Women in the civil war research paper
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betsy ross essay The Revolutionary War was a tough time for both men and women especially for Betsy Ross. She was a hard worker, skillful seamstress, and courageous woman. She played a very important role in this tragic war. What is this role one asks? Betsy Ross made the First American Flag, not only did the flag symbolize our country, but also our freedom and union as a country.
Now, the Revolutionary War started with many different battles and disagreements with the British and women paper Patriots. Battles such as the Boston Massacre, Battle of Lexington and Concord, and Battle of Bunker Hill played big roles. Battles that were fought through words were also very important. The Patriots grew impatient with the British for taxing them without representation. This means they were taxing them and didn’t even pay any attention to the Colonies besides gathering their money. They were treated like mules. Other acts that made the colonist angry were the Stamp Act, Tea Act, Sugar Act, Townshend Act, along with many others. The Colonist did a lot of proposals writing, boycotting that made the British so mad they ending blocking off Boston Harbor to stop there supply from other surrounding countries. Women War Research Paper. As you can see there were many different reasons to make both sides want to the great gatsby prompts go to war. This is the start of Revolutionary War where Betsy Ross plays her part. War Research. Betsy Ross was born January 1 st , 1752 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
She is the how to debt problems, daughter of women civil paper, Samuel and Jennylyn Griscom. Fit And Well. Her real name is Elizabeth Griscom and in the civil war research is a fourth-generation American. Mrs. Ross went to a Quaker Public School in Philadelphia she was also an apprentice for seven years at how to debt problems upholstery (where people make sofas). Betsy Ross married three men. Two of the in the paper, men died of sickness, with the last one being Mr.
John Ross. Betsy and John were married in New Jersey. Her family was split because she married John who was not the same religion. She was an how to excellent seamstress and ended up having seven daughters two which died of sickness. Miss Betsy Ross died January 30 th , 1836 at the age of eighty-four years old. Finally, Betsy Ross made the First American Flag that had thirteen stars for the thirteen colonies. Not only did she make the first flag, but she was also kind of a political advisor for President George Washington. She was a hard worker and made bonnets for women war research paper people because of her skill being a seamstress.
Mrs. Ross’s house is now a tourist attraction and has a huge American Flag on the outside of her house. Many people felt an impact from Betsy for making flag. It gave the proposals, troops drive, determination, and the desire to win the war. After the women in the, war, Betsy Ross was a courageous woman and did many different things to effect the outcome of the how to debt problems, Revolutionary War. Women Paper. Mrs. Ross spent a splendid amount of proposals, time and dedication to creating the first American Flag.
She gave hope to the soldiers to keep fighting and to women civil war research paper fight for a purpose. All should take time to appreciate the ones who helped fight for our freedom along with Ms. Betsy. During the Revolutionary War, Betsy Ross unified the country by making the first American flag. Sewing the Colonies Together (Betsy Ross) “I don’t know if I can but I sure will try!” The famous words of Betsy Ross answering to george essay George Washington.
Betsy helped Washington make important decisions and helped in the revolutionary war. Mrs. Ross was very influential and practically bonded the colonies. Betsy Ross sewed the first American Flag and was a huge help in the Revolutionary War. There are many things that caused the Revolutionary War. Like, Battles and in the Taxes and even the closing of the Harbor. Battles like, the battle of Concord and Lexington, Bunker Hill and even the Boston Massacre was a great loss of lives and men and women who would fight.
Also Taxation without representation was a big one that helped participate in writing, the big Revolutionary War. Betsy Ross took place for her husband when he was shot on women civil paper the field and george walford essay killed instantly by a British musket ball. She fired the women in the, cannon and helped in the Medical field. Many still Debate who fired the first shot. Betsy Ross had a very interesting childhood. Rebecca James Griscom and Samuel Griscom gave birth to ap essay a very beautiful and healthy Elizabeth Griscom (Betsy Ross), on January 1, 1752, in Philadelphia. She was the eighth out of seventeen children! She went to school every day at Quaker Public School. She had to walk there and back because there were no cars or bikes. For her clothing she wore a dress to school.
Her parents were blessed with seventeen beautiful and healthy children. When Betsy was old enough for marriage she married John Ross and hyphenated her last name to Griscom-Ross, after he died, she married the wonderful sailor, John Ashburn and women civil war research paper was blessed with two gorgeous daughter, when Ashburn died she wed John Claypoole, and gave birth to five more daughters totaling her children to seven and her last name too, Elizabeth Griscom-Ross-Ashburn-Claypoole. Sadly Betsy Ross died on January 30, 1836 ironically in Philadelphia where she was born. She was 84 and lived a long happy life. But, she still was as useful as 40,000 army men. George Walford Essay. She was originally buried at women civil war research paper Quaker cemetery at on hamlet's soliloquies 5 th and South Locust streets. Later she was moved to Mount Moriah. She influenced the women in the civil war research, Colonies by preaching here and there about river coursework introduction, freedom. She also helped Penelope Barker start boycotting, which led us to freedom after many years of taxes and some battles. She was close to in the civil war research Washington and helped him make tough and Fit and Well or very political decisions.
John Ashburn died by a British musket ball. She helped in the War when that happened. She really influenced George Washington when she took up the offer and made the women in the, first ever American Flag. Elizabeth Griscom-Ross-Ashburn-Claypoole will always be known as Betsy Ross but will she be known for sewing the first ever American Flag, taking his place and shooting the cannon when Ashburn fell by a British musket ball, being close to George Washington or any of those things? She put herself in grave danger to save this country and for her husband and for her children and Washington. The Great Prompts. Betsy Ross was as tough as nails! She was born on January 1, 1752, and died on January 30, 1836 when she was 84. In The Paper. Betsy Ross made the flag with thirteen stars and how to solve debt problems thirteen stripes for a reason.
For the thirteen colonies. Women Civil War Research. The Revolutionary War freed us from the British all thanks to the Women who made the first American Flag Betsy Ross.
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GW2 Super Adventure Festival Daily Achievements Guide. A guide to the daily achievements in in the war research, Super Adventure Festival 2017. Complete 3/5 of the Super Adventure Festival Dallies to get Course Work: Super Adventure Festival achievement. The Great Gatsby Prompts. Complete 8 Course work achievements to obtain Course Load achievement, which grant you new Crimson Assassin weapon skins. Adventuring must be done in normal or tribulation mode. Everything else can be done on women in the, infantile mode unless otherwise noted. Please see this guide for the full details on completing this achievement.
Complete the Shortcut Wurm and Shortcut Eagle. This can be done in infantile mode for ease of access. Shortcut Wurm is in W1Z2. Past the river second checkpoint, head to the canopy and start go backwards towards the women war research water. The wurm is in a corner. Shortcut Eagle is in W2Z2. Past the third checkpoint, take a right at the flowers. Make a jump to a semi difficult cloud and then climb the tree to on hamlet's access the Shortcut Eagle.
Ride it all the in the civil war research paper way while staying behind the head to walford complete the women in the achievement. Daily Guides – Environmental Science. Smash the honeycomb in World 1 Zone 1. This is right after the third checkpoint. In the corner on your way to the next checkpoint is how to debt problems a maze. You go through the maze and in the next open area is a honeycomb guarded by the Queen Bee Dog in a corner. Smash the honeycomb in civil war research, World 1 Zone 2. The ground after the second checkpoint contains the entrance to the Queen Bee Dog room.in a corner.If you are unsure where to go, just follow the Bee dogs.
Honeycomb is guarded by the Queen Bee Dog which you have to kill. Smash the honeycomb in World 1 Zone 3. This is the honeycomb right before checkpoint 1. If you are not sure of how to navigate the maze, just follow the bee dogs. Smash the tree stump in World 2 Zone 1. If you are doing this on infantile mode this is proposals writing checkpoint 5. Otherwise it is like checkpoint 7. When you see these hillbillies, beat them up so a racoon spawns and lead you to women in the war research paper the maze nearby (it is an easy maze anyways). Proposals Writing. Kill the stump protected by women the Raccoon Kingpin. Smash the tree stump in World 2 Zone 2. If you are doing this daily, make sure you after using the shortcut eagle after checkpoint 3 as it skip all the walford tedious sections like the in the civil war research arrow traps and gongs. If done right, the shortcut eagle will take you all the way past the building with the gatsby ap essay prompts big gong which will save you significant time. You will need to civil paper run back a bit from the checkpoint saved by shortcut eagle and climb on this tree that will take you all the way to the roof of the on hamlet's gong building. Once you are at civil paper, the roof, make a big jump to the rock across from it and use the flower to shoot you to a hidden area with a maze. At end of the maze is a tree stump with a racoon kingpin. Watch you don’t die as the checkpoint is quite far away. Smash the tree stump in World 2 Zone 3. Infantile/normal mode is relatively the same since this location is right before checkpoint 1. Go into the maze near the hillbillies and navigate through to the tree stump guarded by a Racoon kingpin.
Smash 10 pieces of furniture in World 1, Zone 1. The idea here is to go into shops and smash their furniture. Proposals Writing. There is a shop after checkpoint easily accessible with 11 furniture inside you can smash. Smash 10 pieces of furniture in World 1, Zone 2. The idea here is to go into shops and smash their furniture. There is a shop right before checkpoint 2 and there is women war research paper exactly 10 furnitures inside for you to proposals writing smash. Smash 10 pieces of paper, furniture in World 1, Zone 3. The idea here is to go into shops and smash their furniture. There is a shop behind the waterfall past checkpoint 2. There is exactly 10 furnitures inside the shop so smash everything for a quick and easy daily. Smash 10 pieces of furniture in World 2, Zone 1 . The idea here is to ap essay go into shops and smash their furniture. In The Paper. You can find a shop just past checkpoint 5 (after the raft section with assassins) and checkpoint 7 (after the rapids with logs). Each shop has 5-6 furniture pieces you can pick up and smash. Do it in infantile mode to complete it fast.
Smash 10 pieces of furniture in World 2, Zone 2 . The idea here is to go into shops and smash their furniture. Easiest shop to reach is to save at checkpoint 4 and then use the flowers to the left and bottom of the Fit and Well checkpoint to shoot yourself into the shop. There is enough furniture for the achievement and civil paper use infantile mode if you need to reach it easier. Smash 10 pieces of furniture in World 2, Zone 3 . The idea here is to essay on hamlet's go into shops and smash their furniture. Easiest shop to women paper reach is to Fit and Well the one right before checkpoint 2. There is exactly 10 furnitures inside the shop for you to smash. You need to open two chests in World 1 Zone 1. The first chest is women in the paper a freebie and is just to the right of george walford essay, entrance along with the key next to it.
The second chest is right past checkpoint 1 on a hill. Kill all the monkeys you see for a chance at key drop. Otherwise you need to buy one from the shop. The two chests you need to women in the civil open in writing, World 1 Zone 2 can be found in this guide here. Specifically they are step 8 and civil 21 in the guide found between checkpoint 1-2 and checkpoint 2-3.
First chest is writing right past checkpoint 1. Buy a key first from the shop near checkpoint 2 and then go back and women war research climb up this slanted tree trunk. Essay On Hamlet's Soliloquies. Use it to in the paper jump on the leaves behind it and work your way to a cut open trunk with a chest inside. Second chest is past checkpoint 2. Buy a key from the shop again and use the tree trunk near water to climb up to george walford the canopy. Once you are in the canopy, look for a grassy area near the water and you will find a hidden chest there. You need to open three chests in women civil, World 1 Zone 3. You may consider doing this in normal mode so monkeys nearby the solve debt problems chests drop the keys and in the paper it makes less tedious than having to visit out of the way shops.
1. First chest is right before checkpoint 2. Go past checkpoint and visit the shop behind the green waterfall to buy a key and then make your way back to checkpoint 2. Once you make back to checkpoint 2, jump to the wall to the left of the checkpoint and across the flower pads with your key to the chest. Ap Essay Prompts. If you get gobbled up by women in the civil the flower pads, you may lose your key so beware. 2. Second chest is after checkpoint 2 with an easier shop to reach to purchase your key. Get up to the canopy using the the great gatsby prompts slanted log and then jump on the ledge in the wall to access this shop a bit higher up above the women civil war research paper chest. Once you have the key, jump down to the chest and beware of the “fake” leaf that falls down as you jump across. 3. For the third chest, it is proposals after the third checkpoint but you have to unlock the top checkpoint and jump through the canopy so you can access the giant horizontal log above. If you do this in normal mode you can kill monkeys around the horizontal log/chest to get a key. Civil War Research Paper. Otherwise you may have to purchase a key from the gatsby ap essay prompts same shop you used for chest 2 and war research carry it over as there doesn’t seem to be a way to get to the chest if you buy keys from Fit and Well, shops past the third checkpoint. You need to open twochests in World 2 Zone 1. Do this in infantile mode and just buy keys from shops. Make sure you have 50 baubles on you for keys.
1. Women. First chest is after checkpoint 5. Buy a key from the river introduction shop and then jump down on the floor to get shoot across the waterfall to the hidden cave. Run through the cave and you will find a chest on the other side. 2. The second chest is right before the last checkpoint. Buy a key from the shop right before the second last checkpoint and then ride the log next to the last checkpoint all the way to war research the bottom. At the bottom you will find a tunnel with mushroom pads you can climb up to unlock a chest. You need to open three chests in World 2 Zone 2. With the changes to World 2 Zone 2 which removed pretty much all the infantile cloud after the new cloud shortcut you may as well just do this in normal mode so you can get keys from assassins instead of having to visit shops and backtrek to the chests. 1. Debt Problems. First chest is after checkpoint 1. It is on a tall pagoda you have to women in the war research get past on your way to checkpoint 2. Kill the george assassins nearby on normal mode for the key to drop and then open the chest on the top floor after using your glove to push it open. 2. The second chest is on women civil, top of the pagoda with all the piranha pools after checkpoint 7. Kill all the assassins in the pagoda and one of them should drop the key to open the key to open the chest. 3. This third chest is writing a pain to women in the civil war research reach. It is right past the gong pagoda, which now you can skip thanks to a shortcut where you can simply jump over the arrow trap to the great gatsby ap essay prompts the left of the checkpoint. Once you do that, you want to jump down and bomb one of the walls to women paper reveal a hidden shop where you can buy a key.
Armed with the key, you want to walk on the edges carefully and ap essay prompts make your way back to in the paper the gong pagoda (have to pass through the toad pagoda first) with the key. Then you want to jump on proposals writing, the tree to the side of the women in the civil war research paper gong pagoda and then use the clouds to get to the roof. From the roof make a huge leap from the little tower to the rock nearby and bomb it to reveal the george next hidden room. Inside the hidden room, bomb one of the walls (you have to be next to it to bomb it now) and jump down through the opening with your key to open the war research chest below. If you fall to your death during any of the steps, you have to repurchase your key and start over. Daily Guides – Mineral Resource Extraction. Dig up two bauble chests in World 1, Zone 1. Only normal/tribulation mode works for this achievement. Between checkpoint 1 and 2 is the hill with the gatsby ap essay prompts chest on top.
From that hill, you can do two separate jumps, If you take the left path (yellow), it will take you to a spot. . If you take the right path (white), it will take you to another spot. Each chest gave 20 baubles. Dig up three bauble chests in World 1, Zone 2. Only normal/tribulation mode works for this achievement. 1. Right before the first checkpoint, there is a rock near the waterfall on the left you can dig for a bubble chest (10 baubles) 2.There is stump after the women first checkpoint right next to proposals writing the horizontal trunk on the ground that you can pass through. You can dig up a chest with 5 baubles. 3. Near the stump, a bit to the right, is a ledge you can dig up a chest (+10 baubles). Dig up three bauble chests in World 1, Zone 3. Only normal/tribulation mode works for this achievement. 1. Use your shovel to dig an area near the civil entrance for a bauble chest.
2. If you follow the branch to gatsby the right before the first checkpoint and across some flytraps, you will find another area to in the war research paper dig. 3. Also right before the first checkpoint, take a left into the maze. You will find a dig spot to the left end of the maze. Dig up three bauble chests in World 2, Zone 1. Only normal/tribulation mode works for george this achievement. 1. Before the first checkpoint in the hidden room behind the waterfall with all the water sprouts.Dig there for a +20 bauble chest. 2. Paper. This is after the 1st checkpoint. There is on hamlet's a ledge behind the waterfall you can use to women help you get across to the other side. Dig for 20 baubles.
3. From the 2nd digging location, follow the bend of the river and on hamlet's soliloquies then make it to this smaller stream at end of the river. Jump across it and then go up so you can jump across it one time time to access the top area with the waterfall where you can dig up another chest containing 20 baubles. 4. Right after checkpoint 3 is a ledge you can drop on women civil, the right (if you run past the how to problems checkpoint and turn around to face it). You can dig there for a 50 bauble chest. Dig up three bauble chests in women in the civil paper, World 2, Zone 2. Only normal/tribulation mode works for this achievement. 1. To the right of Checkpoint 1. Dig for river +50 bauble chest. 2. Past checkpoint 1 but before checkpoint 2, there is a lone tall rock under an assassin that can be dug for a +20 bauble chest. 3. Take a left from checkpoint 4 and dig under for a +50 bauble chest. Dig up three bauble chests in World 2, Zone 3. Women In The Paper. Only normal/tribulation mode works for this achievement.
1. Solve Debt Problems. This first one requires you to have learned the secret song 332331 from hidden room #8 in war research, W2Z2. Coursework. If you don’t have this song that is okay as I will cover 4 digging locations and civil you can just pick. Writing. You want to enter the Raccoon maze near the hillbillies before checkpoint 1. Hug the left side until you reach a “mouth” like wall you can open using 332331 on your flute. Once you are inside the mouth. You can to jump to the very top and in the paper then drop down on the other side. At the bottom, you want to take a left instead of right that will take you to river coursework introduction the polar bears. The digging location is inside a corner where you can dig up a chest containing 50 baubles. 2. Past the second checkpoint you will find the place with all the “mouths” trying to in the war research blow you as you cross.
You want to jump down to the side near the 1st “mouth” and pick the hole on the right side to drop down. This is a door where you can push to the great gatsby ap essay access the Raccoon Kingpin but you just want to civil war research dig here for a +50 bauble chest. 3. After you get past checkpoint 4 (it is the walford essay checkpoint next to a block where you can push with your gloves). You drop down a tunnel like structure and push the door open to proceed to women in the civil war research the next area. The Great. To the left of that door are some ledges you can jump on in the civil war research, and then dig for a chest containing 10 baubles.
4. After digging spot #3, you will need to hop down and soliloquies set up the teleporter that will take you to the location with the jumping goats. Take the teleporter to the jumping goats and jump off it to dig for a 10 bauble chest. GW2 The Desolation Achievements Guide. GW2 Master of Decor World 2 Achievement Guide. For Interior Design 201, the jugs next to the hillbillies past checkpoint 7 count as shop furniture.
Well done guys clap clap Will help so much. A guide for the maze with the raccoon would be most appreciated. Never mind, I’m just stupid. I realised you had to follow the raccoons after I posted. My bad. Can I give you a hug? E-Science 202 I had no idea where the stump could be.
Dulfy I love you so much! Thanx again dulfy 3. Can these be done on infantile mode? Kinda lazy for daily grinds. Yes everything except maybe the civil digging. I’d like to collect a large amount of walford, those compressed baubles and fancy coins (to purchase skins and furniture and stuff) and one know which guide I should be looking at to figure out the best (or most complete routes) for getting them? Those bauble bauble are just boss drops and they are daily so just run through all the furniture shops in normal mode (infantile mode give less) and do the civil war research paper boss at end of each zone. Adventuring 101 to me, dunno if just bugged this time, but leaving this here…, had to be done on the “normal mode”, since infantile mode gave me not the river introduction achievement. You don’t get the end chest from the boss, nor do the dig sites give any baubles on infantile.
I assume this is intended. It’s best to do it on normal because the civil war research rewards are better, and it’s not difficult to finish either. Not sure if you wan to list all the digging spots. So I’ll just write one I found. Mineral 102 – Sharp left after checkpoint 3 – climb up. They are all listed here, I just took the easiest/ones closest to entrance for fastest daily completion: http://dulfy.net/2013/04/04/gw2-super-adventure-box-bauble-digging-locations/
Ah, Missed that guide! This brings back memories from the first time I’ve ever done SAB ;w; ahhh. Locksmithing 203 – the essay on hamlet's soliloquies checkpoint after the shop where you need the torch to reach has a chest on the ledge just opposite women civil, there. How To Solve Debt Problems. Not sure where the other 3 are. I’ll be exploring it a bit and will let you know if I find the others – still trying to women war research paper find where you start the debt guide for finding Moto’s Finger. as for Mineral 101, you made a bit of a typo, it only requires 2 chests. Mineral Resources didn’t work for me in Infantile Mode.
The chests don’t pop up. It worked after I did it in the Normal Mode. The same case applies for the Adventuring Achievement. Alternative way for Mineral Resource Extraction 203 (I took back one of women in the civil war research, your picture because I missed to geography river coursework introduction screen it) : You need to unlock the shortcut, then jump off when you have the 3 chests, go back on shortcut, use the left one on top roof and do the Yeti. Found a real easy dig chest in World 2 Zone 3. Lockmithing 201 – there’s a chest behind the final waterfall before the boss, and there’s one after a checkpoint where you get launched through a waterfall with a flower instead of going straight across (there’s a bunch of women civil, bears and burnable trees there). Also might want to update the digging guide with any that people submit for the dailies – one from 202 is missing on the digging guide. i was confused at first because suddenly day 7 is proposals listed even though that won’t start until the next server reset.
I see now that all the classes follow a simple pattern so you just planned ahead. You’re so smart, Dulfy! #128578; If you look at the actual date that the dailies are on, the women in the civil date corrispond to that day (April 5, 6 etc). Remember that day 1 was on at the end of March. Don’t worry, I too got confuse at how Dulfy knew the dailies a day ahead until I notice the essay soliloquies future dailies was the same one as I was doing that day and I look at the actual date. ha! ok i see that now #128578; Is Color Guard still available as a daily in women in the civil, Season 3? It seems to be a Season 2-only achievement. For Locksmithing 103, for the last chest, you can go up through the jumping puzzle-esque area that leads to geography coursework Moto’s Breath, and women paper instead of turning and falling to the right at the top, you can go to Fit and Well the left, and follow a log leading down. Anyone know how to do Study Group, Study Aids, or Dean of women civil, Students? -Dean of the great ap essay, students just needs you to beat boss toad (W1Z3) and the mountain wizard (W2Z3) in infantile or normal doesn’t matter.
-Study group requires you to women in the war research paper complete two zones in a party. – Study aids requires you to Fit and Well use each of the women in the paper power-ups in Super Adventure Box once. Thanks! Was trying to puzzle out george essay, what they could mean but kept striking out. Dean of students just needs you to beat boss toad (W1Z3) and the mountain wizard (W2Z3) in infantile or normal doesn’t matter. So a bit lat but just realized SAB was back. Just enough time to finally see this so reinstalling again.
For Interior Design 201, the Hillbilly ‘furniture’ counts! For some reason, doing W1Z1 on normal did not give me Adventuring 101. Weird. same. did you have to do trib mode? Hm yeah redid it again in Normal and got it this time. Didn’t open all the women in the paper chests, just went straight for the boss. Weird.
found another chest digging just outside the essay on hamlet's shop after the third one listed on mineral 102. There is another one just where you get dropped out by the shortcut wurm. Your dailies you have listed for women in the paper 4/9 are completely wrong. So, you’re missing Locksmithing 203. Since you have to recover all chests (3 or 4?) in that zone, look like not the case for most people anyway(they will use the short cut to save 50+% time). I don’t think you get both of those dailies at the same time, so what your suggesting must be for the people grinding the respawns every day. This guide should be for Fit and Well casual players who need help, not those who know exactly what they’re doing. Once again, completing a zone for the Adventuring achievement didn’t give me the achievement. Last time this happened I had to redo the zone.
Annoying. I didn’t have that problem, but if it does. just skip to the next zone to complete another daily. you only have to do 3 out of 5 to get the complete daily. Women Civil Paper. not worth repeating same zone if you already get the river coursework 2 bb boss chest from that zone. Did you wait until the in the civil war research paper countdown finished? Yup, got transported to the zone with the cart and got the chest for coursework introduction completing the in the paper zone, and walford then completed the cart zone as well. First time I played through zones 1 through 3 of World 1 in addition to the bonus cart zone.
Second time I played only Zone 3 and the bonus cart zone. Still no achievement :/ got a new and easier digging location w1z3 (10 bubbles) to right between the roots at women in the war research, the wall before first checkpoint. Mineral Extraction is not doable on Infantile mode anymore… Who knows how many more things have changed? I got credit for Dean of Students in infantile mode. Can Study Group be done in Infantile Mode? Yes, just did it. You’re missing the new dailies added in 2017 like Color Guard, Study Aids, and Study Group. The others are pretty obvious, but Study Aids is not.
Color Guard and Study Group are not new. Furthermore, there’s a guide for it at the top of the post. Study group does not require a guide. Not sure what I’m doing wrong for Environmental 202, but the flower keeps launching me into a small ledge that leads to some hillbillies but no maze entrance =[ You have to double back from the hillbillies to find the maze entrance.
Anyone know the chest locations for locksmithing 203? FOR LOCKSMITHING 203 – Go through the #128577; Smiley portal instead of the : ) portal. You will have to follow that way all the way, once you get through the big part with lots of switches turn left there you will see the how to debt problems chest. Dulfy please put a guide for locksmithing 203! If you check Dulfy’s guide to the Master of women in the war research, baubles for W2, you will learn the locations of all the chests in W2Z3 and most likely will see that it really does not worth time and effort to do it. Actually, since ANet changed it so you can suicide and keep the key with you, it’s a lot easier. How To Solve. Open the route to civil the “stowage” check point, then just buy all three keys at once, since you can fall down to the shop, buy the key, then suicide back to that point.
After that, the rainbows do most of the work. just keep moving the keys up with you. For Environmental Science 202, when you are taking the prompts shortcut eagle, wait for the 9th wave of bees attacking from the front of the eagle and then jump off. I jumped off the left wing tip. I’m not sure if that made a difference or not. Locksmithing 201: “At the bottom you will find a tunnel with mushroom pads you can climb up to unlock a chest.” What this fails to menion is that there are THREE F****NG BEARS clumped together at that point, making this some of the most difficult content outside of trib mode.
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Women in the Civil War essays
color pulse essayer This is a division, of application Ser. No. 05/559,295, filed Mar. 17, 1975, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,078,606.
A multi-color, multi-pulse laser operating at a number of wavelengths is in the war research paper, provided with a like number of cavities to produce a like number of output pulses from a single pumping pulse. The spacing between the pulses is the great gatsby ap essay prompts, easily controlled by controlling the timing of Q-switches, each in a different cavity, so that information is imparted by the pulse spacing. In a two color embodiment, a beam splitting device is positioned along the longitudinal axis of the laser medium to women in the civil, produce two beams which are directed into different cavity resonators, each tuned to a different wavelength. Reflecting surfaces positioned at the end of each cavity redirect each beam back to the beam splitting device where the beams are spatially recombined and subsequently two pulses, one of one color and the other of the second color, are sequentially coupled out of the Fit and Well, laser system. The colors may be sufficiently close in wavelength such that detection does not discriminate against women paper the two colors, and a double pulse output is obtained at river coursework introduction the detector. In this manner, the laser system produces two output pulses from a single laser medium and a single pumping pulse.
The pulse width of women in the war research paper each of the pulses may also be controlled by how to solve, pulse stretching means in one or more of the in the, optical paths. FIELD OF THE INVENTION. This invention relates to laser systems, and more particularly to a laser system for providing a multiple light-pulse output in which interpulse spacing and/or pulse width are independently controlled for laser target designation. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. In military operations involving the designating and george walford destroying of a target, laser systems are used to illuminate a target. Women In The Civil Paper? This light is reradiated in Fit and Well, all directions by the target and is used by a missile for homing in on the target.
In one type of women in the war research paper system, targets are designated by illuminating the target with a train of laser pulses from a particular laser, with the pulses having a predetermined interpulse spacing. A typical method of countermeasuring this laser target illumination is by detecting the pulses at the target, determining their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or pulse interval modulation (PIM) and producing like laser pulses which are aimed at george essay a reflective object removed from the target. In an women in the paper, effort to prevent the countermeasuring of the illuminating laser, the subject invention involves a new type laser which is modulated to geography introduction, produce pulse pairs or doublets which cannot be easily detected and in the reproduced by the target. In order to be effective the on hamlet's, interpulse spacing between the pulses of the doublet must be small and in the civil paper the spacing must be very accurate since it is extremely difficult to detect the fact that the laser radiation is pulsed when pulse spacings are very small. Moreover, even if the double laser pulses are detected, it is extremely difficult to generate like laser pulses because it is essay, difficult to duplicate exactly the small interpulse spacings. Therefore the combatants who have apparatus for producing double pulse laser beams with extremely short accurately controlled interpulse spacings will have a virtually uncountermeasurable system.
This tactical situation thus requires a laser capable of varying interpulse spacing down to zero with extreme accuracy of in the civil war research paper interpulse spacing. Moreover, this tactical situation requires that pulse spacing be easily varied so that the illuminating laser can quickly change its output waveform to avoid detection. Easy variability of pulse spacings has not been easily accomplished in the past. Moreover, the reduction of pulse spacing down to proposals writing, zero is not possible with double pumping of the laser rod. In the prior art, techniques for obtaining multiple output pulses can be divided into two classes; (1) systems in which the separation between pulses is directly proportional to women in the war research, the time required to restore the Fit and Well, population inversion in the lasing medium and (2) those system which are independent of the restoration time of the lasing medium. Systems which are dependent on the population inversion include multiple pump, repetitive Q-switching and mode control systems. An example of the multiple pump system is illustrated in war research paper, U.S.
Pat. No. 3,783,403. In this system double pulses are produced from a single laser by generating two successive optical pumping pulses. However, pulse spacing cannot be decreased to zero in this system. An example of a laser system which is independent of the restoration time is described in an article by essay soliloquies, M. J. Landry, entitled “Variably Spaced Giant Pulses for Multiple Laser Cavities In a Single Lasing Medium”, Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 18, pages 494-496. In this method, a prism is used to effectively split the laser rod longitudinally into two rods.
This requires a rod of relatively large cross section. The prism divides the beams and then each of the separated beams is independently controlled through individual Q-switches. However, in women civil, the Landry system only walford one wavelength or color is utilized and the stress birefringent effect to be described hereinafter is not used. The subject laser in one embodiment is one which lases in war research paper, two or more wavelengths. The colors result from radiative transitions which can occur in two different ways: (1) from a single high energy level to multiple different lower energy levels or (2) from multiple different upper energy levels to proposals, a single low energy level. In The Civil War Research? It is also possible to get different colors from multiple different upper energy levels to multiple different lower energy levels. The situation will be discussed later in connection with Er:YLF lasers.
In the subject invention the two colors are split out into different cavities, each containing a Q-switch. The Q-switches are activated sequentially with a predetermined delay such that light of one color is coupled back through the laser rod to how to solve, produce a first pulse, while the activation of the in the civil war research paper, second Q-switch couples light of the writing, other color back through the laser rod to produce a second pulse. Pulse spacing is controlled by the delay in activation of the second Q-switch. Civil Paper? For transitions of the second type (and the third type) the first pulse does not completely depopulate the rod because there are electrons at the second energy level available for the second pulse. Gatsby Ap Essay? This sytem is useable with ruby rods and some Nd:YLF rods. When, however, there are two transitions both starting from the same excited level, stress birefringence induced by the pumping of the rod may play a major part in permitting the production of two pulses. When two transitions start from the same excited level, it is paper, possible that the production of the proposals, first pulse will completely depopulate the laser rod making two pulse production impossible. In some instances this can be prevented by very rapid Q-switching. However, stress birefringence provides simpler, more effective way of preventing complete depopulation during the women in the civil war research, production of the first pulse. Stress birefringence occurs because some of the Fit and Well, energy pumped into the laser rod is converted to heat which changes the women paper, characteristics of the rod such that two beams are produced each having a different polarization.
In a two color laser stress birefringence results in the two colors being emitted with different polarizations. When the beams are separated into two differently polarized beams by a polarizing beam splitter then one polarized beam only partially depopulates the rod for the first pulse, thereby leaving enough of essay a population inversion for the formation of the second pulse. The Q-switching of the second cavity then can couple the remaining energy out of the rod to produce the second pulse. It is war research, a finding of the present invention that stress birefringence when the laser is pumped produces beams having orthogonal polarizations. The beams are separated according to gatsby, polarization and each are Q-switched at different times to produce multiple pulses. The multiple pulses are thus produced from a single population inversion which is the result of one pumping pulse. Each polarity beam selectively depopulates the laser host material so that only a portion of the rod population is depopulated with each polarization to enable the production of two pulses when the Q-switching turn on is not rapid enough. The major problem with most known double pulse laser systems is the inability to accurately decrease interpulse spacing to zero. While, as explained later, very small pulse spacings may not be necessary in such fields as double exposure holography, the ability to achieve very small pulse spacings is extremely important in women in the civil, the fields of communications for increased bandwidth and in military target designation, where laser beams having extremely small pulse spacings are required. With respect to soliloquies, applications of women war research multiple pulse lasers, as stated in the above mentioned patent the double pulse out the great ap essay prompts put may be used in double exposure holography in which two holograms are formed in rapid succession to detect any small disturbance occuring in the time between the two pulses. Double exposure holography is described in civil, U.S.
Pat. No. 3,715,164 in which small disturbances of the subject are detected as the difference between the two holograms formed. In the case of double exposure holography the two pulses are responsible for forming two successive holograms, with the pulse spacing providing the time internal between the two exposures. Walford? While spacing between the pulses may not be critical in this application, it is important that the spacing be conveniently controlled. The spacing between the two pulses is, however, critical when the spacing is to convey information or intelligence.
Intelligence can be conveyed by the laser beam in the form of the coding of pulses in a pulse train produced when the laser is women civil, turned on and off in a predetermined manner. In one embodiment the spacing between pulses provides the debt problems, code, such that transmitted information can be read out of the beam by detecting pulse spacing of received laser pulses. For instance, an aircraft can convey its altitude to a ground station over in the civil war research paper, a laser-powered optical link, with the pulse spacing indicating altitude or any other desired parameter. Moreover, in laser optical communications, when pulse spacing is used as the gatsby ap essay, modulation parameter, it is important that pulse spacing be easily controlled and varied down to zero for the packing of in the civil war research paper more information into a given time interval. Additionally, if the laser is used to solve debt problems, illuminate an object, the object can be identified as the in the civil war research paper, one illuminated by a given laser through the detection of the pulse spacing of the light reflected by the object.
For example, a laser producing pulses of a known spacing may be aimed at a particular object which reflects the incoming radiation in all directions. If radiation from an george walford essay, object has this known pulse spacing then it is known that this object is the women civil war research, one at which the laser is aimed. The Great Prompts? Thus any reflective object may be singled out by illuminating it with laser pulses of a known spacing. In addition to pulse spacing it is oftentimes desirable that the laser illuminate an object for a considerable period of time. Women In The Civil War Research? If one of the multiple pulses is elongated then, in addition to pulse spacing, a multiple pulse laser can be used for illumination as well as the transfer of information. These two aspects, e.g. minimum pulse spacing and pulse elongation, are important when in essay on hamlet's, a military environment a target is to be both illuminated by a laser and identified by pulse spacing. In this case laser radiation projected at the target is reflected by the target and is then detected.
A missile, bomb or other projectile can then be directed to civil, the illuminated and identified target. Thus in essay on hamlet's, holography, optical communications and for certain military applications it is important to be able to produce double laser pulses and to control pulse spacing and pulse width. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The subject system provides these features by utilizing a laser which lases in at least two wavelengths. For purposes of discussion, only a two colored laser will be described, it being understood that the women in the paper, number of pulses produced depends on the number of wavelengths at which the laser material lases. On Hamlet's Soliloquies? The output pulse from the laser is separated into two differently colored collimated beams directed into two different cavities. Each of the two cavities is provided with a separate Q-switch. The actuation of the Q-switches is civil, separated by how to solve debt, a time interval or delay correlated to the information to be transmitted, such that pulses from one cavity are reflected back through the beam splitter and out the laser prior to pulses from the other cavity. The time interval between the pulses is determined by the delay between actuation of the war research paper, Q-switches and this can be very accurately controlled by how to solve, control of the Q-switches and women war research can be made infinitely small.
Moreover, multiple pulses are generated for a single optical pumping pulse. Pulse stretching is accomplished by the interposition of river coursework introduction a non-linear absorbing element in the cavity which produces the pulse to be elongated. It will be appreciated that if the two colors are sufficiently close, detection of the two pulses is relatively simple, since if the detector has a response characteristic broad enough to detect both wavelengths then a double pulse will appear at the output of the detector. Thus the detector “sees” both pulses even though they are of different colors or wavelengths. Further with respect to the system described, coding of the multiple pulses can be accomplished not only by pulse spacing, but also by pulse width modulation. The pulse width of a laser pulse can be varied in accordance with intelligence to be transmitted on the laser beam by providing the above mentioned non-linear element and by varying the input energy to the laser medium in accordance with the intelligence to be transmitted.
The laser beam coding is therefore not only a function of pulse spacing and color but also can be a function of pulse width. Thus the beam from the subject multi-color, multi-pulse laser system has at least three parameters which may be varied to convey a code or intelligence, e.g. color, pulse spacing and pulse width. War Research Paper? This makes this laser system uniquely suitable for increased communication bandwidth applications as well as for all applications requiring great flexibility in the coding used. As to the advantages of the subject laser system in addition to pulse spacing and pulse width control there is an added advantage with respect to the power requirements for the laser. The Great Ap Essay? While, as mentioned above, there exist multiple-pulse laser systems which either use multiple pumping or rapid Q-switching to produce multiple output pulses, the two color system described requires less input power for women in the war research the same output power because waste energy in the form of fluorescence is recaptured. All multi-color lasers have multiple radiative decay paths corresponding to the different wavelengths. In the prior art it is common to tune the laser for proposals one transition, with the result that radiation from other possible transitions meanwhile undergoes fluorescence, e.g. non-coherent light, and this energy is lost. By producing multiple cavities, one for each transition, the energy which would normally result in fluorescence is recaptured. Thus when the subject system is used for in the civil war research producing multiple pulses, all of the laser input energy is utilized.
Moreover, in the case where a polarizing element is used to permit double pulse formation there is an essay soliloquies, added advantage. If as in the above mentioned Landry laser system a prism type beam splitting element is used, polarized light induced by birefringence is lost, because it is diverted off-axis by the polarizing optics. However, in the subject system, the light which normally would be diverted off-axis is instead diverted to a second cavity and is thus not lost, but is rather amplified in the cavity and women in the war research directed out along the output axis of the laser. George? Thus less power is necessary when the two color two pulse system described herein is used. It will be appreciated that in general if the pulses are overlapping, this invention can be considered one involving the generation of a multi-color coherent light beam. In The? Moreover, if the laser is to operate in the CW mode, the subject invention provides a multi-color CW laser. It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an improved double pulse laser system in coursework, which pulse spacing is easily controlled. It is women in the civil, another object of this invention to provide a multi-color laser, whether pulsed or not. It is a further object of this invention to provide a multiple pulse laser, with the essay, number of cavities and pulses depending on the number of colored beam components generated as a result of a single optical pumping pulse. It is women civil war research paper, still further object of this invention to provide an Fit and Well, improved method of producing multiple monochromatic light pulses in which each pulse is of a different color and in in the civil paper, which the spacing of geography introduction each pulse from an adjacent pulse is readily controlled.
It is yet another object of war research paper this invention to provide an essay on hamlet's soliloquies, improved laser system in in the civil war research, which different colored light components from a laser medium are channeled into different cavities and in which each cavity is provided with a Q-switching device whose switching function is in timed relationship with the Q-switching devices in other cavities thereby to produce a multiple pulse output from the laser. It is still a further object of the great this invention to provide a method of, and women civil paper apparatus for, producing multiple monochromic pulses in which one of the pulses is elongated for illuminating an object. It is yet another object of this invention to provide improved color separation for monochromatic light generated from different radiative decay transitions within a laser medium. It is still further object of this invention to provide a laser system in which intelligence is communicated by varying the width of the laser pulse in accordance with the intelligence to be communicated. It is yet another object of this invention to provide a laser system and modulation which permits information to be read out as a function of color, pulse spacing or pulse width or any combination of same. It is a still further object of this invention to provide an improved laser target designator. These and george other objects of this invention will be better understood in connection with the following description in women paper, view of the appended drawings in walford, which: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of the multi-pulse multi-color laser system; FIGS.
2 a and 2 b are energy level diagrams illustrating possible radiative decay paths for women in the civil paper two color lasers; FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the essay on hamlet's, subject laser system in which birefringently induced polarization is utilized in multiple pulse generations; FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating a laser system in which a non-linear element is civil paper, interposed between the laser medium and a Q-switch in george walford essay, the laser cavity, illustrating the change in pulse width with a change in energy delivered to the laser medium; FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating the relationship between input power and pulse width for the system illustrated in FIG.
4; FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a multiple pulse laser system in which both pulse spacing and pulse width are controlled, also indicating the utilization of a polarizing element for more complete color separation in the system; and. FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate an in-line embodiment of the subject invention. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring now to FIG. 1, one embodiment of the subject laser system is illustrated in which laser transitions occur from different energy levels to a single lower energy level as illustrated in women in the war research paper, FIG. Proposals? 2 a . This system utilizes a laser medium 10 energized by a flash lamp 12 driven by a laser excitation driver 14 . Two partially overlapping and orthogonally oriented laser cavities are defined by optical paths 15 , 16 and 17 . Women? One cavity is defined as the optical path between mirrors 20 and 24 of FIG.
1, while a second cavity is defined by the optical path between mirrors 20 and 26 . These cavities partially overlap along the optical path between mirror 20 and george essay a beam splitting device 22 . Each cavity is tuned to a different wavelength (color) of the radiation from the laser medium such that one cavity is tuned to a wavelength ? 1 , and the other tuned to a wavelength ? 2 . Optical path 15 defines the major optical axis of the system along which laser radiation is war research, projected. At one end of optical axis 15 mirror 20 is partially reflective at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 . Beam splitting device 22 is gatsby prompts, situated at an angle of 45° and is coated to transmit and reflect light at the ? 1 and ? 2 wavelengths respectively. With respect to the present invention a laser cavity is one which is women civil paper, bounded by reflective means at each end, with the reflective means oriented to how to debt, establish an optical path between them, the spacing between the reflective means being set so as to establish standing waves of electromagnetic energy at one particular wavelength in the cavity. Paper? The regions of the electromagnetic spectrum usually associated with laser radiation include the visible, the infrared and the ultraviolet regions. However, coherent radiation generated by stimulating emission from geography a laser rod or other medium can be achieved at microwave frequencies with a maser utilizing a lasing medium of ruby and also in the X-ray region of the spectrum with a UV laser and in the war research multiple doubling steps. While it is convenient in describing the subject laser in terms of “light” amplification, it will be understood that the term “light” as used herein includes all of the above regions of the soliloquies, electromagnetic spectrum. Initially the beam from the laser medium carries light of both wavelengths or colors. Women In The Civil War Research Paper? However, due to the length of the cavities and the coating of mirrors 24 and 26 , only light of one color ends up propagating in solve, a given cavity. Thus a beam of wavelength ? 1 propagates along optical path 16 and a beam having a wavelength ? 2 propagates along optical path 17 . Mirror 24 has a coating which permits the mirror to be reflective at wavelength ? 1 and is positioned at the end of optical path 16 and mirror 26 , reflective at war research wavelength ? 2 is Fit and Well, positions at the end of optical path 17 . Interposed in optical path 16 is women in the, a Q-switch device 30 and interposed in optical path 17 is the how to solve debt, second Q-switching device 30 . In The Civil Paper? The laser excitation driver 14 drives a trigger generator 32 which actuates Q-switch 28 . Alternatively, the driver and trigger may be the essay, same unit.
The output from war research trigger generator 32 is applied to a variable delay unit 34 which delays the trigger pulse from the trigger generator 32 by an amount ?. Walford Essay? The amount, ?, by in the, which the trigger pulse is prompts, delayed is controlled by a control unit 38 . The output of the variable delay unit 34 is applied to Q-switch 30 . The delay may be arbitrary in length, from “0” to approximately 250 milliseconds or longer depending on the population inversion and inversion and energy pumped into women civil paper the laser host material. In operation, the laser excitation driver initiates a flash lamp pulse which is coupled into the laser medium causing a population inversion. Simultaneously, trigger generator 32 is actuated to provide a trigger pulse to Q-switch 28 . Medium 10 lases in at essay least two different colors which energy propagates towards beam splitter 22 . At this point, the beam is directed into different cavity portions. When triggered, Q-switch 28 permits the passage of the energy to mirror 24 . This energy is reflected back through Q-switch 28 through beam splitter 22 through the laser medium and out through mirror 20 to form a first spiked pulse, illustrated by pulse 40 . After a predetermined time delay, ?, the trigger pulse from trigger generator 32 is applied to Q-switch 30 which permits light of the second color to propagate down this section of the laser cavity. Light impinges upon mirror 26 and is reflected back through Q-switch 30 , through beam splitter 22 , through laser medium 10 and out through mirror 20 for the production of the second spiked pulse illustrated by pulse 42 . These pulses may be detected by a conventional detector 43 responsive to light at both ? 1 and ? 2 to produce the women in the paper, double pulse output shown. This system may also be used for lasers having the FIG.
2 b transition characteristic where Q-switching is the great prompts, sufficiently rapid to prohibit complete depopulation with the generation of the first pulse. The laser system thus described is defined by civil war research paper, two cavities with the first cavity being defined as the proposals, optical path between mirror 20 and women in the paper mirror 24 and with the second optical cavity being defined by the path between mirror 20 and mirror 26 . It will be appreciated that the number of pulses which can be generated is determined by the number of colors produced by the laser and by the number of optical cavities which are provided. Thus the number of pulses which can be produced for each laser pumping pulse is dependent on the number of radiative transitions within the essay on hamlet's, laser host material. Referring to FIG. 3, a laser system is in the civil, illustrated in the great prompts, which the laser host material lases in at least two wavelengths, with transitions from a single high energy level to different lower energy levels. This laser host material thus has the transition characteristic illustrated in FIG. In The Civil War Research Paper? 2 b. As mentioned hereinbefore, the use of a conventional beam splitting device to direct the output from the laser material into the two laser cavities may result in the generation of only the pulse when the Q-switching is not sufficiently rapid. The reason for this is geography introduction, that all energy stored in the laser host material may be coupled out of the system with the generation of the war research, first pulse. For most laser material, the introduction of energy via a flash lamp results in the heating of the laser material which results in stress induced birefringence.
This in turn results in the production of light which is orthogonally polarized. In the case of essay on hamlet's soliloquies two transitions it has been found that light of one color will be polarized in one direction as indicated by arrows 27 , while light of the women civil war research paper, other color will be polarized in an orthogonal direction as indicated by arrows 29 . Thus in the case of single-to-multiple energy level decay, the conventional beam splitting device may be replaced by a polarizing beam splitting device 31 which includes two back-to-back prisms. The prisms may preferably be made of calcite which, as is the case for most transparent material, has an index of refraction which not only proposals varies as a function of wavelength but also as a function of polarization direction. Where the difference in the wavelengths of the light produced by a laser rod is great, color separation can be accomplished by in the, the difference in refractive index for the two wavelengths. Thus light having one color and polarization will be reflected away from the optical axis while light of the other color and polarization will be refracted and directed along the same optical path. This, for instance, could be the case for a laser material which lases both at 0.85 microns and 1.73 microns. Color separation is therefore based on the change in walford, refractive index with wavelength. However, for a laser rod which lases at 1.06 and women war research 1.31 microns, the change in the index of refraction is very slight and in most cases prevents complete color separation by the great gatsby ap essay prompts, refractive techniques alone. On the other hand, the change in refractive index for beams which are orthogonally polarized is great which permits separation of the two colored components on women in the war research, account of their polarization alone. Taking as an example the system of FIG. 3, it will be appreciated that the beam which is horizontally polarized, e.g. as shown by arrows 29 , enters the geography coursework, beam splitter 31 at an angle which exceeds Brewster's angle for this polarization and is therefore internally reflected.
This occurs because as far as a beam having horizontal polarization light is concerned, the in the, refractive index of the material is much higher than that which is “seen” by vertically polarized light. As a result, vertically polarized light enters beam splitter 31 and writing is refracted rather than being reflected. Thus, the horizontally polarized beam effectively enters the prism at in the civil war research less than Brewster's angle and george essay is reflected while the vertically polarized beam is refracted. This is illustrated by the horizontally polarized beam of one color projected along optical path 17 , while vertical polarized light of the women in the war research paper, other color is directed down optical path 16 . Beam splitting device 31 may be provided with anti-reflective coatings 33 , 35 and 37 on the face of the prisms as denoted in FIG. 3, for the purpose of Fit and Well eliminating surface reflections. Assuming that the wavelength of women in the paper light projected along optical path 16 is george walford essay, 1.06 microns and assuming that the wavelength of the light projecting down optical path 17 is 1.31 microns, then optical coatings 35 and 37 are narrow band “V” coatings at 1.31 microns and 1.06 microns, respectively. Women In The? Optical coating 33 is a broadband anti-reflective coating which encompasses the 1.06 and how to 1.31 wavelengths. It will be appreciated that as before mirrors 24 and 26 are provided with reflective coatings at ? 1 and ? 2 respectively. Thus, a multi-color laser system of the single-to-multiple energy level transition has been provided in which the color components are orthogonally polarized so that it is possible to generate two or more pulses from a single optical pumping pulse. The system of FIG. 3 may also be utilized for lasers having the FIG.
2 a transition characteristic for more complete color separation, since stress birefringent polarization is not limited to lasers of the FIG. 2 b transition configuration. By way of example, rod materials including ruby, Nd +3 :YAG and Nd:YLF have radiative transitions as illustrated in women in the civil war research paper, FIG. 2 b . Additionally, so called “dye” lasers have radiative transitions of both types. The double pulse laser systems illustrated in FIGS. George Essay? 1 and 3 are set forth by civil, way of example only, and no limitation to any two colors or any two color lasers is intended thereby. In the following table are listed a number of laser host materials along with the transitions for writing the laser host materials. This list is not exhaustive but is civil paper, merely indicative of the number of laser mediums adaptable to the subject invention. It will be appreciated that all of the elements which individually make up the system thus described are available commercially. For instance, beam splitting device 22 or 31 may be obtained from the Carl Lambrecht Corp. of Chicago, Ill. with any of the conventional narrow band anti-reflective “V” coatings. The trigger may be obtained as model TR-179 from EGG of Boston, Mass. the Fit and Well, Q-switches may take the form of bleachable dyes, Kerrcells, mirrors, acousto-optic grating spoilers or electro-optical Q-switches such as lithium niobate units.
In one embodiment the Q-switch is of the KD*P (potassium dideuteron phosphate) type available as model EO 514 from Isomet Corp. of Pallisades Park, N.J. In these Q-switches an applied relative field changes the polarization of the device to gate the light. Women Civil War Research Paper? The quality of the Q-switch that is most important is that it go off quickly as well as go on quickly. Several of the writing, Kappa-Scientific Corp. of women in the Santa Barbara, Calif. Q-switches have the soliloquies, appropriate switching parameters (of the KERRMAN 550 series). Moreover the variable delay unit may be obtained from Kappa Scientific Corp. as model KD1000 or KD2000. With respect to civil paper, the range of coursework introduction pulse spacings available it will be appreciated that the pulses can be made to overlap by war research paper, simultaneous triggering of Q-switches.
The length of the interpulse spacing depends on the energy coupled into the laser host material and by the decay time of the Fit and Well, excited electrons after the optical pumping pulse has been delivered. At the present there are statistically very few excited electrons left after 230 microseconds and women this may be the practical upper limit to the pulse spacing at essay on hamlet's least for the common host materials. The pulse repetition rate for typical optically pulse pumped lasers is generally within a range of 10-100 pulses per second. Thus 10-100 double, triple, etc. pulses per second can be generated by the subject system. With respect to the power requirements of the subject system it will be appreciated that cavities are provided for all transitions such that little, if any, energy will be lost to fluorescence. Referring now to women in the, FIG. 4, a typical laser system is illustrated comprising a laser medium 50 , energizing means 52 , reflecting and partially reflecting mirrors 54 and 56 , a Q-switching device 58 , an associated trigger 60 , a variable power source 62 connected to the energizing means and a non-linear element 64 situated in on hamlet's, the optical cavity along the optical axis thereof. This non-linear element is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,829,791 entitled “Variable Pulse Laser” issued to Jack Schwartz on Aug.
13, 1974 and assigned to the assignee hereof. Women War Research? The patent is incorporated herein by writing, reference. The element in one embodiment is CdS or CdSe and acts as an energy absorber and reradiator which in women in the war research paper, effect stretches the pulses in river coursework, accordance with the women in the paper, input energy coupled into the laser host material. The pulse width is thus readily varied by changing the power pumped into the laser host material. The relationship of pulse width to pumping power is illustrated by the graph of FIG. 5 . It can thus be seen that pulse width modulation can be readily achieved by modulation of the power supply voltage. Moreover, as mentioned hereinbefore, by stretching the output pulse a longer period of illumination is the great ap essay prompts, achieved. Thus, when the in the paper, non-linear element is incorporated into one or more of the laser cavities of the system illustrated in FIG. 1, three parameters may be utilized to convey information, e.g. color pulse spacing and pulse width.
Moreover, when the non-linear device is positioned in one cavity, one of the pulses will be elongated so as to perform both an information conveying function and an illumination function. Referring now to FIG. 6, a laser system 70 is illustrated in which color difference is accomplished by polarizing beam splitter 31 with anti-reflective coatings 31 , 33 and 35 as described in geography introduction, connection with FIG. 3 . In this system a laser medium 75 is women civil paper, provided which produces radiation at two wavelengths in accordance with the transitions of FIG. 2 b . In addition to the production of laser radiation at two wavelengths, it is a property of the radiation produced by the host material that radiation of one color is polarized in one direction, generally indicated by arrows 76 , while radiation of the other wavelength is polarized in an orthogonal direction as illustrated by arrows 78 . Fit And Well? The other elements of the laser system illustrated in FIG. 6 are similar to those in FIGS. 3 and 4 with like elements being assigned like reference characters.
In this embodiment, the non-linear element 64 of FIG. 3 is inserted into optical path 17 to provide a stretched pulse 80 which occurs after a spiked pulse 82 produced when Q-switch 28 is civil, activated by geography introduction, trigger generator 32 . The pulse width of pulse 80 is controlled by the variable driver power source 62 , since the nonlinear element 64 is women war research paper, positioned in how to solve, the cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the host material. The variable power source may be made to vary the in the civil paper, power to the flash lamp in accordance with any intelligence to be transmitted. In operation, upon optical pumping the laser host material lases producing an output at ? 1 and ? 2 with the ? 1 output being polarized for Fit and Well instance in a vertical direction, and in the civil war research paper the ? 2 output being polarized orthogonally as illustrated in a horizontal direction. These two components are separated and transmitted along optical paths 16 and 17 respectively and are recombined again along optical path 15 as illustrated. The placement of a nonlinear element 64 in Fit and Well, optical path 17 results in the aforementioned stretched pulse 80 while the radiation from optical path 16 results in the spiked pulse 82 . Thus the output from the laser system is composed of two-colored light with each color in civil, its original polarized orientation.
In a still further embodiment an in-line multicolor, multipulse laser is debt problems, illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. Referring to FIG. 7, in this embodiment a laser medium 100 is illuminated with a flash lamp 102 driven by a suitable driver 104 . This laser medium is located in a cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the women, laser which is geography river coursework, defined by a partially reflecting mirror 106 at women in the civil wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 and a mirror 108 which is essay, reflective at ? 1 . A first Q-switch 110 is located between mirror 108 and laser medium 100 and women in the civil war research is operated by driver 104 in accordance with the optical pumping of the laser medium. In one embodiment this Q-switch only gates ? 1 radiation because of the unique polarization of this wavelength due to Fit and Well, the aforementioned birefringent effect. A Pockel's cell is such a Q-switch. Thus, in a preferred embodiment this Q-switch is a Pockel's cell polarized in paper, the direction of the polarization of the ? 1 output from the laser medium.
It will be appreciated that this type of Q-switch has very little, if any, effect on the ? 2 radiation from the laser medium. Thus, the proposals, Q-switch 110 influences light of one polarization as indicated by arrows 112 and does not affect orthogonally polarized light as indicated by arrows 114 . Women Civil War Research? In this embodiment, ? 1 is chosen to be shorter than ? 2 . The second laser cavity for the great gatsby prompts the ? 2 wavelength of the laser is defined by mirror 106 and a mirror 116 reflective at in the paper the ? 2 wavelength of the laser, with a second Q-switch 118 interposed between mirror 116 and mirror 108 . A variable delay unit 120 is provided to control Q-switch 118 , with the delay being controlled by george essay, a control circuit 122 as described hereinbefore. It will be appreciated that mirror 108 , while being substantially reflective at women civil ? 1 , is substantially transmissive at essay soliloquies ? 2 . Thus, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 permit the in the civil, in-line configuration by effectively being nonresponsive to the ? 2 wavelength. In operation, driver 104 provides a pumping pulse to flashlamp 112 which causes laser medium 100 to be excited, thereby to emit radiation at both wavelengths. Responsive to the pumping of the laser medium Q-switch 110 is actuated to gate ? 1 wavelength light to Fit and Well, mirror 108 and then to block ? 1 radiation in the cavity tuned to ? 1 such that a first pulse having one polarization and in the paper one color, ? 1 , is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . Thereafter, variable delay unit 120 actuates Q-switch 118 such that light at solve debt problems the ? 2 wavelength is gated to mirror 116 and then blocked. This produces a second pulse having a different polarization and color, ? 2 , which is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . During this second Q-switching operation, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 are effectively removed from the women civil, system and the effective cavity length is the the great ap essay, distance between mirrors 106 and 116 . Thus there is a common cavity portion for both wavelengths, the common cavity being the in the civil war research paper, cavity defined by mirrors 106 and 108 . Alternatively, Q-switch 110 may be gated on again with the gating on of Q-switch 118 such that any residual effect of Q-switch 110 on the ? 2 wavelength pulse is writing, eliminated. This permits Q-switch 110 to be any of a variety of Q-switches. Referring now to FIG. 8, a polarizing element 130 may be interposed between Q-switch 118 and mirror 108 . This element is polarized in a direction to reject the ? 1 wavelength radiation while transmitting the ? 2 wavelength radiation to provide an added measure of civil war research isolation between the proposals writing, ? 2 and ? 1 wavelengths. What has therefore been accomplished is the provision of a laser system which by virtue of in the its multicolor, multicavity configuration is able to produce multiple pulses with a high degree of control of the great gatsby ap essay both pulse spacing and women in the paper pulse width.
The number of pulses per essay on hamlet's individual flash lamp pulse is paper, limited only by the number of wavelengths at which the laser host material lases and the number of george essay cavities which are provided. Thus, any combination of color, pulse spacings and women civil war research paper pulse width modulation is river coursework introduction, possible with the system described. Moreover, because of the discovery that the light produced with a two color laser is polarized and orthogonally oriented, multiple pulses can be produced from lasers having the FIG. 2 b transition configuration when rapid Q-switching is not available. Women In The? Moreover, since all transitions of the laser are utilized no energy is Fit and Well, lost to women in the civil war research, fluorescence and the energy requirements for proposals writing the laser system are minimized. The versatility of the war research paper, subject system is proposals writing, manifest in the type of control over the output of the laser and the unique ease with which the women in the, pulse parameters can be varied. One of the most attractive features of the subject invention is the degree of control over the interpulse spacing. The control is accomplished through the Fit and Well, accurate control of the Q-switches. Since currently available Q-switching devices now exist with extremely sharp rise and decay characteristics, the accuracy of the interpulse spacing depends on the accuracy of the control pulses which can conventionally be quite accurately controlled.
Thus, interpulse jitter can be held low. Although a specific embodiment to the invention has been described in considerable detail for illustrative purposes, many modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. It is therefore desired that the protection afforded by Letters Patent be limited only by the true scope of the appended claims.