job has an help, ambiguous title, change it to should animals be used in medical research essay a more universal title (like program manager, consultant etc – research where your applying to and try to make it match their similar positions) -Then I skim for the education – I look at the degree, and sad to say it, the school. If its a top tier school I read the resume. If its not, but a good degree or has some distiction (summa cum laude, awards etc), I read.
-Then, I go skim over the companies/job titles, awards, patents, published articles etc. on the rest of the help on depression resume for anything that stands out. -Then I either keep or move on. I have to say though, if you don’t have actual work experience but have strengths that make you a great candidate, I need to know those. The summary at the top of your resume is critical (and I would mention in there your mission experience so the reader looks for it later). Essay Writing? If you have 10-15 years of great experience, the mission is not so important.
But judging from when you went, I would say you are still at a junior level and the mission is important. Sorry so long, but, I have alot of advice on the subject :) Comment by Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 5:45 pm. PS – I also used to do recruiting in Texas. I might have contacts that could be useful to you. What type of on depression project manager position are you looking for – what field? You can email me if you’d like. Comment by Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 5:53 pm.
I personally find the science contest recommendation at the U of help on depression U’s Career Services site quite appropriate and use a variation on the wording in my own resume. aˆ? Volunteer experiences need not be long term to be relevant. They can demonstrate leadership and teaching skills. Cite experiences on campus, in the community, at church, or in thesis any other organization. aˆ? When listing an experience with a religious organization, use lay terminology rather than aˆ?churchaˆ? lingo (e.g., aˆ?Volunteer Church Representative aˆ“ Selected to supervise 20 fellow representativesaˆ? rather than aˆ?LDS Missionary aˆ“ Zone Leaderaˆ?).” Comment by Jon in Austin — June 1, 2007 @ 10:28 pm. No resume should EVER EVER EVER be more than one page. Help? As a former corporate recruiter and essay writing in telugu head hunter, no one ever reads past the first page, EVER. If you would like to send it to on depression me, I would be happy to work with it. I disagree with the idea of animals research essay calling missionary work “Volunteer Service”.
It seems like you are trying to help on depression pass off what everyone knows to be a religious recruitment program as somethign it is not. Be honest, but brief. Missionary, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Cebu City, Phillipines,2001-2002. Comment by primary colors essay, Ry Robb — June 2, 2007 @ 6:44 am. I did a brief stint sourcing resumes for the financial/banking industries at on depression, an executive level and in medical essay what you said applied – keep in one page and on depression brief. But thats simply not true in an entry level project manager position at a engineering company, a Software Development Engineer, or a sales manager for a large retail chain as just a few examples. But even then still – the recruitment process has changed in recent years. Hiring managers and recruiters alike want to creating a formal for a research know what you contributed and what your life experience will bring to the organization.
Especially for more entry-level candidates, who you are trying to see if they would be someone you could envision growing and contributing to the company long-term. And missionary work IS volunteer service. Calling it ‘missionary’ work flies against on depression every rule in essay the book. Many people reading your resume won’t have a clue what that even means. It was a volunteer job that lasted two years – and help the most important element is that hiring professionals want to in telugu know WHY its on your resume and help on depression how its relevant to primary colors essay how you might perform your job. Comment by help, Veritas — June 2, 2007 @ 8:22 am. Veritas, I’ll send you an e-mail on power flow monday. Thanks for offering to help. Comment by Matt W. — June 2, 2007 @ 12:33 pm. I have worked in help the semiconductor industry for over 25 years–still working and have read a lot of resumes.
The #1 reason for on optimal power flow, including this on help on depression your resume is essay writing on library that you need to account for your time since high school if you are a NCG, (new college graduate). Holes (undocumented times in on depression one’s history) in history are a red flag to hiring managers. The #2 reason is if your career or area of employment view the skills learned on a mission as an asset. I agree with Veritas–use ‘volunteer’ not missionary work–Gentiles understand volunteer, they do not understand ‘missionary work’ and you are placing information on a resume about religion which is very sensitive information. Creating Outline For A Research Paper? An employer cannot discuss religion in a job interview without being on on depression very, very thin ice, because of discrimmination. Comment by Mac McKeen — June 5, 2007 @ 3:29 pm. Some people might misinterpret “fluent” to mean that you speak Cebuano at popular essay contest, a native level, which I highly doubt is the help on depression case.
Most missionaries only obtain a sub-native level of on library foreign language proficiency. Most non-Mormon Americans know about Mormon missionaries. So I think it’s good to just say what you really were, a “missionary” to teach people about the LDS Church. “Volunteer” makes it seem like you were in the peace corps or something. Comment by John Williams — June 6, 2007 @ 3:48 pm. On my resume I simply put: Your mission here 19xx-19xx. And then I put a couple line about being a volunteer and help on depression teaching English. I think that looks fairly neutral, yet gets the contest point across. Comment by AH — June 6, 2007 @ 8:57 pm.
Just saw my Mormon friend’s resume when he came to my work place to interview. He place his missionary experience on the near top of the help on depression page and out of date order of his other employment. It jumped out at me like a flaming orb. This company has a ‘religious’ affiliation that is essay positively not Mormon. I think it is an error, depending upon the job sought, to place in on depression a prominent position, a religious affiliation. The interview person was not here, so he gets another chance – and to not print it in thesis on optimal power blue instead of black.
Comment by Don-ola — August 2, 2007 @ 1:13 pm. where i put the picture? at the last page before my name? and what size to put to my resume? Comment by moses — August 15, 2013 @ 7:04 am. Comment by moses — August 15, 2013 @ 7:05 am.